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-7 



SECOND GEOLOGICAi SURVEY OF PEMSYLVANU: 
REPORT OF PROGRESS, 1879. 

QQQQ. 



THE GEOLOGY OF 

Erie and Crawford Counties 



BY 

I. C. WHITE. 

WITH TWO COIiORBD GSOLOaiCAL COUNTY MAPS; 107 VBBTIOAL SBOTIONS; 

TABLES OF BAROMBTRIC HEIGHTS IN EAOH TOWNSHIP; AN INDEX 

OF NAMES OF PERSONS AND PLACES; AND NOTES ON THE 

PLACE OF THE SHARON CONOLOMERATB IN 

THE PALiBOZOIC SERIES. 



DTSCOYEEY 



OF THE 



Preglaoial Ootlet of Lake Erie 

BY 

J. W. SPENCER, Ph. D. 

WITH TWO MAPS OF THE LAKE RBOION. 



HARRISBURG: 

PUBLISHED BY THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS 

FOR THE SECOND OBOLOGICA.L SDRYET. 

1881. 



Entered, for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, m the year 1880, aooording 

to acts of Congress, 

By WILLIAM A. INGHAM, 

Secretary of the Board of Commissioners of Geological Survey, 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at 

Washington, D. C. 



Electrotyped and printed by 

LANE S. HART, State Printer, 

Harrisburg, Pa. 



BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS. 



His Excellency, HENRY M. HOTT, Governor, 

mnd €X'Offieio President of the Board, Harrisburg. 

Ario Pardee, Hazleton. 

William A. Ingham, Philadelphia. 

Henry S. Eckert, Reading. 

Henry McCormick, Harrisburg. 

James Macfarlane, Towanda. 

John B. Pearse, - - - Philadelphia. 

Joseph Willcox, Philadelphia. 

Hon. Daniel J. Morrell, Johnstown. 

Louis W. Hall, Harrisbnrg. 

Samuel Q. Brown, PleasantviUe. 

SECRETARY OF THE BOARD. 
William A. Ingham, - Philadelphia. 

STATE GEOLOGIST. 
Peter Lesley, Philadelphia. 



ASSISTANT GEOLOGISTS IN 1880. 



John F. Oabll ; Oil regions ; Pleasantville, Venango oonnty. 

Wm. G. Platt ; Jefferson bounty ; 61J5 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

I. G. White ; Susquehanna and Wayne oounties ; Morgantown, West Vir- 
ginia. 

R. H. Sanders ; Franklin oounly ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

A. E. Lehman ; South Mountains ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

E. V. D^lNViLiiiERS ; Reading hills ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

Franklin PiiAxr ; Anthracite Survey ; 615 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

C. A. Ashburner; Anthracite Survey; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

H. Martyn Chance ; Anthracite Survey ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

Persifor Frazer; Chester county; 630 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

Charles E. Hall ; Azoic belt ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

H. Carvill Lewis ; volunteer for the study of the surfioee deposits ; Gterman- 
town, Pennsylvania. 

Andrew S. MoCreath ; Chemist ; Laboratory 223 Market street, Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania. 

Dr. F. A. Gbnth ; Mineralogist ; University of Pennsylvania, West Philadel- 
phia. 

Leo Lesquereux ; Fossil Botanist, Columbus, Ohio. 

E. B. Harden : Topographer ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 
O. B. Harden ; Draughtsman ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 
M. Chapman ; Aid ; 907 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

F. W. FoRMAN ; Clerk in charge of Distribution of Reports, 223 Market street, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 



Philadelphia, February 12^ 1881. 

To His Excellency Henry M. Hoyt, Chairman of the 
Board of Commissioners of the Second Geological Sur- 
vey of Pennsylvania : 

Sir : In presenting Professor I. C. White's report on Erie 
and Crawford counties I beg leave to call your attention to 
the evident care bestowed upon the geological structure of 
the district, the skillful discrimination of the formations 
which belt it and the valuable lists of barometric observa- 
tions recorded for every township. 

Unlike the counties lying further south of which his pre- 
vious reports treat, these two counties of Crawford and 
Erie are almost destitute of coal, iron ore and petroleum. 

On the other hand stone quarries are numerous and valu- 
able ; and the gas wells of the Lake Erie shore have been 
and are still sources of wealth. 

The small areas of coal which remain along the southern 
border of Crawford are locally important. Most of them 
have been discovered in past years by boring through the 
universal covering of glacial gravel ; and it is probable that 
there still remain spots which would repay research. A 
valuable feature of this report is the location and definition 
of these areas, with so clear and full a statement of the facts 
as to prevent further waste of money in a search for coal in 
other parts of the district. 

The same may be said of the few and scattered exhi- 
bitions of iron ore. 

In respect of petroleum the case is different. It is diffi- 
cult to express in a few words, or to make clear to unpro- 
fessional readers the great value of Mr. White's results. 
They will certainly influence future explorations. 

So many wells have been sunk in Crawford and Erie 
counties from none of which large quantities of oil have 
been obtained, that the whole region is looked upon as 

(V Q4.) 



J 



Vi Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

lying ontside of the oil regions ; the oil sands of Venango, 
Butler, Clarion and Warren being supposed to exist only 
in the southeastern part of Clearfield, and to fine out and 
disappear in Erie county. 

Mr. White' s survey seems to show that this is not strictly 
speaking the fact. The sands are certainly not coarse, 
thick, persistent, largely oil producing deposits as in the 
" oil belts " further east and south. But they exist never- 
theless as deposits, in regular place and order among the 
rocks, and spread beneath the whole of Crawford and half 
of Erie county. The upper sands are unimportant ; but 
the lowest or Third sand not only crops out in a line across 
the region, but is everywhere charged with a sufficient 
quantity of petroleum to produce oil springs and pools of 
asphalt upon the surface of the ground. 

The time is sure to come when that vast production of 
petroleum to which the markets of the world have grown 
accustomed, on which large refining establishments are 
founded, on which railroad companies, pipe line companies 
and ship owners build up fortunes, on which, in a word, 
Pennsylvania prides herself as the source of light fuel to 
the civilized world — will dwindle to moderate dimensions 
and take its place among the marvels of a past history. 
Nothing in the shape of a natural history or geological fact 
can be more clearly demonstrated than this statement. Al- 
though the date of the decline cannot be predicted and may 
be postponed for ten or twenty or thirty years, the day is 
sure to come when our oil fields will be exhausted of their 
enormous ancient accumulations, and there will only re- 
main what may be called the leavings and draiiiings. 

The fatal day may be put still further off by the discovery 
of oil producing belts underlying Forest, Elk, Cameron, 
Clearfield, Jefferson and Indiana counties. But as yet we 
have no very reliable reasons for expecting this ; and some 
good reasons for not expecting it ; at least so far as the 
Venango sands are concerned. The Bradford shales may 
be productive anywhere, for all we know, but at a great 
depth ; and great depth seems hostile to petroleum. 

There will come a time then, when the old oil fields will 



LETTEB. Q*. Vi 

be re-occupied and "dry country" receive attention — at 
tention impossible so long as the great flow lasts. The pro 
duction of oil will then become a systematic and quiet in 
dustry, spread over wide areas, and regulated on a differen: 
system from that in vogue. When that time comes Craw 
ford and Erie counties will be re-tested ; and small quanti 
ties of petroleum will probable be obtained at various places 
from the Venango sands which are now considered worth- 
less. 

The value of this report will then be recognized, as offer- 
ing data for determining the areas and depths of the oil 
sands throughout the district. The mistake of drilling at 
and beneath the outcrop of the Third Sand to strike the 
Venango sands (as described on page 113) can not again be 
made by intelligent readers of this report. ^ 

The cost of the survey has been justified merely by one 
result (setting aside the rest), namely, the determination by 
sufficient evidence that the Third Oil Sand of Venango 
county is the Quarry-rock of Erie county, (see page 106,) 
and that this deposit in crossing Erie county changes its 
character from a muddy sandstone in the western townships, 
to a coarse gravel rock east of LeBoeuf creek, becoming the 
Panama CongloTnerate in the State of New Yotk ; every 
where charged with a peculiar group of fossil shells and 
seaweed ; and with petroleum which has evidently resulted 
from their decomposition. (See this subject discussed on 
pages 112 to 116.) 

The doubt which Mr. Carll has expressed in his Report 
III, page 69, respecting the identity of the rock at the va- 
rious quarries is dispelled by Mr. White's survey. The 
numerous levels taken along the line of outcrop harmonize 
on the supposition that the rock is identical at the principal 
exposures ; a conclusion supported by the fossils, by the oil 
springs, by measurements upward and downward to other 
established rock horizons, and by the topography. Prima 
facia it is as probable that the Panama Conglomerate should 
underlie Western Pennsylvania, as that the Sharon Con- 
glomerate (750' higher in series) should do so. 

The first objection of Mr. Carll to the identification of the 



Viii Q*. EEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Panama CongUmierate with the Third Oil Sand^ viz : That 
the dip as observed in Warren county is sufficiently rapid 
southward to place the former under the latter, seems to be 
satisfactorily overcome by the discussion of the dips in 
Crawford and Erie counties in Chapter 5, page 45 to 54. 
The probable existence of a synclinal along the valley of 
the South branch of French creek, there indicated, would 
solve the difficulty in Warren county. 

The second fact insisted on by Mr. Carll, viz : that the 
Panama Conglomerate cannot be recognized in the north 
Warren wells, and therefore cannot be traced southward 
through Warren into Venango county, loses its force in view 
of the thining down of the Panama Conglomerate into fine- 
grained sandstone westward through Erie. A similar change 
southward through Warren would be quite sufficient to 
mask its identity with the Third sand in Venango. 

The mention of the SalaTnanca Conglomerate in connex- 
ion with and as if identical with the Panama Conglomerate 
in the text of this report must not be accepted as an actual 
observation. On the contrary, Mr. White' s survey stopped 
at Panama, and he asserts nothing as of his own knowledge 
respecting the conglomerate at Salamanca, forty miles further 
east. 

Mr. Carll has more recently pursued this special research 
far enough to make it nearly certain that the Salamanca 
Conglomerate overlies (geologically) the Panama Conglom- 
erate by at least 300 feet, — thus representing, to all appear- 
ance, the Pirst Oil sand of Venango county.* 

The new oil developments in McKean, Forest and South- 
east Warren counties are affording valuable assistance in 
tracing the Venango group and the red beds ; and we may 
hope that it will not be long before a harmony of views will 
be reached. 

At two points I have ventured to modify the expression 
of Mr. White' s views in this report : 

1. Respecting the classical name and age of the Erie 
quarry rock : — For the name Third Oil Sand in Mr. White' s 
manuscript, I have substituted Venango Lower sandstone ; 

* Also the Tuna Conglomerate of the McKean Report ? 



LETTER. • Q*. 

and for the First and Second Oil sands — Veriango Upp 
and Middle sandstones. This is done to mark the unil 
of the Venango group, and to preserve a geographical noi] 
enclature. 

I have also made one or two other slight changes in tb 
names of rocks or groups higher up in the series ; Oil Idh 
group tor Oil Creek lake group, &c. 

With regard to the Chemung age of the Venango group 
or at least of its Lower sandstone, Mr. White is very posi 
tive, on the ground of the fossil forms. I do not accoun 
this a matter of serious importance ; but if it were, I shoulc 
not be willing to accept the fossils as absolutely conclusive 
evidence. For, I am quite convinced that the classification 
of sediments cannot be founded exclusively on the animal 
and vegetable forms which they preserve : — 1. because our 
observation of these forms is very limited ; 2. because the 
continuance of a life form does not wholly depend upon the 
cause which produces the sediment ; may die out before the 
deposit of a formation is finished ; or may survive into later 
times and appear in an overlying formation. 

The main fact, demonstrated by Mr. Carll through an ac- 
cumulation of evidence, is the fact that the Venango group 
of three or more oil-sands is a unit — one single formation, 
separate and distinct from the formations below and above 
it. To speak of it as deposited in more than one geological 
age — in two successive ages — would confuse our geological 
ideas, and diminish their practical usefulness. If the 
lower part of the Venango group be of Chemung age, then 
the upper part is also. If Chemung fossils in the Third 
Oil Sand make it a Chemung deposit, then the Second and 
the First Oil Sands are also Chemung deposits, and we must 
look for the fish-bearing Catskill formation ( if present in 
the district) above the First Oil Sand. And this may be 
the explanation of the reds in the Dennis well, and in wells 
further west. (See the Fish beds of Report R.) 

This view ( of the Chemung age of the whole Venango 
group) is certainly reenforced by Mr. White's observation 
of Chemung fossils abundant in the overlying HiceviUe 
shales, Chap. 11, p. 97. 



X Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

The argument for the CatsJciU age of the Venango group 
may be thus summarized :- 

. The sheet of comparative oil-well sections ( see forthcom- 
ing Report R*, on Forest, Elk, and Cameron Counties ) se- 
lected on a parallel of latitude from Oil creek, eastward, 
through Forest county to the Cameron oil well, seems to 
make the red beds which lie inside of the Yenango oil 
group the equivalents of the red beds of the Ridgeway and 
Cameron wells. The sheet of north and south well sections 
(see Report R, McKean county) carries this identification 
from Ridgeway to the Dennis ^eU. Judging by these data 
it seems impossible to consider the Venango oil sand groups 
as underlying the Dennis- well red-beds ; but as being iden- 
tical with them. If now the red beds of McKean, Elk, and 
Cameron be Catskill, then the Venango group would be 
CatskQl, and that in spite of its Chemung fossils. This is 
Mr. Ashburner's line of argument, and it is supported by 
a large number of well and surface sections in the four 
counties lying east of Warren and Venango counties, in 
which the Venango oil sand group has been so thoroughly 
studied by Mr. Carll. 

The fact that Azoic pebbles are numerous in the Venango 
Lower Sandstone of Erie county is a very important fact, 
if this sandstone be the Third Oil Sand of Venango county ; 
for these pebbles are a notable indication of some great 
change of land and sea relationship — of direction and force 
of currents — ^at that special point of time. The only sup- 
posible source of such gravel is the Blue Ridge ; or the 
mountains of New England and Northern New York ; or 
the mountains of Canada. So signal a change of sediments 
ought to indicate the end of one geological age and the be- 
ginning of another. In this case it would mark the end of 
an age of Chemuny olive shales^ and the beginning of an 
age of Venango oil sands. 

But we have no name for any age intervening between 
Chemung and Catskill. Although the new age ought to be 
Catskill, yet if sound reasons can be presented why the 
Venango sands should not be called Catskill (and their 
Chemung fossils seem to aflford such a reason) then there 



LETTER. Q*. X 

is an imperative necessity for a new name, to be interposes 
between Chemung and Catskill, and the fossils must b 
provisionally called Venango fossils of Chemung type. 

The Chemung conglomerate of the Potter, Tioga anc 
Bradford reports (Gr, Gr^) may turn out to be the Panamt 
conglomerate (Venango Third sand) ; and Mr. White wil 
give his reasons for thus identifying it in his forthcoming 
report on Susquehanna and Wayne counties (Q*). Th< 
Mansfield red beds of Tioga county may prove to be th( 
reds of the oil wells. The Venango group would then rep 
resent the upper part of the so-called Chemung formatioi 
of the eastern counties. It will then be a question whethe: 
this upper part must not be separated systematically fron 
the Chemung^ and have assigned to it a special name, Ve 
nango. 

On the other hand, Mr. Ashburner finds a lower set oj 
red beds in the Dennis and other wells of his district (Mc 
Kean, Elk, Cameron) in which he is disposed to see th( 
Mansfield red beds of Tioga and Bradford. 

Thus the matter stands at present. Geologists who in 
sist on fossil forms will call the Venango group Oppei 
Chemung^ and will explain the McKean sections by a tota 
disappearance of the oil sands in an increased mass of rec 
beds. Geologists who insist upon lithological data will cal 
the Venango group Catskill, or even Pocono, in spite o1 
Chemung fossils. 

2. On the subject of Glacial erosion I have modified this 
report by removing from it the expression of what I con 
sider ultra views of the power of moving ice to excavate 
valleys ; but all observed facts are given each in its propei 
place. These facts are certainly of great interest ; such as 
the crushing up of small patches of coal, and even of quarr j 
rock, on high summits by the Canadian ice ; and their sub 
sequent concealment under many feet of moraine matter, 
even at a height of more than 1700 feet above the present 
level of the sea. The different directions taken by the mov- 
ing glacier are also noted. Especially interesting^are the 
descriptions of ancient valleys buried under several hun- 
dred feet of glacial drift deposits. 



Xii Q*. BEPORT OF PROGBE88. I. C. WHITE. 

To Mr. Carll the credit is justly due of first seeing the 
importance of this subject in northwestern Pennsylvania, 
and of working out the remarkable explanation of it pub- 
lished in his Report III, 1881 ; by which the present drain- 
age of French creek and the Allegheny river is seen to be 
of recent date, the previous drainage having been north- 
ward into the rock basin of Lake Erie. 

According to this view the present valley system dates 
far back, and was very slightly modified by the attrition of 
the ice; but, on the other hand, and in a topographical 
sense, was vastly changed by the dumping of moraine mat- 
ter into every channel way ; the new rock-gates opening 
southward to let out the dammed up waters being cut by 
water and not by ice. 

Mr. White however, being disposed to assign greater 
power of erosion to ice than I can admit, is disposed to con- 
sider most of the thorough-cut valleys of his district as the 
work of the moving glacier, and he is therefore inclined to 
doubt the former flow of Oil creek into French creek and 
of French creek by way of Conneaut creek into Lake Erie. 

A remarkable discovery has recently been made by Dr. 
Spencer, Professor of Geology in King's College, Winsor, 
Nova Scotia, which seems to remove the only objection to 
be urged against Mr. Carll' s results ; or rather to add the 
last link in the chain of evidence in favor of preglacial 
drainage northward. (See Appendix.) 

The only real difficulty lay in getting the drainage waters 
out of Lake Erie after they had been poured into it from 
the Pennsylvania highlands ; for, the hypothesis demanded 
that the Lake Basin should be an open valley, through 
which flowed a great river; and it seemed impossible to 
have this river flow either eastward towards BuJBfalo or west- 
ward towards Toledo. 

Dr. Spencer' s researches offer an easy solution of the dif- 
ficulty. They show that a submerged valley-bed crosses 
Lake Erie transversely, through which the combined streams 
of the Pennsylvania highland must have flowed northward 
towards and into a buried valley beneath the present Drif t- 
flUed water-bed of Grand river in Upper Canada ; making 



a right angle bend farther to the north, and thee 
eastward into the head of Lake Ontario near Tor 
was not nntil this river channel had become fil 
glacial drift that the Basin of Lake Erie became fi 
water, and Niagara falls came into existence. 

The whole history of these changes is not yet ma 
It has episodes not yet explained ; and Mr. Wl 
scriptions of high shingle beaches on the slope o 
vide facing the lake will be very stimulating to a fre 
of the subject. 

The Railroad levels given in Chap. 2, of this r* 
taken from Report N, published in 1878. They ni 
correction, but are approximately correct. The 
Erie RR, line was re-leveled in July, 1879, by Mr. "^ 
Lockhaven, and the new table published on page '. 
port R. Extracts from it are given in the Append! 
volume. 

In the first paragraph on page 58 the express 
feet above the Meadville Upper Limestone " relat 
Pine Knoll coal, and not to the "Quakertown coa 
cer county." 

Mr. White prefers to include the two Sandstone 
" Sharon," on page 70, with the Shenango, in one 

Mr, White explains, that the identity of the 
quarry-rock of Ohio with the Berea Grit, spok< 
page 68, is only probable in his opinion and has 
completely demonstrated. 

For Productits Boydti on page 97 and elsewh 
Productella Boydti. (See Index.) 

Mr. White desires to correct 375' to 390' on page 
J. P. L 



TABLE OF CONTEIfTS, Q\ 



PART I. — Topography and General Geology of the 

District. 

Page. 

Chapter 1. Area, population, towns, 1 

Chapter 2. Topography, railroad levels, 9 

Chapter 3. Surface geology, soil, drift, erratics, ... 29 

Buried valleys, 33 

Terraces, 38 

Lake basins, 39 

Peat and marl beds, 40 

Chapter 4. Order of the formations, 43 

Chapter 5. Dip of the rocks, 45 

Chapter 6. Pottsville Conglomerate, No. XII, .... 55 

Homewood sandstone, 55 

Mercer group, 56 

Connoquenessing Upper sandstone, ... 56 

Quakertown shales, 57 

Connoquenssing Lower sandstone, ... 57 

Sharon Upper iron shales, 58 

Sharon coal, 59 

Sharon Lower shales, 62 

Sharon Conglomerate, 63 

Chapter 7. Sub-conglomerate formations, 67 

Chapter 8. Shenango group, 77 

Shenango shale, 78 

Shenango sandstone, 79 

Chapter 9. Meadville group, 83 

Meadville Upper limestone, 83 

Meadville Upper shales, 83 

Meadville Lower shales, 84 

Sharpsville sandstone, 85 

Sharpsville Upper sandstone, 86 

Meadville Lower limestone, 87 



Xvi Q*. REPORT OF PB0GBBS8. I. 0. WHITE. 



Chapter 9. Sharpsville Lower sandstone, 89 

Orangville shales, 90 

Chapter 10. Oil Lake group, Berea grit of Ohio, Pithole 

grit of Venango, Pocono sandstone No. X, 91 
Cony sandstone (Third mountain sand), . 92 

Cussewago limestone, 94 

Cussewago shales, 94 

Cussewago sandstone, 95 

Chapter 11. Riceville shale, 97 

Chapter 12. Venango oil sand group, ........ 99 

Venango Upper sand (First oil sand), . . 101 

Venango Upper shale, 103 

Venango Middle sandstone (Second sand), 103 

Venango Lower shales, 104 

Venango Lower sandstone (First sand), . . 104 

Chapter 13. Middle Devonian rocks, (Chemung, Girard, 

Portage No. VIII), 117 

Girard shale, 118 

Portage flags, 119 



PART II. — Detailed Township Geology. 

1. Wayne, in Crawford county, 121 

2. East Fairfield, do. . 130 

3. Union, do. . 133 

4. Fairfield, do. 137 

5. Greenwood, do. 138 

6. East Fallowfield, do. 142 

7. West Fallowfield, do. 149 

8. South Shenango, do. 150 

9. West Shenango, do. 155 

10. North Shenango, do. 155 

11. Pine, do. 156 

12. Sadsbury, do. 158 

13. Summit, do. 160 

14. Vernon, do. 164 

16. Mead, do. 167 

16. Randolph, do. 177 



17. Troy, 

18. on Creek, 

19. Rome, 

20. Steuben, 

21. Athens, 

22. Richmond, 

23. Woodcock, 

24. Hayfield, 

25. Summer Hill, 

26. Conneaut, 

27. Beaver, 

28. Spring, 

29. Cussewago, 

30. Venango, 

31. Cambridge, 

32. Rockdale, 

33. Bloomfield, 

34. Sparta, 

35. Concord, 
36r Union, 
37: LeBoeuf, 

38. Washington, 

39. Franklin, 

40. Elk Creek, 

41. Conneaut, 

42. Springfield, 

43. Girard, 

44. Fairview, 

45. McKean, 

46. Waterford, 

47. Amity, 

48. Wayne, 

49. Venango, 

50. Greene, 

51. Summit, 

52. Mill Creek, 

53. Harbor Creek, 

54. Greenfield, 

55. North-East, 



CONTENTS. Q*. X\ 

in Crawford county, II 

do. II 

do. II 

do. II 

do. ....... 1( 

do. 11 

do. 1{ 

do. 2( 

do. 2( 

do. 2( 

do. 21 

do. 21 

do. 21 

do. 21 

do. 2S 

do. 2S 

do. 2S 

do. 2S 

do. 2S 

in Erie county, 2c 

do. 2i 

do. 24 

do. 24 

do. 2t 

do. 2t 

do. 2f 

do. 2f 

do. 2( 

do. 2( 

do. 2( 

do. 21 

do. 21 

do. 2i 

do. 2i 

do. 2i 

do. 21 

do. 2{ 

do. 2$ 

do. 21 



LIST OF FIGUEED SECTIONS, Q*. 



Page 

1. Drift in Power^B bore hole near Conneautville, 3i 

2. Conglomerate series, generalized section, 5t 

8. Sharon ooal bed, MoEntire's, 6( 

4. " " Pine Knoll, 61 

5. " " Liberty Furnace, 62 

6. Sharon Conglomerate, Meadville, . 63 

7. Sub-carboniferous and Oil sand measures ; generalized, 66, 69 

8. Sharon Oil well section ; (from Fig. 45 Q2, p. 303,) 73 

9. Beaver Falls well section, (from Fig. 47 QS p. 303,) 73 

10. Sub-carboniferous and Oil sand measures, at Tidioute, 75 

11. Lower Sub-carboniferous and Oil sand measures, in boring at Oil creek 

lake, .... 75 

11a. Sharpsville sandstone, 82 

116. Oil creek lake group, 82 

lie. From Sharon coal down, 82 

12. Third Oil sand in Leboeuf T. Carroll quarry, 105 

13. , " " Amity T. Doolittle's quarry, 105 

14. " " *" Allen's quarry, 105 

15. " " " Smith's farm, 109 

16. " " Venango T. Bailey's (2J m. E. of No. 15), .... 108 

17. " •< Summit T. Reynold's quarry, 109 

18* " " McKeanT. 1 m. E. of Middleboro' 109 

19. - *» «* Franklin T. Howard's quarry, Ill 

20. " ** " Goodman's quarry Ill 

21. Third Oil Sand, downwards ; in Erie county , . . 119 

22. Sharon Coal, downwards ; in Wentwortn oil boring, 123 

23. *• " (repeated A-om the above), 123 

24. " " downwards; Old Liberty furnace, 129 

25. Shenango SS. and limestone (tJ. M. ?) ; Grass run, 129 

26. Sharon Coal ; Pine Knoll, ... 129 

27. Shenango SS. and limestone (U. M. ?) ; Messerell section, 129 

28. Sharon Coal, down ; Byhm's shaft, French creek, 135 

29. Shenango SS., down ; Adam Shreck's section, 135 

80. Third Mtn. SS., down ; A. <fe G. W. RR. cut; Corry, 133 

31. Sharon Coal, down ; John Klipple section^ French creek, 135 

82. Shales over Shenango SS., down ; L. Mead. L., Conneaut Lake creek 

section, ... . . 148 

88. Shales over Shenango SS., down ; Glendale section, 143 

34. Sharpsville SS., Meadville Lower L., Orangeville Shale ; Geneva sec- 

tion, . . . . .... 143 

35. Sharon Coal in McEiitire well, Geneva section, 145 

(xix Q*.) 



XX Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 



86. Cannei In MoEntjrre well. No. 2, 145 

87. Sharon Gong, down to Me«dTiUe Up. L. Unger's ran, section 1, . . .151 

88. Conn. Lower SS. down to Shar. Cong. Miller*8 Knob seotion, .... 151 

89. Shenango SS. down to Qrangeville Shale. Adamsville sect., Crooked 

creek, 151 

40. Sharon roof shales down to Sharpsville Low. SS. Snodgraas sect., . . 151 

41. Shenango SS. down to bottom of Gibson well section, Ene and JPItt. 

RR. Adamsville, 159 

42. Shenango SS. down to Meadville Lower L. McElhany section, . . . 159 

43. Sharpsville Up. SS. down. P. Miller sect. Shenango river, 159 

44. Corry SS., &g. Hendrick A Logan sect., 159 

45. Cussewago Sandstone, Philip Brown's oil boring, 165 

46. Down to Cussewago SS. Catholic church section, 165 

47. Corry SS. down through Cussewago SS., (&c. Meadville Lower Bridge 

section, 172 

48. Sharon Cong. down. Meadville section, 

49. Shenango SS. to Orangeville shale, 1 m. E. of Meadville. Mlis' Mill 

run section, 172 

50. Shales over Mead. Up. L. down. Smith's sect., 172 

51. Sharon Cong. down. MoNamara sect., 187 

52. Mead. Low. L., above and below. Chase sect., 175 

J5S, Shenango SS., Corry SS., <&c. OIL creek sect., 187 

54. " " " Kerr's Mills sect., 187 

55. Sharon Cong, down — Hydetown sect. Oil creek, 197 

56. Shales down past Corry SS. (=3d Mt. SS.) Rioeville sect., 197 

57. Shenango SS to below Orangeville shales. Biter's sect., 197 

58. Section in A. <fe G. W. RR. cut, 199 

69. Corry SS. and overljdng rocks. Pfeiff'er's sect., . 199 

60. Orangeville shale down— French Cr. canal feeder dam, 203 

61. Sharpsville Up. SS. down. Section below Haytield, 203 

62. Orangeville shale down. Hayfield, Cussewago creek section, . . . 203 

63. Corry SS. (Cussewago Limestone) to Cuss. SS. Bartholomew sect., 205 

64. Meadville Low. L. to Cuss. SS. Line's section, 211 

65. Long's oil well, 211 

66. Stimpson's bore hole, No. 1. Reed's corners, 211 

67. Stimpson's bore hole. No. 2. Beaver Center, 215 

68. Bentley drill-hole. No. 3, 216 

69. Cornell well. No. 4, 215 

70. Third Oil Sand. Spring Village section, Conneaut creek, 217 

71. to Berea Grit? and far below. Powers' drill-hole, 217 

72. Orangeville shale, past Cuss. L. W. J. Morris section, Venango, on 

French creek, ,219 

73. Shales, Venango station section, 229 

74. Oil Creek Lake bore hole section, 229 

75. Oil Cr. Lake Lumber and Mining Co.'s well, No. 1, 223 

76. " " *' " « " No. 2, 223 

77. Crossman oil well, 235 

78. Near Mr. Gray's. Section seen in ravine, 235 

79. Price drill hole, on Lilley farm, 235 

80. Same as 12. Carroll quarry, 245 

81. Spirifer band and above. D. Grenings sect., 245 



FIGURED SECTIONS. Q\ X 

•** Pa 

^^^ 82. Third Oil Sand down— Howard quarry sect., Elk or., S 

^^' 83. Same as 20. Goodbau's quarry, S 

151 84. Near Clierry hill, 2 

85. Griffith's bore hUl, 2 

51 86. Near Mr. Babbitt's, 2( 

51 87. Girard sect., 2( 

88. Girard bore hole, 2( 

•^^ 89. Third sand down— near J. Ryan's, ... 24 

^ 90. Same as.l8. 1 mile east of Middleboro', 27 

' 91. Third Oil sand at J. W. Middleton's, 27 

' 92. Same as 13. Doolittle's quarry, 27 

93. Third Oil sand down. Doolittle's bore hole, 271 

94. Same as 14. Allen's quarry section, 271 

95. Third oil sand. J. R. Smith's sect., ' 27f 

96. «* (above and below.) Hubbell sect., 277 

97. " (above.) Maynard's sect., 277 

98. " U. B. Lowe's sect., 285 

99. « Bailey's, . . 285 

100. « Reynold's quarry, 285 

101. Cawthro's gas well at Erie, 289 

102. Crowley sect. Lake Erie, 299 

103. Elliot's run mouth sect. Lake Erie, 299 

104. Spirifer band (above and below. > Wm. Switzer's sect., 299 

105. Sixteen mile run mouth sect. Lake Erie, ^279 



PART I. 



THE 

TOPOGRAPHY AND GENERAL GEOLOGY 



OP 



Crawford and Erie Codnties. 



Chapter I. ', 

I 

I 
I 
I 
I 



Area; Population; Towns. 

Erie county occupies the northwest corner of Pennsyl- 
vania, bordering on the shore of Lake Erie for 44 miles be- 
tween the New York and Ohio State lines. 

Its eastern border line runs due south from the Lake Erie 
shore, 20 miles ; thence due east along the south line of 
New York, 8 miles ; thence due south along the west line 
of Warren county, 11 miles. 

Its southern line, the north line of Crawford county, runs 
due west 46 miles to the Ohio State line. 

Its west line runs thence north, along the Ohio State line, 
10 miles to Lake Erie. 

The area of Erie county is stated to measure 480,000* 
acres or 740 square miles ;t subdivided into 21 townships, 
arranged in very nearly the following order : — 

North East. 
MUl creek. Harbour oreek. Greenfield. 
Fairview. Summit. Greene. Venango. 

Girard. McKean. 

Springfield. Franklin. Waterford. Amity. Wayne. 

Conneaut. Elk creek. Washington. Le Boeuf. Union. Concord. 

The population of Erie county is given by the census 
reports of the United States thus : 

* Gray <fe Walling's Atlas. f Johnson's Encyc, 1876. 



2 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

In 1860, 49,482 

In 1870, 05,973 

In 1880 , 74,681 

The principal places in Erie county are : 

1. Erie^ a city of 19,646 inhabitants in 1870, and 

in 1880, is situated on the shore of Lake Erie, facing the 
harbor of Presque Isle Bay ; this harbor being formed by 
a semi-circular peninsula, 8 miles long in arc, and 5^ in 
chord ; attached to the main land at its western end ; open 
near the mainland at its eastern end; composed of drift 
sand and gravel, and enclosing a shallow bay, 5 miles long 
by 2 miles wide, entirely protected from storms. It was 
one of the earliest trading stations and forts of the French, 
and figures largely in the history of the Pontiac war. 

The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroad runs 
through Erie, and the Philadelphia and Erie railroad and 
the Erie and Pittsburgh railroad have their termini here. 

The city is alive with bjisiness, and carries on an exten- 
sive steamboat and sailing traffic with Buifalo, Cleveland, 
Toledo, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, Marquette and many 
other places on the shores of the great lakes ; exporting 
petroleum, coal, iron, and machinery ; and importing iron 
ore, lumber, and grain. K'early a hundred factories of all 
kinds, iron works, oil refineries, tanneries, mills, &c., are 
enumerated in the description of the place.* — Level of Lake 
Erie above tide,t 573' ; top of bluflf, corner of Chestnut and 
Second streets, 643' ; Chestnut and Seventh streets, 743' ; 
Water in City Reservoir, 808' ; L. S. & M. RR. station rail, 
686'. Track at P. & E. RR. Depot, 586'. 

2. Corry is in the south-eastern corner of Erie county, on 
the township line between Wayne and Concord, 37 miles 
south-east of Erie, by the P. & E. RR., which runs through 
it ; 42 miles south of Brocton on the Lake Shore and Michi- 
gan Southern railroad, by the Buffalo, Corry and Pittsburgh 
railroad ; 61 miles south-west of Salamanca on the New 
York and Erie railroad, by the Atlantic and Great Western 
railroad ; and 27 miles north of Titusville by the Pittsburgh, 
Titusville and Buffalo railroad ; which different roads have 
a *' Union depot" in the town. 

*F. A. Crandell in Johnson's Enc. f See various tables in Report N. 



GEOGRAPHY. Q^ 3 



Corry was created in 1860 by the first ' ' oil developments, ' ' I 
and was the first important site of the oil refinery. A popu- 
lation of 6,809 is given to it in, Johnson's Encyclopedia i 
(1876), and of by the census of 1880. Its factories 1 

connected with the petroleum industry are large and mimer- I 
ous. — Level above tide, RR. Depot track, 1431.' 1 

3. Waterford^ in Waterford township, on Lake Le Boenif, | 
occupies the site of the old French trading station and fort 1 
of Le Boeuf, is 19 miles south of Erie by the P. & E. rail- ] 
road, and 18 miles west of Corry. — Level of track at depot, 
1193'. 

4. Facing the lake are the following villages beginning 
at the west, with their distances from Erie, and their levels 
above tide on the L. S. & Mich. RR : 

West Springfield, 2 miles south of the railroad (24 m.) 
North Springfield^ on the railroad, (20 m. 663'.)' 
Oirard station on the RR. Junction with the Erie & 

Pittsburg railroad, (15 m. 717'.) 
Oirard^ up the east bank of Elk creek 2 miles south of 

the railroad, (16 m.) 
Fairview^ up the east bank of Trout run, 1^ miles south 

of the railroad (12 m.) (RR. station, 736'.) 
Swanmlle, overlooking the bend of Walnut creek, 1 mile 

south of the railroad (8 m.) (RR. Station, 735'.) 
Wesleyville station, 4 miles east of Erie, (697'.) 
Harbor CreeTc^ near the railroad, east bank of Elliot's run, 

(8 m. 730'.) 
North East^ on the railroad, east of 12 mile run, (15 m. 

804'.) 

5. Higher up the slope, facing the lake, are the following 
villages, beginning at the west, with their air line distances 
from Erie : — 

Albion^ east of Conneaut creek ; its Erie & Pittsburg RR. 
station west of the creek, is 26 miles by rail from Erie ; (23 . 
m. 857' above tide.) 

Cranesville and Wellshurg^ close together on the east 
bank of a branch of Conneaut creek, at the west side of Elk 
Creek township, (20 m.) 



4 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Lockport^ on the heights, south line of Girard township, 
(18 m.) 

Stone Quarry on Fall's run, 1 mile south of Elk creek, 
in north west comer of Franklin township (15 m.) 

Middlehoro\ on the north bank of Elk creek, center of 
McKean township (10 m. west of south from Erie.) 

Bell Valley {Belle ValUe) on Mill creek, (3^ m. south- 
east of Erie, in air line, but 7 by P. & E. railway ; station 
level 1007'.) 

6. On the great divide, or south sloping table land, are 
the following places, with their air line distance from Erie : 

Edinboro\ at the issue of Conneautee creek from Con- 
neautee lake, in Washington township, 18 miles S. by W. 
from Erie, & within 1^ miles of the Crawford county line. 

Mill Village^ in the center of Le Boeuf township, IJ miles 
east of French Creek, and 19 miles S. S. E. air line from Erie. 
(Its At. & G. W. RR. station, 18 miles west of Corry, 1216'.) 

Union City^ on the north bank of the South Branch 
French Creek, opposite the P. & E. RR. station, 11 miles 
west of Corry, (1270') and the At. & G. W. RR. station 
(1301') (from Erie 19 m. air line and 26 m. by rail.) 

Concord^ station on P. & E. RR., north side of South 
Branch French Creek, 5 m. from Corry, and 32 from Erie 
(1384'.) (A. & G. W. RR. 1361'.) 

LovelVs^ on the A. & G. W. RR. south bank of same, 4 
miles from Corry. 

Beaver Dam in the Southwest comer of Wayne township. 

Wattshurg in the forks of Spafford's run and North 
Branch French Creek, on south line of Venango township, 
2 miles from the S. W. comer of New York state, (16 m. 
S. E. from Erie.) 

Oreenfleld^ on the North Branch French creek, (13 m. 
east of Erie, and 2i from the New York state line. ) 

These places can be found on the colored geological map 
of Erie and Crawford counties accompanying this report. 

Crawford county lies next south of Erie, bordering on 
the Ohio State line, due north and south, for a distance of 
24 miles. 



GEOGRAPHY. Q*. 6 

Its north boundary line, along Erie county, runs due east 
46 miles. 

Its south boundary line, along Mercer county, runs due 
east (with one slight jog) 25^ miles, across and a little be- 
yond (east of) French creek. — Thence, northeastward, along 
Venango county, by a series of nine jogs, mostly right- 
angled, Hi miles measured in an air line. — Thence due east 
along Venango county, 11 miles, past Titusville, to the 
Warren county line. 

Its east boundary line, along Warren county, runs due 
north 15 miles, to the southeast corner of Erie county. 

The area of Crawford county is stated to be 629,760 acres* 
or 975 square miles ; f subdivided into 34 townships, ar- 
ranged thus : 

Beaver. Spring. Cassewago. Venango. Cambridge. Rockdale. Bloomfleld. Sparta. 

Athens. 
Coniieaut. Summerhill. Hayfleld. Woodcock, , Richmond. Rome. 

Pine. Steuben. 

N. Shenango. Summit. Vernon. Mead. Randolph. Oil Creek. 

S. Shenango. Sadsbary. Union. E. Fairfield. Troy. 

Wayne. 
W. Shen. W.F. E. Fallowfield. Greenwood. Fairfield. 

The population of Crawford county is given by the cen- 
sus reports, as follows : 

In 1860, • 48,755 

In 1870, 63,832 

In 1880, 68,604 

Meadville^ the county seat, is in Mead township, situ- 
ated on the east bank of French creek (flowing south), just 
opposite the mouth of Cussewago creek (coming from the 
north and west) ; and its suburb, Vallonia^ stands in the 
forks,'on the opposite bank, in Vernon township. — Its pop- 
ulation in 1860 was 3,702, and in 1870, 7,103:j:, and it is best 
known for its Methodist-Episcopal and Unitarian Theologi- 
cal Seminaries ; but it has machine works and mills, and is 
in business connection with the oil regions over the Atlantic 
and Oreat Western railway, which ascends French creek 
to Corry, in Erie county, (distant by rail 41 miles) ; and 
more directly by the Franklin branch of the same railroad, 
which descends French creek, and joins the Allegheny Val- 

♦ Gray & WaUing's Atlas. t Johnson's Encyc, 1876. 

X Johnson's Encyo., 1876. 



6 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ley railroad at Franklin, in Venango county, (distant by- 
rail 28 miles). — Level above tide (RR. station grade) 1080^ 

Titusville^ in the southeast corner of Crawford county, 
is the most important of its towns, with a population of 
8,639* in 1870. It was built on the Watson flats of Oil 
creek, where the first oil well was bored, in 1859. It was 
the first center of the oil production, and is still an import- 
ant site of the oil refinery. 

Formerly part of Oil creek township it was incorporated 
as a city in 1867 and its fine City hall and numerous churches 
and hotels, on streets well laid out, justify the term. Its 
industries are all connected with the petroleum production 
and its inhabitants are especially busy with the manufac- 
ture of the rig and tools of oil wells, and the exchange and 
development of oil producing lands. 

The Pittsburg, Titusyille & Buffalo Railroad along Oil 
creek connects it with the northern railroads at Corry, dis- 
tant 26 miles towards the north ; and with the Allegheny Val- 
ley railroad at Oil City, distant 17 miles towards the south. 

The Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley and Pittsburg Railroad 
ascending Pine creek (or East Oil creek) connects it with 
the northern railroads at Youngsville, Irvineton and War- 
ren, distant 27, 29, and 35 miles respectively towards the 
east northeast. 

The Union and Titusville Railroad, connects it with the 
P. and E. RR. at Union in Erie county, distant 25 miles 
towards the N. N". West. 

The level of Titusville above tide, at the railroad station 
(grade) is 1194' (See Report N. pp. 195, 198, 200, 204.) 

Beaver Centre is a village in the center of Beaver town- 
ship, in the northwest borner of the county. 

Spring and Conneautmlle are two villages in Spring town- 
ship, on Conneaut creek, with stations on the Erie and 
Pittsburg Railroad ; 961' and 1066', grade at stations. 

Summit Station on the same railroad, and Penn line on 
the Ohio State line, both in Conneaut township, are situated 
on the highest land in the western part of the county ; 1141'. 

* BloBS & Cogswell, in Johnson's Encyo., 1876. 



GEOGRAPHY. Ql 

Linesmlle^ another station on the same raUroad, is i 
the northeast corner of Pine township ; 1033/ 

Espyvillei^ on high ground in North Shenango towi 
ship. 

McLearC s corners is another station on the E. and P. rail 
road, and Shenango river, in south Shenango township. 

Tanner sville^ on the opposite (west) side of the river, ii 
West Shenango township, is a station on the Franklin di 
vision of the L. S. and Mich. S. Raiboad, (See Turner^ in Re 
port N. page 219, 1060'.) 

Jartiestown is an important village on the Shenango rivei 
where the Erie and Pittsburg Railroad crosses it at the 
Mercer county line ; 990' on the F. D. and 979' on the E. 
and P. RR. 42 miles from New Castle. 

Dicksonhurg is on Conneaut creek in Summerhill town- 
ship. 

Harmonsburg on high ground in Summit township. 

Evanshurg^ on the State road, south end of Conneaut 
lake, Sadsbury township ; RR. Station 14 miles from 
Meadville ; 1284'. 

Adamsville^ west of Crooked creek, West Fallowfield 
township. 

Atlantic {Adamsville station) on the A. & G. W. RR. in 
East Fallowfield township, 19 miles southwest of Meadville ; 
1148'. 

Stony Pointy at the great turn (southward) of the A. & G. 
W. RR. on the high divide between the Conneaut and She- 
nango waters. East Fallowfield township. 

Geneva (formerly Sutton^ s) Greenwood township, on the 
south bank of Conneaut creek, and A. & G. W. RR. 8 miles 
from Meadville ; 1069'. 

Olenmlle^ northeast corner of Greenwood township. 

Little! s corners^ west of Cussewago creek, in Hayfield 
township. 

Grossingmlle^ on Cussewago creek, northwest corner of 
Cussewago township. 

Mosiermlle^ south line of same township. 

Miller* s on French creek, opposite (N. W.) the mouth of 
Muddy run, Rockdale township. 



8 Q^ KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Cambridge on west bank of French creek, mouth of Lit- 
tle Conneautee creek, in Cambridge townsliip. 

Venango^ on west bank of French creek, Venango town - 
ship. 

Saegertown^ on east bank of French creek, at mouth of 
Woodcock creek (coming from the east) in Woodcock town- 
ship. 

Cochranton^ on east bank of French creek. East Fairfield 
township ; Franklin Branch of A. & G. W. RR. 8 miles 
south of Meadville junction ; 1064'. 

DeckarW s, near the Venango county line in Wayne town- 
ship. 

Guy' s mills, on the divide at the heads of Sugar creek and 
Woodcock creek, in Randolph township, 9 miles east of 
Meadville. 

]}few Richmond, on the high divide between Muddy and 
Woodcock waters, center of Richmond township, on the 
State road, 12 miles E.N.E. of Meadville. 

Little Cooley, at the crossing of State road and Muddy 
creek, west end of Athens township, 15 miles E. N. E of 
Meadville. 

Ricemlle at the crossing of State road and West Branch 
Oil creek, southeast corner of Bloomfield township, 21 miles 
E.N.E. of Meadville. 

Lincolrvmlle, two miles higher up the West Branch, and 
near the foot of Oil Creek lake. 

Spartanshurg, foot of Mud lake, East Branch Oil creek, 
Sparta township in northeast corner of the county. 

Centreville, at forks of Oil creek, west end of Rome twp. 

Tryonmlle, on west bank of Oil creek, east end of Steu- 
ben township. 

Townville, west end of Steuben township. 

Troy Centre, Troy township. 

nydeville,OTL Thompson' s run, just above its junction with 
Oil creek, 3 miles N. W. of Titusville. 

These places can be found on the lower sheet of the col- 
ored geological map of the two counties accompanying this 
report.* 

♦ By an unfortunate oversight, the railways from TitusviUe to Union and 
Corry were omitted from the Crawford county sheet. 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q^ 9 



Chapter IL 

Topography ; Railroad levels. 

The mean level of the surface of the water in Lake Erie 
in relation to mean ocean level at Hoboken in New York 
harbour, has been fixed by J. T. Gardner's tables at 573.08.* 

Lake Erie occupies an oval basin about 300 miles long by 
60 wide ; but the greatest discovered depth of water at pres- 
ent is only 312'. If the basin existed before the Ice Age, it 
must have been much deeper, to judge by the great amount 
of Northern Drift with which the ice sheet has covered the 
country to the east and south of it. At that time also it 
must have been an open valley or great plain through which 
flowed a central river fed by numerous streams, descending 
from the high lands of Pennsylvania, northern Ohio and 
western New York, through ravines in some cases walled 
with rock cliffs'a thousand feet high. These ravines are 
now choked with Drift to depths of 300 and 400 feet as we 
learn from the well borings, f 

A steep terrace of sand and clay, from 60 to 100 feet high, 
now lines and faces the lake, and through this terrace break 
three or four large streams and numerous small ones, de- 
scending from the highlands. The geological constitution 
of the terrace will be described further on. At Erie the 
rise of the bluff front of the terrace from the water to Sec- 
ond street is 70'; thence back to Seventy-second street there 
is a further rise of 120'; the city reservoir is 45' higher still ; 
and so the land continues to rise southwards to the general 
summit level of the great divide. 

The Pennsylvania shore of Lake Erie is nearly straight. 
More precisely stated, its course from the New York line 
for 10 miles is 56°, for the next 6 miles 45"", and for the re- 



* See Report N. p. 143 note, and elsewhere. 

t See this whole subject discussed and illustrated by Mr. Oarll in Report 
I.I.I. 18S0. 



10 Q*. 



REPOUT OF PROGKESS. I. C. WHITE. 



maining 28 miles 64° west of south.* The bluflf is equally 
straight. The following levels on the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern Railroad will show some features of the terrace. 

Lake Shore & Michigan RR. {N, table 191^.) • 



o 

M 



•FN 

I 

r-t 

o 

Ah 

M 



O 

3 

o 



/ Buffalo, 



Aho'w tide. A 

.682' —673'— 



Hamburg, 034 

Lake View, . . . .* 708 

Angolo, 086 

Farnham, 623 

Irving, 686 

Silver Creek, 622 

Sheridan, 664 

Dunkirk, 608 

Morian's, 626 

Brocton, , 688 

Portland, 694 

Westtield, 697 

Ripley Crossing, 736 

Ripley, 750 

. State line, 785 

North East, 804 

Moorhead's, 768 

Harbour Creek, . 730 

Wesleyville, 697 

Erie, 686 

Swanville, 736 

Fairview, 735 

Oirard, 717 

Springfield, 663 

Conneaut, 651 

Amboy, 681 

Kingsville, . . 671 

Ashtabula, 648 

Saybrook, 650 

Geneva, 667 

Unionville, 703 

^ Madison, 714 

Perry, 706 

Painesville, 649 

Mentor, 650 

Willoughby, 635 

Wickliffe, 607 

Euclid, 627 

Cleveland, 583 

The general level of the upland is given by the State 
road which enters Crawford county near its northeast cor- 

^'The long tangent of the L. S. & Mich RR., for 14 miles west of the New 
York line is 560. 



oe iaJre. 


Miles 


V 





61 


10 


136 


14 


113 


21 


60 


2G 


18 


29 


49 


31 


91 


— 


25 


40 


63 


44 


116 


49 


121 




124 


67 


163 


— 


177 


66 


212 


68 


231 


78 


196 


77 


157 


80 


124 


84 


113 


88 


162 


96 


162 


98 


144 


103 


90 


103. 


78 


115 


108 




98 


123 


75 


128 


77 


133 


94 


13S 


130 


141 


141 


143 


133 


148 


76 


154 


77 


160 


62 


164 


34 


169 


54 




10 


183 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



Q**. 1] 



o 

u 
08 



I— I 



ner, and runs S. 65° W. 15 miles to Little Cooley on Muddy 
creek ; thence S. 60° W. 15 miles to Meadville on French 
creek ; thence, avei*age S. 60° W. 22 miles to the southwest 
corner of Ci-awford county. 

The State road runs therefore in nearly a straight line for 
52 miles, parallel to the shore of lake Erie, and about 30 
miles to the south of it. It was leveled by Mr. Carll 
through Warren and Crawford and the following list of ele- 
vations above ocean^ where it crosses the streams and* di- 
vides is made from his profile section plate 3 A in Report 
1. 1. 1. 18S0. 

State road levels. 

Ocean. 

SugarGrove, 1380' —673'= 

Pike's rocks (XII), 1980 

Little Broken Straw creek, 1357 

Divide, 1791 

Deadinan's run, 1619 

Divide, 1954 

Miles run, 1830 

Divide, —^ 

Blue Eye run, 1580 

E. edge of divide, 1830 

Big Brokenstraw creek (RR.), . . .1392 
West Spring creek village, . ... 1457 

County line, 1658 

* Divide. . . T 1690 

Divide, 1797 

Oil creek, (RR.) 1430 

Divide, 1605 

Britain run^ 1360 

Divide, 1621 

Biceville, 1315 

U. A T. RR., . 1369 

Divide, . . 1611 

Cross roads, 1602 

Divide 1617 

Muddy creek, ) j2io 

Little Cooloy, > 

Divide, 1428 

New Richmond^ 1812 

Divide, 1581 

Woodcock oreek, 1247 • 

Divide 1435 

Divide, 1361 

Branch of Woodcock oreek, 1397 

Divide, 1550 

MeadvilU, 1080 



Lake Erie. 


Miles, 


807' 


45i 


1417 


41i 


784 


39i 


1222 




1046 


m 


1381 




, 1257 


36^ 


1007 


35i 


1257 


33 


819 


33 


894 


30 


1080 


28 


1117 


27 


1224 


264 


857 


24| 


1032 


23 


787 


21J 


1048 


203 


742 


19 


796 


18^ 


1038 


17i 


1029 


16 


1044 


15| 


637 


133 


855 


12 


739 


m 


1008 


9 


674 


74 


862 


«l 


788 


4i 


824 


3 


977 


u 


607 






12 (y. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Evansburg is 8 miles west of Meadville, and levels taken 
( going west ) in fi length of 6i miles were as follows : 

Miner's quarry, 1,803 730 

Evansburg (RR.). 1,284 711 

Mushrush coal^ 1,824 761 

McEntire ooal hni, 1,388 765 

UngerhiU. 1,348 ^ 776 

Run, 1,240 667 

McLanahan quarry, 1,315 742 

Run, " 1,277 704 

Hazen's hill, '. 1,443 870 

The highest divide between Adamsville and Jan^es- 
town, 4 miles south of the State road, was at Snodgrass 

ore bank, 1,360 787 

Crooked creek, at Adamsburg, 996' 423 

RR. at Jamestown,* 987 414 

Midway in Mercer Co., 1,083 from Oil City, 48.6 

Jamestown, 990 61.1 

Turner, 1,060 64.2 

Simond's, 1,057 67.2 

Andover, 1,095 62.8 

liichmond, lylH 

Dorset, 988 70.4 

Ashtabula, 648 87.2 

It is evident then that the highest land along the State 
road is at the eastern end of Crawford county, and that the 
general level falls oflE westward; for the divides read: 
above Lake Erie, 1417, 1222, 1381, 1257, 1117, 1224, 
1032, 1048, 1038, 1044, 855, 1008, 862, 788, 977 as far as 
Meadville; and 730, 765, 775, 742, 870 ^s far as Hazen's 
hill, 6 miles west of Evansville ; and 787 between Adams- 
ville and Jamestown, in the sonth-west comer of the county. 

This expresses the law of the topography of the region : 
a steady decline in the height of the uplands from the State 
of New York through Pennsylvania into Ohio. 

The same law is exhibited by the drainage of the region, 
as will appear from the map ; thus : The head waters of 
French creek are partly in New York State, partly in the 
extreme eastern township of Erie county, and partly along 
the high divide which overlooks the Lake at an average dis- 
tance of 10 miles back from the shore. 

The flow of the French creek waters is down the dip of the 

* The Franklin Branch of the Lake Shore and Michigan railroad runs across 
the extreme corner of the county here, and its levels are : 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q^. 

measures from north southward, and down the general slo] 
of the surface from north-east south-westward. At Meac 
ville, French creek turns and cuts down through the upp 
measures (with the dip) south-eastward. 

The level of the valley bed in which the South Branc 
and main stream of French Creek flows is shown in the fo 
lowing table of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroac 
from Corry to Meadville ; and in the table of the Frankli: 
branch of the same from Meadville Junction down the creel 
to Franklin, on the Allegheny river. 

Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, 

Oeean, Lake. Miles 

Salamanca, in New York, 1893—673=820 

Bear Lake, in Warren county, 1650 977 61 

Columbus, in Warren county, 1427 864 58 

Corry, in Erie bounty ^ 1431 868 61 

Concord station, 1361 788 — 

Union City station, 1301 738 72 

Mill Village station, 1216 643 79 

Millers station, 1169 696 86 

Cambridge station, 1163 690 88 

Venango station, 1163 690 92 

Ssegertown station, 1116 643 96 

Meadville station, 1080 607 102 

Franklin Branch Junction, 1074 601 105± 

Shaw's Landing station, 1092 619 108± 

Cochranton station, ' 1064 491 113± 

Carlton (Evans' bridge), 1047 474 116± 

Utica station, 1035 462 121± 

Sugar Creek station, 1014 441 126± 

JFranklin station 987 414 130± 

From the Junction westward the At. & G. W. RR. crosses 
the divide to the Shenango and descends that valley south- 
ward to the Ohio river ; its levels are as follows : 

• Ocean, Lake, Miles, 

MeadviUe Junction, 1074—673=501 — 

Geneva (Sutton's), 1069 496 110 

Evansburg, 1284 711 116 

Adamsville, 1148 675 121 

Sugar Grove (Mercer county), 1040 467 — 

Greenville, " " 984 411 129 

Shenango, " " 936 363 — 

Transfer, " *' 993 420 136 

Orangeville, «* ** 946 872 141 

Ohio State line, " " 945 372 — 



14 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. c/wilITE. 

The descent of Oil creek waters from the high divide of 
Crawford county south of French creek, with the dip, may 

be seen in the southeastern quarter of the map, and is il- 
lustrated by the following tables of levels : 

Union and Titusmlle Railroad. {N^ Table 177,) 

Ocean. Lake, Mil9S. 

Union City 5 -A.. & G. W. depot 1301—673=728 92 

{ P. A E. depot, 1270 6»7 92 

Mile-post, 1339 766 91 

Mile-post, • . . . 1876 803 90 

Mile-post, 1414 841 89 

Near Summit, 1468 885 88 

MUe-post, 1431 868 87 

Mile-post, 1407 834 86 

Mile-post, 1406 833 85 

Lakeville, 1412 839 84| 

Mile-post, * 1399 826 84 

Lincolnville, 1382 809 834 

Mile-post, 1382 809 83 

Mile-post, 1381 808 82 

Rioeville, 1369 796 81^ 

Mile-post, 1357 784 81 

Mile-post, 1307 734 80 

Mile-post, 1307 734 79 

Mile-post, 1291 718 78 

Noble's, : . . . 1298 725 77^ 

Mile-post, 1287 714 77 

Mile-post, 1315 742 76 

Tryonville Junction, 1320 • 747 76 

Titusville, 1194 621 67 

Oil City depot, 1008 435 60 

Pittsburg, Titusville & Buffalo RR, {N, table 172.) 

Ocean. Lake. Miles. 

Corry, depot, (1427)— 573=854 94.4 

Mile-post, 1458 885 93 

Culvert, 92— 40', 1481 908 92 

Culvert, 91— 60', 1499^ 926 91 

Culvert, 904-1601)', 1555 982 90.3 

MUe-post, 1586 1013 90 

MUe-post, 1633 1060 89 

Summit, 89—1800', [1646 J] 1073 88.7 

Trestle, 88— 150', . . 1693 1020 88 

MUe-post, 1509 936 87 

TresUe, 87—1000', 1499^ 926 86.8 

Trestle, 86— 500', 1456^ 893 86.1 

/Sfparfanftwr^r trestle, 1453| 890 — 

Culvert, 84-1-950', 1429^ 856 84.2 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q^ 15 

Ocean. Lak^. Miles. 

Mile-post, 1428 853 84 

Culvert, 83-f 130', 1377 804 83 

Culvert, 82+160', 1362 779 82 

Culvert, 814-460', 1339 766 81.1 

Mile-post, 1326 763 80 

Culvert, 79+100', 1324 761 79 

Culvert, 78— 100', 1296 723 78 

Mile-post, 1304 731 77 

Mile-post, 1316 743 76 

Mile-post, 1296 723 75 

Mile-post, . 1284i 711 74 

Mile-post, 1268^ 695 73 

Mile-post, 1243 670 72 

Mile-post, . 1248i 676 71 

Howe truss bridge, S. end, 1254 681 — 

MUe-post, 1237 654 70 

Mile-post, 1220 647 69 

Mile-post, 1206 633 68 

r Munroe street, 1195 622 67.5 

Titu8ville.) Washington Btreet, 1194 621 67.3 

( Franklin street, 1194 621 ^67.1 

Mile-post,(upPiDe creek), 1200 647 67 

Mile-post, 1215 672 66 

Mile-post, 1199 626 65 

Mile-post, 1177 604 64 

Mile-post, 1153 680 63 

Mile-post; 1132 559 62 

Mile-post, and so on to 1134 561 61 

J Centre street 1010 436 50.2 

Oil Cfity, \ Bridge, 8. end, 1014 441 — 

Although Oil creek waters now flow southward into the 
Allegheny river at Oil City, Mr. Carll believes that there 
was a time, previous to the great change in the surface of 
the region made by the Northern Ice when it turned at 
Tryonville westward and used what is now the valley of 
Muddy creek, joining French creek at Miller's. 

This is the proposed route of the Pennsylvania and Pe- 
troleum Railroad, the preliminary survey of which shows 
the following levels : 

Penn. and Petroleum R. R. (iT, table 178), 



TiTUSVILLB, 

Newton's Mills, 
Athens Mills, 
Little Oooley, 



on Oil creek, I .^gfl 



Ocean, Lake. 

1181 608 

1258 685 



693 
1208 630 



16 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

« 

Qeean, Lake, 

Teepletown, 1204 031 

Cambridge, on French oreek, . 1158 585 

Edinboro' (Lake Conneautee), 1212 689 

Summit (over to Lake Erie), 1278 705 

McKean'8 Corners, 1053 480 

Erie, 578 

In like manner, according to Mr. Carll, French creek in 
pre-glacial times — ^before its lower water course was filled 
with Drift, and its waters first spreading out into a great 
upland lake over northern Crawford and southern Erie 
counties, cut for themselves a new channel southward 
through the barrier above Franklin — turned sharply west- 
ward below Meadville up Conneaut Lake creek into Lake 
Erie. I cannot, however, yet accept Mr. CarlFs conclu- 
sions ; for, in my opinion French creek has always drained 
southward into the Ohio river. 

No railway line follows this route the entire distance ; 
but some of its features are illustrated by the levels of the 
Pittsburg and Erie railroad, which runs north and south, 
not very far from the Ohio State line. It ascends the She- 
nango river from the South as far as McLean's Corners (in 
the southwest corner of Crawford county) ; then crosses 
the broad flat of the Pymatuning swamp district ; then 
crosses the Great Divide, by Linesville and Summit Station, 
and descends tlje west slope into the valley of Conneaut 
creek, which it follows down to its great bend 6 miles 
from the lake shore, and so descends to Girard Junction 
on the Lake Shore railroad. 



Pittsburg and Erie railroad, {N^ table 191.) 

Ocean, 

Girard Junction, 697—573= 124 

Crosses, 765 

Albion, 867 

Spring, 961 

Conneautvllle, 1066 

Summit Station, on the Orand Divide^ II41 

Linesville, 1033 

Espyviile, 1088 

Kasson's, 1111 

Jamestown, 979 



'jake. 


Mile*. 


124 


83 


192 


78 


284 


72 


388 


66 


493 


63 


668 


59 


460 


55 


515 


51 


538 


49 


406 


42 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



Q*. 17 



Lake, 


Miles. 


388 


35.5 


368 


34 


236 





187 


^^ 



Oeean, 

Oreenville, 961 

3henango, . 941 

Newcastle, 809 

Beaver, on the Ohio river, (i2. jB.)» 710 

By this route the Grand Divide is crossed at an elevation 
of 568' above Lake Erie, and at a point about 25 miles south 
of the lake shore. 

On the Philadelphia and Erie road the summit grade on 
the Grand Divide is 657' above Lake Erie, and about 8 miles 
in an air line south of the lake shore ; as appears from 
the following table : 

Philadelphia and Erie RR. (iT, Table 129, ) 



Oeean. 

^ Lake Water, 578 

Mriej ] RR. Depot, 684 

^L. S.&M.RR., 687 

BeUe Valley, 1007 

Xiangdon% . . 1135 

Jacksovi'8, on the Orand Divide, 1£S0 

Waterford, 1198 



lie Boeuf, 
TJnion, . 
Oonoord, 
LovelPs, 



Ascending S.branoh of Frenoh Creek, < 



( 1217 
1270 
1384 
1364 



Ck>rry, 1427 

Oolumbus, . . 
Spring Creek, 



£ak«. 


11 ,^288 

114 'I Y — 

434 mi 

662 ^ r279 

657 4 ^275 
620 C^|269 
644 •f 
697 ^1?262 
811 (p7258 
791 *;,i254 



Miles from 
Philadelphia. 



Crarland, . . 
Pittsfield, . 
Youngsville, 
Irvineton, . 
Warren, . . 



In Warren Co. descending 
the Broken Straw waters. 



f 1401 
1395 
1308 
1244 
1211 
1172 
1186 



8S4 
828 
822 
735 
651 
638 
599 
613 



$51 
249 
244 
238 
234 
230 
228 
222 



7 
9 
IS 
19 
28 
26 
82 
84 
S7 



Much higher land, however, than the summit crossing of 
the P. and E. R. R. lies along the Great Divide both to the 
east of it, and especially after passing into the State of New 
York ; as is shown by the following table of the levels along 
the railway from Corry north to the Lake Shore at Brocton : 

Buffalo^ Corry and Pittsburg R. R. (iV, table 179a.) 

Ocean, Lake, Miles. 

Brocton Junction, N. Y. (Lake Erie), 672—598= 99 42 

Prospect, 1221 658 34 

Mayville, 1300 727 28 

2Q^ 



J > 



18 Q*. REPORT OF PROORE88. I. 0. WHITE. 

Oetan, Lake, Miles» 

SummerdaUf on the Grand Divide, 1629 1066 tt 

Sherman, 1568 905 18 

Panama, 1545 972 12 

Clymer (Brokenstraw yallej), 1146 £73 8 

State Line, 1417 844 8 

Childs, 1474 901 — 

Coi-ry Junction^ 1428 850 O 

The summit at railroad grade along this road is (1,619^ 
A. T.) 1056' above lake Erie; but the top of the hills in 
which appear the great Panama Conglomerate rise to (1880') 
1307' above the Lake, and these hill tops mark the line of 
the Great Divide as it runs and rises eastward through 
southern New York. 

Lake Chautavqua in New York is 726' above lake Erie ;* 
its head only 7J miles (air-line) distant from the shore ; hill 
tops west of it rise to 1056' ; others east of it to 1177' above 
the lake. 

Cassadaga LaJce^ still further north-east, 732' above lake 
Erie, distant 7i miles, is enclosed by equally high land. 

Still further east the rock cities of Salamanca and Olean 
in New York rise to 1677' and 1727' above the lake ; and the 
whole of the country through which the upper Alleghany 
river flows is very high.* 

The characteristic topographical features, then, of the re- 
gion of Erie and Crawford counties may be thus described : 

From the brow of the Lake Erie sand-bluflf terrace there 
is an upward slope to a line which may be drawn on the 
map from the north-east comer of Greenfield township, Erie 
county, on the New York State line, 11 miles south of the 
lake shore, — through Greene, Summit, McKean, Franklin, 
Elk-lick, and Spring, — to the north-west comer of Conneaut 
township, Crawford county, on the Ohio State line, 23 
miles south of the lake shore ; a line running S. 53° W. the 
average direction of the lake shore being 60°. 

Down this slope flow many small streams — Raccoon and 
Crooked creeks near the Ohio line ; then Elk creek and its 
southern branches. South branch. Falls, Goodban's, and 
Lamson's runs; then Trout run, Bear run, and the other 

* See the Map of Drainage in Report I.I.I, 1880. 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q*. 19 

npper runs of Walnut creek ; then Mill creek at Erie ; fin- 
ally Crowley's run, Six Mile creek, Elliott's run, Scott's 
run, Twelve Mile creek, Sixteen Mile creek, Averill run, 
and Twenty Mile creek, at the New York State line. 

The slope is high and short at the New York line, long 
and low at the Ohio line. Consequently the long streams 
descending from the divide to the lake are all west of Erie ; 
all the streams east of Erie are short and rapid. 

Walnut creek is 15 miles long, and yet its head is only 
8 miles back from the lake shore. 

Elk creek is 25 miles long (by its bed), and yet its head 
is only 10 miles back from the shore. 

Conneaut creek runs 26 miles in Pennsylvania before 
crossing the Ohio line, and its southern source is 22 miles 
back from the lake shore. i 

The course pursued by these streams is always the same, i 

viz: first down the upper part of the slope towards the 
lake ; then w^estward, in a deep gully, with rock walls, par- 
allel to the lake ; then out through a ravine straight to the 
lake shore. 

The cause of this curious phenomenon, as it seems upon 
the map, is very simple, viz: the flattening of the high 
land southwestward ; and the general dip of the formations 
in the same direction. 

In the eastern townships of Erie, the hills and table lands 
often rise to lOOff above the lake level ; and in Wayne and 
Concord (next to Warren county), to IWO' and even more.* 

West of French creek the whole upland is so reduced 
that few of the hilltops exceed 875' above the laJce level. 

West of the Conneaut and Conneautee there are no hill 
tops higher than 725' above lake level; and along the Ohio 
line the country seems to have a nearly uniform elevation 
(broken only by the valley beds) of about 500'^ and no hills 
of any consequence are to be seen. 

The eastern streams descending to the lake have a short 
fall from the divide twice as great as the long fall of the 

*See tables of barometrio heights hi the description of the townships in 
Part Seoond of this Report. 



20 Q*. BEPOBT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

western streams. Bat the slope which they descend is also 
steep, so that they have excavated regular sloping vales. 
The western streams, on the contrary, cut down into 
what is really a sloping table-land, deeply in their upper 
courses ; and therefore flow for miles in ravines, or caflons, 
between cliffs of nearly horizontal strata. 

The French creeJc waters^ flowing south from the divide 
present a wholly different topographical phenomenon ; 
Spafford's run and the North Branch on the New York line ; 
Lake Pleasant and its outlet ; LeBceuf creek and its two 
head branches, east and west ; Little Conneautee creek ; 
Conneautee lake with its creek ; Torry and Stewart's runs ; 
Cussewago creek with its three head branches ; Wasson's 
run, and Conneaut lake with its feeders and outlet creek, 
drain the whole rain-fall of the great divide southward, 
through flat valleys, one and even two miles wide, bordered 
by low and gently rounded hill slopes, and separated by low 
flat table lands. 

Crooked creek and the headwaters of Shenango river, 
draining Pymatuning swamp in two opposite directions, 
but all the waters finding their way southward, emphasize 
the same style of topography in the sou thwest corner of 
the region. 

Lakes and swamps are of course numerous in such a 
country, so flat, and so entirely covered with the great 
bowlder clay and gravel deposit of the Northern Ice Drift. 

Lakes Pleasant^ Le BcBuf and CouTieautee lie on a line 
north of French creek in Erie county. 

Oil creek lake and Conneaut lake lie on a parallel line 
diagonally drawn across Crawford county. 

Sugar lake lies near the Venango county line in Wayne 
township. 

Conneaut swamp represents the former extension south- 
ward of Conneaut lake when it was much larger than at 
present, as is shown also by swamps at the northern end of 
the lake. It stretches along Conneaut lake creek to within 
2i miles of its junction with French creek, and was esti- 
mated at 5000 acres by the State Surveyor General. Much 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q^ 21 

of it has been reclaimed, however, by deepening and straight- 
ening the creek. The lake itself might be drained by the 
same process. The vegetation of the swamp consists of 
Swamp willow {Salix longifoUa\ Tamarack, Black alder 
{Alnus rubra\ Witch hazel, Poison sumach, &c., and the 
Side Saddle Flower, {Saracenia purpurea) may be found in 
it. In the standing water pools nothing grows but the 
Broad leaved flag [Typha latifoUa), 

Pymatuning swamp represents a large lake which for- 
merly existed in the southwest corner of Crawford county. 
It extends from the head of Crooked creek near Hartstown, 
along the Shenango, 15 miles, to the Ohio State line, with 
an area of 9000 acres (in 1868, when surveyed by Col . Wor- 
rall,) now considerably reduced by judicious ditching and 
draining. It lies 1025' above tide, or ^^' above Lake Erie. 

Tamarack swamp stretches across the water shed of the 
Great Divide in Erie county, on the highest land of the 
Waterford-McKean township line, joining the sources of 
Elk and Conneautee creeks. 

Swamps occur along the south branch of French creek, 
but elsewhere in Erie county they are rare, on account of 
the greater slope of the ground. But in Crawford county 
they are numerous enough. 

A large swamp covers the southern and eastern portions 
of Randolph township ; and others exist in Troy, Athens 
and Bloomfield. 

It only remains to note certain peculiarities of the indi- 
vidual water courses of the region, as follows : 

Conneaut creek heads on the Drift-filled low divide of Sum- 
mit township, Crawford county, (an extension of the Con- 
neaut lake basin northwards,) and runs north — between 
low banks of quicksand and gravel upon a Drift-filling 
sometimes 180' deep (as shown by borings,) receiving many 
short tributaries on both sides, and one large one, the West 
Branch, from Ohio — 17 miles, to within 6 miles of the lake 
shore. 

Here it makes a right angle west and flows parallel to 
the lake shore into Ohio. A map of Ohio will show it 



22 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

t 

doubling back east to witliin 2 miles of the State line and 
then entering lake Erie. Its barometric levels are as fol- 
lows: 

Ckmneaut creek head divide^ HOC 527' 

Dioksonbnrg, 905 422 

Gonneautville, 820 347 

Spring, 870 297 

Albion, i . . 815 242 

Cherryhill vidnity, 786 212 

Ohio State line, 770 197 

Mouth, 578 

Prom Dicksonburg to Albion is 12 miles in air line, and 
the fall is 180' = 15' per mile. 

No rook in place is visible above Conneaut V. ; but Che- 
mung flagstone strata are frequently exposed between the 
bend and the State line. 

Maccoon creek is short and flows in Drift,' but the top of 
the Portage strata is exposed at its mouth. 

Crooked creek is like Raccoon creek in both respects. 

Elk creek^ is a large stream, with many south side runs. 
It heads in Tamarack swamp ; flows west, with large oxbow 
bends near Girard, and then northwest into the lake. It cuts 
down into the rocks early in its course, and from Middle- 
borough downwards offers the finest rock exposures of Oil 
Sand Group, Chemung flags, Girard shales, and upper Por- 
tage in the county, every inch of these formations being 
distinguishable. The scenery is picturesque and sometimes 
wild. For a long distance above Girard the stream flows 
through a narrow gorge between walls of Girard shale 100' 
high. Its barometric levels are as follows : 

Ocean. Lake, 

Tamarack swamp, on the Orand Divide^ 1250' 677' 

O. Dunnes, 2 m. above Middlebo', 1085 612 

Middleborough (MoKean Corners), 1010 437 

V. Baron's, \\ m. below Middleborough, 990 417 

Swallow's null, • . 850 277 

Fairs run mouth, 800 227 

Girard, . . 636 62 

Mouth at lake Erie, 673 

For two miles above Middleborough the rate is 38' per 
mile. Prom Middleboro' to Girard (10 miles air line), 37^ 
per mile in air line ; but by water course (154-miles) only 
25' per mile. 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q*. 23 

Walnut creek rises at the P. & E. RR. line, and flows 
west parallel to and between Elk creek and the lake shore. 
Fine rock exposures, especially of Girard shale, form ver- 
tical cliffs of 50' and 75'. At Bear' s run, near Swanville, it 
cuts down to the Portage rocks, and then descends rapidly 
to the lake. Its barometric levels are as follows : 

Oe^an, Lake. 

Water shed, or Grand Divide, 1275 702 

Smith's miU, 935 862 

Butt's miU, 850 277 

Gudtner's miU, 700 127 

Bear's run mouth, 675 102 

Mouth at Lake Erie, 573 

Its bed being about 16 miles long, its rate of fall averages 
47' per mile. 

Mill creeJc^ at Erie, flows westward at flrst, but with two 

great bends, along the northern edge of a wide level ar^a 

1000' above tide, or 427' above Lake Erie.* Its course is 
often extremely wild, and its rate of descent is 100' per 

mile, through a narrow gorge, heading in Middle Chemung 
strata, cutting down through Girard shale, and flnally ex- 
posing 200' of Portage rocks. 

Croioley^s^ Six Mile, and ElUotVs runs, aU small and 
rapid, expose Chemung and Girard rocks, and more and 
more of the Portage series. 

Twelve Mile creeJc heads 7 miles south of the shore, in 
the outcrop of the Third Oil Sand, (1475') 902' above lake 
level, and falls at the rate of over 100' per mile, exposing 
the lower Chemung, Girard, and Upper Portage rocks, in 
vertical walls a hundred feet high. 

Sixteen Mile creek has numerous head runs in New York 
State, and pours a copious stream through a deep gorge of 
Girard arid Portage cliffs. 

Twenty Mile creek pours more water into Lake Erie than 
any of those before mentioned except the Conneaut. Its 
mouth is li miles from the New York State line, and most 

* It looks as if this had once formed part of an anoient shore line. 



24 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

of its water-courses are in that State. It shows 4Biy of 
Portage rocks, in a striking caflon with vertical cliffs 150' 
high. Where this profound ravine passes the State line it 
is known as 'Sthe Gulf," a favorite place for picnic and 
pleasure parties. 

Shenango river drains out of the north end of Pyniatnn- 
ing swamp and circles inside the Ohio State line to flow^ 
south into Mercer county. Paden^s {Peyton) run and 
others enter it from the north, at the west end of the dis- 
mal morass. The amount of water leaving Crawford county 
by this channel is small. 

Crooked creeJc^ draining the south end of Pymatuning^ 
swamp, flows straight south into Mercer county and joins 
the Shenango at Greenville. A ridge 300' high separates 
these streams. The valley of Crooked creek is wide and 
flat, and filled to a great depth with Drift. The stream is 
sluggish and meandering and was followed by the old de- 
serted Beaver and Erie canal. Little and Mud lakes are 
merely small open water places in the marsh. 

Conneaut Lake creek drains Conneaut lake eastward slug- 
gishly through a marsh for eight miles, and flows 2i miles 
further to French creek. 

Conneaut lake^ 2f miles long and less than a mile wide, 
on the low divide between the Frejich creek, Conneaut and 
Shenango waters, was made a reservoir for the old Beaver 
and Erie canal, by a 10' dam across its outlet. Its volume 
was increased by means of a branch canal feeder brought 
from a dam on French creek above Meadville. This feeder 
was engineered down French creek, east bank, across French 
creek on an aqueduct, and up the north side of the valley 
of Conneaut Lake creek. Reservoir surface level, 1082 = 
509' feet above Lake Erie, 

A natural embankment or moraine of Drift, 15^ to 20' 
high, lies across the valley at Glendale, and forms a natural 
dam to the marsh, which extends up to the foot of the lake. 
Marshes extend three miles north of thB head of the lake. 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q*. 26 

The ancient lake behind the moraine was therefore at least 
14 miles long, or about the size of Lake Chatauqua in New 
York. Under the present peat bogs of the swamps lie old 
deposits of fresh- water shell-marl. 

The natural creek way through the moraine has been re- 
cently deepened and the canal abandoned. The lake level 
is now only 1070'=4^^' above Lake Mrie, 

Cussewago creeJc flows 15 miles south and then 3 miles 
east into French creek, at Meadville ; sluggish and mean- 
dering along a wide shallow Drift-tilled valley, the side- 
hills of which, however, often rise abruptly from the plain ; 
showing thus, incidentally, how deep the Drift must be in 
this pre- glacial valley bed. 

Conneautee creek descends from the Divide into Conne- 
autee lake (IJ m. long by \ m. wide), decked with white 
water lilies {NymphcBa) ; issuing from which it traverses a 
wide level plain, receives Torry run, and enters French 
creek. 

Little Conneautee creek enters French creek, at Cam- 
bridge. 

Le BoRuf creek has two wide spreading east and west 
branches on the high divide, both heading within 7 miles of 
the lake shore. It flows sluggishly southward, and spreads 
into Lake Le Boeuf^ at Waterford (J m. long and i m. wide), 
Black run coming in at the foot of the lake from the west. 
Tamarack swamp^ at the head of Trout run or the West 
Branch, has already been described. 

French creek North Branch heads in Greenfield town- 
ship, so far as five small streams descending from the great 
divide is concerned, but its extreme eastern headwaters are 
over the New York State line. The main stream flows six 
miles S. W. through Grreenfield ; — then down the slope S. 
S. E. six miles (air line) through Venango township (with 
two considerable bends) to Wattsburg (where Spafford run 
comes in from the east) ; — then S. W. 6 miles to the Water- 
ford line ; — then 3 miles S. to the P. & E. RR. bridge, where 



26 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

the South Branch joins it from the east ; — then 4i m. W^., 
with many meanders, to the month of Le Bcsyf creek; — 
then 6 miles S., with many meanders, to Millers, at the 
mouth of Muddy run^ coming from the southeast ; — then 
6 miles W. with meanders, past Cambridge and Little Con- 
neautee creek to the mouth of Conneautee creek ; — then 7 
miles S. S. W. past Venango to Ssegertown, at the mouth 
of Woodcock creek^ coming in from the feast ; then 6 miles 
(air line) S. with two great bends, to Meadville, at the mouth 
of Cussewago creek; — thence in a wide gentle curve, with a 
chord of 10 miles S. S. E. to Cochranton, at the mouth of 
Little Sugar creek; — and S. 2 miles further into Venango 
county. 

The fall of French creek is gentle, as will be seen 1, by 
its meanders, and 2, by the following barometric and other 
levels : 

Ocean, Lalu, Milet, Bate, 

Watershed on the Great Divide, 1600' 027' — 1' 

Greenville (vicinity), 1400 827 8 83' 

Wattsburg, 1315 742 7* 12' 

Doolittle's run mouth, 1310 737 8 1|' 

Waterford line, 1235 662 2 87' 

South Branch mouth, 1200 627 8 12' 

(Carroll's quarries 1190 617) 

Millvillage bridge, 1165 692 5» V 

Opposite Miller's RR. station, 1135 662 8 10' 

Cambridge (water), 1130 657 4 1^' 

Venango (water), 1115 542 2\ 10' 

Sfiegerstown (water), 1100 527 4 1' 

Meadville (water), 1065 492 5^ 6' 

Cochranton (water), 1050 477 10 1^' 

Crawford-Venango line (water), 1045 472 2^ 1' 

Utioa (Venango county), (water), 1020 447 6 4' 

Franklin; Allegheny R. (water) .970 397 9 5^' 

French creek is very irregular in its fall, as seen from the 
above table ; but if the bends and numerous meanders were 
considered, the more rapid rates would be greatly reduced. 

From the watershed to Greenville, the rate is about 33' per mile. 

From Greenville down to WattsvUle, ** " 9' " ♦♦ 

From Wattsburg to the Forks, " " 14' " •' 

From the Forks to Franklin (60 mUes), ..." " 4' " " 

The South Branch rate from Concord to Union (4 miles) 

* Air line across a wide bend. 



TOPOGRAPHY. Q*. 27 

is only 3^' per mile, but its northern affluents Bearer run^ 
Slaughter's run^ BasJcWs run^ and Spencer" s run descend 
from the highlands at a maximum rate of 60' per mile. 
LilUy run^ coming in from the highest land in the region 
in Concord township has a still higher rate. 

The head run of the South Branch, from which it gets its 
name, runs due north, from a deep cut at the head of OU 
creek, and reaches the valley bed a little west of Corry. 
This cut is through the high divide of Cdncord and Sparta 
townships, and wiU be described further on. 

Muddy creeTc flows in an ancient valley of erosion, now 
filled deep with Drift. The stream meanders sluggishly be- 
tween banks of quicksand and gravel northwestward for 12 
miles, receiving Federal run and Kelley^s run from the 
north and other runs from the south, and joins Prench 
creek at Miller' s. 

Woodcock creeTc^ with its head at Guy' s mills in the center 
of Randolph, flows 5 miles due north, and then 9 miles 
nearly due west to French creek at Saegertown. 

Sugar creek West Branch probably flowed northwestward 
through the flat divide along the present Woodcock chan- 
nel, in preglacial times. When this channel was filled by 
the ice with Drift a lake was formed and a new outlet was 
cut southward in the direction of Franklin and the Alle- 
gheny river.* The greatest quantity of Drift was dumped 
into the valley about Guy's mills, where the surface is now 
about 40' higher than the streams. Ouy'^s run once fiowed 
into Woodcock creek ; but a few years ago a ditch 3' deep 
sufficed to turn the run into Sugar creek. The water plain 
of the valley is a mile wide ; the bordering hill-slopes rise 
abruptly from it to a height of 200'. 

Six miles lower down, the stream spreads into an oval lake 
{Sugar lake) a mile long, and half a mile wide, and only 
from 16' to 18' deep. Forty years ago it was more than 30' 
deep. The clearing of the upland slopes is rapidly filling 
it with sand and mud. 

Sugar creek East Branch heads in like manner in the 
Drift-filled valley plain around Townville and possibly once 
poured its waters northward down Muddy creek. 

* Acoording to Mr. GarlL. 



28 Q*. REPORT OP PROGRESS, I. C. WHITE. 

Little Sugar creek has two north branches each heading 
similarly in Drift-plain valleys on a level with the heads of 
runs flowing northward towards Meadville and Sagerstown. 

Oil creeTc drains all eastern Crawford connty southward 
into the Allegheny river. In preglacial times, before the 
rock gate at Titusville was opened, all the Pine creek waters 
of Warren and Venango county flowed past Titusville along 
the present channel of Oil creek northwestward, and being 
joined first at Hydetown by Little Oil creek and Thomp- 
son^ s run^ and then near Tryonville' by the East and West 
Branch waters, poured along the channel of Muddy into 
French creek ; the present water shed west of Tryonville 
being merely a slight elevation in the Drift-plain of the 
ancient valley. * (Carll. ) 

The northern feeders of Oil creek — Mosey run entering 
the west branch at Lincolnville, Negus run^ entering at 
Riceville, Britain run and two others entering the east 
branch, above Centreville, where the two branches unite — 
descend southward from the Concord- Sparta-Bloomfield 
highlands with its maximum hill-tops of 1850' above tide. 
The fall by Mosey run to Riceville (1315') is 400' or 500' in 
9 miles ; Negus run falls as much in 4J miles. 

Oil Creek Lake^ between the two, is 2 miles long and f 
mile wide, fed by two runs descending from the highlands, 
and also by numerous springs which rise from its bottom 
and sides. Its beauty makes it a place of great resort. 

The valley of Oil creek is wide and flat, and the hills rise 
abruptly and often with cliffs from its flood plain, showing 
that its ancient bed lies far beneath the present surface. In 
fact the Grey well, six miles above Titusville, has a drive 
pipe 226' long. 

The following levels of Oil creek will show its present rate 
of descent : 

Ocean, Lake, Miles, Rate, 

Oil creek lake, 1389' 816' 

Riceville (water), 1325 752 1\ 50'+ 

Centreville (water), 1275 702 3^ 13'+ 

Tryonville (water), 1260 687 8 6'+ 

Road, N. E. corner of Troy T., 1250 675 — — 

* For Mr. CarlPs argument see Report I.I.I. Chapter 32, p. 356, 1880. 



SURFACE ROCKS. Q^ 29 

Ocean. Lake, Milet. BcUe. 

Hydetown (water), 1230 657 5* 6' 

TltusvUle (water), 1160 687 SJ 20' 

on city (water), 986 412 17 10' 

Big Brokenstraw creek merely crosses the northeast cor- 
ner of Wayne township, Erie county ; but its branch, Hare 
creek carrying the little Bear creek^ takes a sweep of seven 
miles, north and east of Corry. ^ 

Spring creek of Warren county also heads just inside 
Crawf prd county in Concord township. 



Chapter III. 

Surface Oeology, 

Soilj Drift, Erratic Bowlders^ Buried Valleys, Terraces, 

Peai, Shell-Marl, 

The soils of the district, while they often yield boun- 
tiful crops, are eminently adapted to grazing, and can be 
most successfully employed for such purposes. Dairying 
and the rearing of stock find here as profitable returns as 
in the Western Reserve of Ohio, of which this region is, in 
fact, a continuation eastward. 

There are two principal classes of soils ; one, derived from 
the decomposition of Drift material ; the other, originating 
in the decay of vegetable matter in the vicinity of bogs and 
land reclaimed from swamps. Few localities exhibit a soil 
derived wholly from the decay of rocks in situ. 

From the Drift there generally results a strong clayey or 
sometimes gravely soil, rich in fertilizing elements ; but 
owing to the impervious bed of clay which so often accom- 
panies the Drift, this soil is generally inclined to be cold 
and wet, so that the land has to be thoroughly under- 
drained before first-class crops can be raised. 

The swamp soils of course require draining before farm- 

* In an air line. 



30 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

ing, but when properly drained and cleared up they possess 
almost inexhaustless fertility. 

The deep covering of decayed vegetable mold found in 
such large quantities in every bog within the district would 
make an excellent top-dressing for the colder clay soils de- 
rived from Drift ; and the attention of farmers cannot be 
too strongly called to this valuable source of manure for 
their lalids, procurable at a slight cost and in vast quan- 
tities. 

Drift. There is little land within the district under re- 
view that has not been affected by the great ice-sheet which 
in glacial times moved southeastward over the entire region 
of Erie and Crawford counties, except, perhaps, one small 
ai^a which rose high enough to be an island in the sea of 
ice. 

The highest point at which I have found evidence of gla- 
ciation is 1750'; but there are hill-tops of 1850' at the east- 
em end of Erie county on which I could not find any Drift 
or erratic bowlders. 

I do not regard this negative evidence as very conclusive, 
however, since I could not examine all the summits ; and it 
is possible that the long continued erosion of the surface 
has obliterated the originally thin coating of Drift left at 
such an elevation. The distribution of the Drift in the 
counties to the east seems to fix the upper limit of the ice 
at about 1750'. Large tracts of Warren and Forest coun- 
ties, from 1800' to 2000' above tide, afford no evidence of 
having ever been covered, although the exposed rocks are 
such as would have retained scratches. 

While the ice was smoothing down the lower flat country 
of the western townships it was operating through the deep 
and narrow vales of the eastern counties, leaving the high 
hill tops comparatively untouched. 

At Meadville I found glacial scratches upon the upper sur- 
face of the Sharon Conglomerate which forms the top of 
College hill, 1550' above tide, 1177' above LakeWie, and 500' 
above the present bed of French creek, which is at least 300' 



SURFACE BOCKS. Q^. 3 

above its old water course beneath the Drift. The ice there 
fore must have been at least 800' thick here. * 

The direction of the ice grooves which I observed on thirt; 
or forty summits in the two counties has been uniformb, 
about S. 30° E., or South- south-east. 

The greatest thickness of the ice sheet, thus moving fron 
the N. N. West, must have been over the low lying west 
ern townships, audits thin melting edge over the'easteri 
townships, around and between hills formed or capped bj 
harder rocks than those of the lower lands. 

The varied character of the Northern Drift deposits car. 
be weU studied along the shore of Lake Erie, towards the^ 
Ohio State line, where they constitute a terrace bluff, from 
50' to 80' high, out of which the waves are constantly re- 
moving the clay and fine sand into the lake, leaving the 
coarse sand, pebbles and bowlders to be daily rounded and 
polished on the beach. Stratified rocks are scarcely any- 
where exposed along the shore west of Erie, except at the 
mouths and in the bedg of inflowing streams. 

The matrix is a bluish- white tough clay imbedding frag- 
ments, mostly angular, of all kinds of crystalline rocks, 
with sandstone, shale, black slate and limestone ; and occa- 
sionally a large bowlder of granite or gneiss is seen pro- 
truding from the mass. 

Quicksand is abundant in the Drift deposits of the town- 
ships back from the lake, and especially along the summit 
level of the Beaver and Erie canal. A bed of it 2' thick 
was found in cutting the channel for the canal ; and for a 
mile and a half the sides of the canal had to be timbered 
and boarded. 

Along the depression of Conneaut lake the Drift is prob- 
ably very deep, but I could hear of no borings. Conneaut 
creek valley is heaped with Drift from the summit down to 
the great bend. 

Mr. Schofield, who is a very reliable citizen of Conneaut- 

* On the supposition that the old buried channel was already that deep pre- 
vious to the invasion of the ice. But we are wholly ignorant of the eroding 
ability of such ioe, In such a country and under such circumstances. 



32 Q^ 



REPORT OP PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 



ville, and who drilled the well himself, gave me the follow- 
ing record of a drill-hole near Conneautville : Pig. 1. 

1. 



Drift, i 



Near Conneautville. 



Gravel, bowlders, olay, dto., 112' 



i/ 






Shale and sand layers, SO' 



^ Quicksand, 46' 



Bed rock and top of drill hole, at 187' 



V,:. 



>• •• 







Tff 



Mr. Scofield informed me that after drilling through 30' 
of what was supposed to be bed rock, the tools dropped, 
and quicksand ''boiled up like mush." The drive-pipe had 
to be extended to 187'. The apparently stratified shale 
must be part of the Drift deposit, and the 30' of shale may 
possibly be an immense erratic ; or perhaps a projection of 
the valley wall, undercut on one side, and filled beneath 
with quicksand. 

This quicksand deposit is highly interesting, although 
others of less size lying between stratified rocks have been 
bored through elsewhere. 

The Drift in French creek valley is very deep. About 4 
miles below Meadville, a drive-pipe was put down 285' with- 
out touching bottom rock ; all the way through quicksand 
and bowlders. 

The Drift on Oil creek is shown to be 100' and 200' deep, 
by well borings. ^ ^ 

On Muddy creek the water wells are dug in quicksand, 
and heaps of Drift are to be seen everywhere on the surface. 

But on the high lands there seems to be but a thin coat- 
ing of Drift, and often nothing but scattered bowlders and 
scratches and furrows on the rock surfaces. 

Olacial scratches are abundant on the surfaces of the 



SURFACE ROCKS. Q^ 33 

harder sandstone outcrops, especially in Mead, Fairfield, 
Greenwood, East Fallowfield, Randolph, Wayne, East Fair- 
field, Union and South Shenango townships. The scratched 
rock almost always belongs to the Sharon Conglomerate. As 
this rock has been eroded from the highlands north of Craw- 
ford county, and lower and softer measures take its place, 
no scratches have been seen in Erie county, although they 
may exist beneath the soil. 

Erratics are abundant, and some may be found 10' in di- 
ameter ; but they are not anything like so numerous as they 
are in Mercer, Lawrence and Beaver counties further south, 
where they form groups or colonies which almost conceal 
the soil. 

I see nothing in Erie and Crawford counties to change the 
views expressed in my report QQQ on Mercer county. The 
erratics were not brought by icebergs, but by glacial ice ; 
and they naturally increase in number southward in the di- 
rection of the motion of the great Beaver valley glacier, on 
the principle of a terminal moraine. Every alternate ad- 
vance and retreat of the glacier would add to their numbers ; 
while the finally retreating ice would merely drop here and 
there those which were on their way. 



Buried^ Valleys,* 

Scarcely a stream of any considerable size in Erie or in 
Crawford county flows over a rock bed, except those which 
cut deep ravines on the Lake Erie slope, as already suffi- 
ciently described in Chapter 1. The present water-courses 
meander along the upper surfaces of Drift deposits which 
fill up the ancient valleys to various heights above the old 
rock beds, even in some places where no living stream now 
flows. 

The 285' drive-pipe of the Smith well, so-called, sunk 
in the valley of French creek, about 4^ miles below Mead- 

* On page 18 of Report QQQ, Mercer county, I am made to say that the buried 
valleys of the Chenango and Pymatuning are 700' deep. The reader will be 
kind enough to correct this to 100', as I wrote it. 

3Q*. 



\ 



34 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ville (see Part II below),* serves to indicate the deptli of 
the old valley floor. The hole was commenced on the 
plain, 20' above. French creek, or 1055' above tide {IiS2' 
cibove Lake Erie). The bottom of the pipe was therefore 
at 770' {197' above Lake Erie). 

Bed-rocks are frequently seen along French creek, at 
Union, Venango, Mill village, LeBoBuf and elsewhere ; but 
the flood plain being two miles wide, there is ample space 
for a buried valley between the two wall slopes. None has 
been reported, but oil borings are not numerous. 

The buried valley of Conneaut lake has been already de- 
scribed. Its side-hills are 300' above the present plain. 
The depth of the old rock floor is unknown. 

No rocks in place are seen along the Cussewago from 
Meadville up to near its head. The stream winds along 
between low banks of sand and glacial ddbris which prob- 
ably fill an ancient and now deeply buried valley-bed. 

Similar appearances indicate buried valleys along the Le 
Boeuf and Conneautee creeks; along Muddy, Woodcock, 
Sugar and Little Sugar creeks, as described in Chapter 1. 

On Sugar creek west branch, not far above' Sugar lake, 
Mr. Allen' s drive pipe measured 80'. 

On Sugar creek north branch, near the south line of Troy, 
6' above the creek and 1260' above tide, Mr. Jno. Arm- 
strong's drive-pipe measured 130'. 

On Oil creek, 6' above the creek, and 1240' above tide, a 
drive-pipe on the Reed estate just above Hydetown, was 
abandoned after going through Drift 190'. 

On the Preston farm below Tryonville, 10' above and near 
the creek, the drive-pipe reached bed-rock at 200'. 

Just Avest of this, Mr. Gray's pipe was reported to touch 
bottom at 160,' but no further boring was done. 

*I found this depth given in the company's books at MeadviUe, and both 
members of the firm assured me that had all the joints not been driven, those 
not used would have been returned. The pounding down of the string of 
joints became so difficult at last as to advance but a few feet per week. In 
passing the numerous quicksand layers the drive pipe seemed to rebound 
under the blows of the hammer as much as to descend, and in one of these the 
work was abandoned. 



SURFACE ROCKS. Q*. 35 

Just below the Tryonville bridge, 10' above water, a drive- 
pipe reached rock at 160'. 

On the opposite side of the creek, near the old hotel, there 
is another drive-pipe of 160'. 

On Oil creek east branch, about a mile above Centreville, 
10' above the creek and 60 rods east of it, two of Mr. Kin- 
ney's wells had drive-pipes of 90' and 100'. 

Half a mile above Centreville, 15' above the creek (1260') 
a well was abandoned because no bed rock was found at 100.' 

The buried valley of Conneaut creek is the only one over 
which now flows water to Lake Erie. It is evidently a con- 
tinuation of that of Conneaut lake, where Mr. Scofield found 
187' of Drift as already described. It continues northward 
to the great bend, and possibly six miles further to the 
shore of Lake Erie ; but the topographical aspect of the lo- 
cality is not favorable to this supposition. The Conneaut, 
turning aside at the bend cuts westward an open ravine 
through the native rocks. 

Raccoon and Crooked creeks carry very little water and 
flow over gravel, only cutting through it near their mouths ; 
the rest of the Lake Erie streams have rockbeds their whole 
course. 

The most remarkable of these buried valleys are those 
through which two streams now flow in opposite directions 
from a common divide, scarcely more elevated than otfier 
parts of the flood plain. These have already been men- 
tioned cursorily ; a few more words will complete the de- 
scription of two fine examples of this phenomenon in Mead 
township, Crawford county. 

Mill creek (south branch) and Mad run have their heads 
together in a common wide and deep level valley, Mill creek 
flowing north to Meadville and Mud run south into Little 
Sugar creek. A swamp feeds both. The two valley walls 
slope gradually upwards to a height of 350'. There must 
be an older and deeper valley bed buried beneath this 
swamp and these two streams ; and along this ancient rock- 
bed a single stream must have flowed in one or the other 
direction. 



36 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Little Sugar creek (east branch) flows southward past 
Mead's Corners in a similar Drift-filled ancient valley, out 
from an imperceptible divide in northern Mead township, 
from which another stream flows north into Woodcock 
creek. The hill walls are here 200' high. 

Woodcock creek and Sugar creek^ west branch, head to 
gether at Guy's mills (as already described) on the flat floor 
of a through-cut valley bounded by hills 200' high. 

Muddy creek, south fork, and Sugar creek^ north branch, 
head together at Townville, in a through-cut valley, the 
walls of which rise very high. A ridge of Drift 40' high 
crosses the valley floor here and separates the streams. 

French creek (south branch) and Oil creek head together, 
half way between Corry and Spartansburg, in a very re- 
markable through-cut valley of the same kind, by follow- 
ing which the P. C. & B. RR. gets through the high divide. 

The hill tops are 1850' above tide. 

The railway summit grade is 1646'. 

Mr. Grossman's oil well, half a mile from the summit, at 
the county line, and in the middle of the valley, went dow^n 
150' through Drift to the ancient roclv bed at 1425'. 

The total rock-cut is therefore 425'=t deep. 

There is no water now at the railway summit ; a rill feeds 
French creek northwards, and another feeds Oil creek south- 
wards. 

The ice grooved country about Corry, 5 miles distant, 
northward, stands at 1425' to 1440'. 

Hare s creek, in Wayne township, Erie county, flows south 
and east into the Brokenstraw, from a swamp in the floor 
of another such ancient through-cut valley now half filled 
up with Drift ; and from the same swamp flows northward 
a stream into the north branch of French creek. The hill 
w^alls at the New York State line rise 150' above the valley 
floor. 

LeBoevf creek and Elk creek head in Tamarack swamp 
in such a cut through the Great Divide, as already men- 
tioned. 

Conneaut lake and swamp, and Pymatuning swamp, 
both already described, repeat, on a much larger scale, this 



SURFACE ROCKS. Q^ 37 

phenomenon which has atti-acted the attention and has ex- 
cited the curiosity of intelligent inhabitants of Erie and 
Crawford counties, who demand some geological explana- 
tion. 

This must take one or both of two shapes : Either 1, these 
ancient duried valleys were excavated by ancient rivers 
flowing from one to three and even four hundred feet be- 
neath the present valley Drift floors ; or, 2, they have been 
excavated by the great southward moving Canadian Ice 
sheet, which as it retreated filled them up again with the 
ti'ash which it carried ; or 3, they were first excavated by 
preglacial rivers, then deepened and widened more or less, 
and grooved and scratched and polished by the ice, and 
filled with its moraine matter to the present levels. 

Some geologists assign a higher and others a lower degree 
of eroding power to moving or glacial ice. Even in the 
Alps, where the whole process of cutting and carrying and 
dropping is seen going on — where the production of medial, 
lateral and terminal moraines can be watched — where the 
thickness, rate of motion, and change of constitution from 
snow to nev&^ from neH to blue banded ice have been meas- 
ered and calculated — where d&hacles or avalanches of ice, 
rocks, mud and water periodically occur, and spread fresh 
layers of Drift over cultivated valley floors, constructing 
swamps and lakes behind ridges, and then filling them up 
again — where, in fact, geologists have been' trying for many 
years to define accurately the erosive force and rate of action 
of glaciers — they have not yet succeeded in agreeing about 
either of these. It is impossible therefore to speak with 
any confidence about them in such a region as Erie and 
Crawford counties from the surface of which the Northern 
Ice disappeared many ages ago. 

Mr. John F. Carll has stated his view of the subject and 
given a large amount of data to support it in his Report I.I.I, 
in which he assigns the buried water-ways to ancient rivers, 
draining northwestern Pennsylvania towards Lake Erie. 

My conviction is that Erie and Crawford counties could 
not have been drained in that direction ; and therefore that 



38 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

the buried water-ways must have owed their origin to the 
plowiug power of Ice. 

Terraces. 

The Beaver river terraces do not reach Erie and Craw- 
ford counties. The streams usually meander between banks 
15' or 20' high, in a broad and often nearly level flood plain, 
with nothing to indicate successive stages of erosion, and 
edging sharply against the hill slopes ; and these also show 
no terraces.* 

Along the Lake Erie front there are many fragmentary 
and obscure remains of old terraces, marking ancient higher 
levels of the lake surface. 

From the top of the bluff east of the Ohio Line the land 
slopes upward regularly and very gently, covered with a 
continuous beach-sand and shore-shingle deposit to SOC 
above tide,t proving that the level of the lake used to beat 
least (about) 225' higher than at present. 

Going eastward along the shore the Bluff gets continu- 
ally higher, and often rises abruptly to 80', 100', or even 
125', and from its top the land has a gentle slope to the foot 
hills at from 400' to 450' (950'-1000' A. T.) 

East of Erie this sloping plain has been left more in its 
original condition, because the streams are small and cut 
straight down through it to the lake. A spectator placed 
near Belle Valley and looking eastward sees it as a contin- 
uous flat (1000' A. T.), from which (south) rises an irregu- 
lar escarpment of higher land on which I could find no 
shore deposits ; but on the flat itself beach sand, &c. has 
been left in many places. 

In Harbor Creek and western Northeast townships there 
is the nearest approach to a series of terraces, thus : 

1150', a wide level, 3 miles back from the lake ; destitute 
of beach deposits (577' above the lake). 

Abrupt descent northward down to — 

♦ The Ohio and Beaver valleys received at least 125' and possibly SOO' of 
Cham plain clay deposits ; and their reexcavation left terraces. The Craw- 
ford and Erie valleys lie from 400' to 600' higher above tide and escaped both 
processes. 

t Pittsburgh, low water mark, 700'. See Report N, p. 211. 



SURFACE ROCKS. Q*. 39 

1070', the remnants of a terrace, covered with beach sand 
and shingle. The waters of Lake Erie, therefore, must 
have stood above their present level about 500'. 

A rapid descent over a rough escarpment wholly destitute 
of beach deposits^ down to — 

875', the southern upper edge of a very broad sloping 
plain, covered with beach sand^ &c.* 

795'. At the northern lower edge of this plain is a gen- 
uine terrace (the only one I could find along the whole lake 
front) on the township line a short distance north of the 
L. S. & Mich. RR. It is a sharp escarpment of beach sand^ 
40' high, which extends for a long distance parallel to the 
shore. 

765', foot of terrace, covered with yellowish white clay, 
manufactured into bricks. f 

765' to 740', a plain a mile wide to — 

740' top of Bluff, descending steeply to — 

573', water's edge of Lake Erie. 

It is, of course, impossible to assert the former non-exist- 
ence of other benches or terraces at other elevations, on this 
great slope, from 1050' to 573', because such may have ex- 
isted and been obliterated. But it. can be asserted that the 
high level of the lake waters existed after the Ice age, be- 
cause the sand and gravel beach at 875' rests on Northern 
Drifts and must therefore have been formed after the re- 
treat of the ice. 

LaTze basins. 

% 10. All the small lakes, without exception, lie in hol- 
lows in the gurface of the Drift, filling the valleys.:}: All 
of them are shallow. The greatest reported depth, 100', is 

* The top of the highest (4th) terrace of the Ohio and Beaver rivers at New- 
Brighton is given (doubtfully) at 885' in Report Q, Preface, xxvii, and p. 12* 

t At New Brighton the railroad runs along the top of the Second Terrace, 
at about 750'. This not the brick clay terrace of the Ohio; the brick clay there 
is in the Fourth Terrace, at 885'. Q, p. 13. 

X Lakes, ponds, and swamps abound in all those regions of Europe and 
America which are covered with glacial Drift. In fact the southern limit of 
the Ice Deposits can be reoognissed on such maps as represent the lakes and 
ponds of a country. 



40 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

in one place in Conneaut lake. Their surface levels abov^e 
tide, and above Lake Erie, are as follows : 

Ocean, L<Mk^» 

Conneaut lake* (Roberts), lOTC 497' 

Sagar lake (White; barometer), 1280' 707' 

Oil Creek lake (Carll), 1S89' 816' 

Conneautee lake (Carll), 1196' 623' 

LeBoeuf lake (White; bar.), 1180' 607' 

Lake Pleasant (White; bar.), 1325' 762' 

Chautauqua lake, N. Y. (Carll), | ^^ ^^| 

Cassadaga lake, N. Y. (Carll), 1805' 732' 

Lake Erie (Gardner), 573' 0* 

Peat and Marl Beds. 

In many of the bogs of this district an earthy variety of 
peat is now forming, and in some it is tolerably pure. 

At the marl works, above Harmonsburg, on the land of 
Mr. Almon Whiting, 2' to 3' of earthy peat covers the marl, 
and is used in burning, or rather assisting to burn the latter. 

This has been formed from the roots and stems of several 
species of Cyperus^ Carex^ and others of the same family, 
which are still contributing to its growth, as can readily be 
seen where the formation is cut through, 

A small stream of water oozes through the bog, however, 
and in seasons of floods carries down so much sediment 
that the so-called ''peat" is little better than a richly car- 
bonaceous earth, which, when burned with the marl, con- 
tributes a large proportion of insoluble substance of no 
benefit to the soil, and very little that is of any importance 
whatever. 

Under the peat at Mr. Whiting's comes a great bed of 
fresh-water shell marl^ formed from the partiial decay of 
fluviatile shells, principally univalve. The marl is mined 
to a depth of 6' to 8', and Mr. Whiting bored down through 
the deposit to a depth of 22', and still did not pierce its 
bottom. 

The peat bog in which this marl occurs, has now an ele- 
vation of 25' above the present level of Conneaut lake, as 

* Col. W. M. Roberts. 1840. Then (1082 ) behind its artificial embank- 
ments, now in ruins. 



• 



SURFACE ROCKS. Q^ 41 

near as I could determine it by barometer, and there can 
be no doubt that this lake, now 1^ miles distant, once spread 
its waters over the marl beds, since there are about 60 acres 
of the marl on the land of Mr. Whiting, and a large amount 
on the land of Mr. Brown, adjoining, where, according to 
report, a bed of peat was found beneath the marl. 

A collection of the more common shells found in the 
marl deposit was made and forwarded to Mr. George W. 
Try on, Jr., of the Phil. Academy of Science, who kindly 
identified them and sent the subjoined statement : 

"The fluviatile fossil shells from the vicinity of Conne- 
aut lake are all representatives of existing species, which 
ought to be found in the lake, and are found throughout 
the waters of the State. I do not find any of the extinct 
forms which are so abundant at White Pond, Warren Co., 
N. J., a locality which, so far, has furnished sevei-al species 
peculiar to it. The following are the names of the species :" 

Planorbis hlcarinatus^ Say. 

Planordis trivolvis^ Say 

Planorbis campanulatus^ Say. 

Planorbis parvus^ Say. 

Physa heterostropha^ Say. 

Limnaea humilis^ Say. 

Amnicola limosa^ Say. 

Sphoerinum striatinum^ Lam. 

The mode of accumulation of the marl beds is evident. 
There are found running through the marl from the top as 
far down as it has been explored (and presumably to the 
bottom) the stems of the ordinary Pond- weed, or a species 
very closely allied to it. These water plants grew and flour- 
ished in the old lake bottom, and on them countless mil- 
lions of river molluscs fed and found a home just as we now 
see them in the shallower parts of the lake where the water 
grass grows. Their cast-off shells, &c. accumulated and 
were ground together by the waves into a bed of marl. 

As the water grass or pond weed will not grow in water 
of a greater depth than five or six feet — I have myself seen 
none growing in water deeper than four feet — aud as the 



42 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

bed of marl is at least twenty- two feet thick,* the level of 
the lake water surface must have gradually risen during the 
formation of the marl ; and at the same rate ; so as to allow 
the grass always to be growing in a proper depth of water. 
A specimen of the raw marl^ obtained from Mr. Whiting 
and analyzed by Mr. McCreath was composed as follows : 

Ume, 49.129 

Magnesia, 839 

Iron bisulphide, ' • .429 

Oxide of iron, M70 

Alumina, 020 

Potash and soda, 116 

Sulphuric acid, 222 

Phosphoric acid,^ 023 

Carbonic acid, .* 89.356 

Water, 2.190 

Organic matter, 6 .510 

Silica, 1.052 

Total, 100.056 

This marl is a good lime manure^ and that is all ; for the 
phosphoric acid and alkalies are in very small quantities. 

Marl beds are reported to exist in the Conneaut lake creek 
marsh ; and this makes the former extension of Conneaut 
lake in that direction certain. 

* This is the greatest depth reached by exploration, measuring from the old 
bottom of the lake downwards. The marl may be much thicker. 



FORMATIONS. Ql 43 



Chapter IV. 

Order of the Formations. 

The Productive Coal Measures have been eroded from 
Crawford and Erie counties. The universal gentle south 
dip brings them into the hill tops of Mercer, but shoots 
them into the air over Crawford county. How far they 
once extended northwards is unknown. 

The Pottsville Conglomerate^ No. XII, has also been 
largely swept away. Its lower beds (Sharon CTonglomerate) 
form the lower highlands of southern Crawford ; its middle 
beds (Connoquenessing Sandstones) the higher highland ; 
audits topmost beds (Homewood Sandsftone) remain capping 
two of the highest elevations. The areas thus occupied by 
the formation are represented on the geological map by a 
dark grey color surrounded by a rim of red (Shenango Shale 
possibly Mauch Chunky No. XI ?) 

The Pocono and CatsJcill formations, Nos. X and XI, of 
Middle and Eastern Pennsylvania, are apparently repre- 
sented by Shenango^ Meadmlle^ Sharpsville, Orangemlle^ 
Corry and Cassewago beds (in descending order), and per- 
haps also by the Venango Oil Sand Oroup. 

All except the last {Oil Sand) Group are represented, 
without distinction, by the broad belt of light gray which 
covers most parts of Crawford county, the high divide south 
of French creek, and several areas of high land north of it. 

The Venango (Oil Sand) Group forms by its northern 
outcrops the high divide of Erie county overlooking the 
Lake; and its whole southern slope, including the broad lands 
of French creek and its branches, and the valley walls as 
far down as Meadville ; as well as the lands bordering the 
upper waters of Conneaut creek. To this group has been 
assigne'd on the map a separate color for the sake of distinc- 
tion ; and the color selected is that assigned to the CatsJcill 
formation on all the other geological maps published by 
the Survey , although it has not beei; proved that the Ve- 



44 Q*. KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

nango Oil Sand Group is in any i)art of Catskill age ; and 
part is probably of Chemung age. But the absolute unity 
of the group has been amply demonstrated, and is a fact of 
such immense economical imi)ortance, that no option was 
allowed as to giving the group a single and separate section 
of the color scale. 

The Chemung formation (uppermost member of No. 
VIII) outcrops along the northern slope of the great divide 
facing Lake Erie ; and its upper beds occupy the broad flat 
valleys of French creek north branch, and LeBoeuf creek, 
as far down as their junction. Its color on the map is a 
light shade of Vandyke brown. 

The Girard shale heds^ exposed in the cliflfs of the ravines 
descending to the lake, are represented on the map by a 
band of darker brown. 

T7ie Portage formation^ exposed along the lake shore, 
and in the ravines, is represented on the map by a still 
darker tint of brown. The top of this formation appears 
above water-level about 2 miles east of the Ohio State line, 
and gradually rises eastward until 475 feet of Portage beds 
are seen at the New York State line. The whole thick- 
ness of the formation in New York is about 1400'. About 
1200' of it are therefore under ground at Erie. 

The Genesee^ Hamilton^ Marcellus^ Upper Helderhurg^ 
and OrLsJcany formations lie still deeper ;* and underneath 
these lie the Silurian formations, which rise to the surface 
in Canada and Middle New York, viz : The Lower Helder- 
herg^ Niagara^ Onondaga^ Clinton^ Medina^ and Oneida; 
beneath which lie the Cambrian or Siluro-cambrian forma- 
tions, viz : The Hudson river^ Utica^ Trenton^ Calciferous, 
and Potsdam^ w^hich last lies upon the Huronian system. 

A vertical section of the formations, with their subdi- 
visions, names, characters, thicknesses, and coloration will 
be found on the side of the geological map accompanying 
this report. 

* From Chemung to Lower Helderburg is No. VIII. The Oriskany is No. 
VII. All including Catskill above and Oriskany below (i. c, IX, VIII, and 
VII) are commonly known as the Devonian system. 






Chapter V. 
Dip of the Rocks, 

{^With a discussion of the data by J, P. Lesley,) 

The only instance of dip towards the north which I have 
found occurs in the center of Erie county, two miles south 
of McKean's Corners. Here, for a short distance only, a 
very slight northward fall of the rocks towards the lake 
can be detected. 

Everywhere, throughout both counties, the strata appears 
to be horizontal, but in reality possess an exceedingly gen- 
tle dip southward, away from the lake and towards the 
Allegheny and Ohio rivers. 

In obedience to this southward slope, higher and higher 
formations make their appearance in belts across the coun- 
try, as shown upon the map. And this continues to be the 
case all the way south to the Ohio river, and in fact to West 
Virginia. 

No anticUnals and synclinals^ such as make so marked 
a feature of almost all other geological districts of western 
Pennsylvania, and play so important a role in the distri- 
bution of the surface outcrops, exist here. If there be any 
anticlinal and synclinal undulations at all in Erie and Craw- 
ford counties they are so exceedingly flat that nothing short 
of an expensive system of measured borings, connected by 
instrumental surveys, would suffice to reveal their presence, 
measure their force, and determine their direction ; which, 
by the way, should be from northeast to southwest, at some 
angle approximately parallel to the anticlinal rolls of Clar- 
ion, Butler, and Beaver counties. 

The force of the general dip southwards^ between Lake 
Erie and Franklin in Venango county, was estimated dur- 
ing the First Geological Survey of the State, forty-three 
years ago, by James T. Hodge, at one seventh of one degree^ 
or about 14' per mile. 

(45 Q*.) 



46 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The following tables embody the data, obtained by my 
recent survey, for recalculating the rate of the general dip 
on lines running approximately due south. 

A. Along the 'meridian of Corry 

Shenanffo SatuUtoue (6a«e.) 

Mile8. A. T. Bat'. 

One mile south of Corry,* 1950' 

East of OU City, 36 1216' 25' 

B. Along the Meridian of Cambridge. 

Shenango Sandstone {base.) 

Reynold's quarry, Summit T. Erie Co.,t 1985' 

Shreok'Sy at Crawford-Meroer line, 32 1315' 21' 

C. Along the Meridian of Conneaut lake. 

Shenango Sandstone (base.) 
Three miles east of Cranesville, J . ! 1760' 



Three miles west of Atlantic Station, 80 1236' 17 



D. From Erie to the Ohio river 

At Erie.— Lake surface, 673' 

Portage rocks visible, 220' 

Girard arid Chemung, 650' 

Third Oil S. seven miles 8. of Erie, 1343' 

Beaver Falls Economy well mouth, 735 

Third Oil Sand in well, down, 1090' 



/ 



V 



liKf 



—356 

Fall of Third Oil Sand, 1698' 

Distance in miles, 86 

Mate of fall, as thus calculated, ^ g& 

*The elevation is here calculated in the air at 210' above the Corry Sand- 
stone 1740' A. T. (above tide.) 

t Elevation calculated in the air by adding 675' average interval between 
Third Oil Sand (here 1310') and 8henango Sandstone. 

J Elevation here calculated by adding 675'; Third Oil Sand being 1075'. 

§ Or by using the known fall of the Ferriferous Limestone from Beaver falls 
to Rochester 137', the total fall of 137'+1698'=1835' in 89 miles, would be at 
the rate of 20^' per mile. 



GENERAL DIP. Q^ 47 

E, From Lake Erie to the OJiio river. 

' {666' 



Ohio low water and Ferriferous Limestone ; 
Rochester,* at mouth of Beaver river ; . . 

Down to Shenango SS. 400', 

Down to base of Third Oil Sand, 676', . 

Down to top of Portage fiag8, 660', . . 



266' 
—409' 
—999' 



Top of Portage jlaga at Erie above Lake, 220', -|-793' 

Fall of top of Portage from Erie to Rochester, 1792' 

Distance, South 6^ West, in miles, 96 

Rate of f ally as thus calculatedy] 18 .66' 

As it is impossible for the eye of a field geologist to detect 
a dip of even much greater value than those arrived at by 
the above calculations — as broad intervals of no exposures 
occur, and as changes of deposit within unknown limits are 
also frequent, or rather universal — it is quite possible many 
slight variations in the rate of dip, and even exceedingly 
delicate undulations, may exist, unimportant in their details 
but yet exerting a decided influence on tlie calculations of 
rock intervals, and even on the topography. 

If such undulations exist we should expect their axis- 
lines to run east and west, or rather at some angle of the 
compass between south and west ; X and to one of these may 
possibly be due the topography of the South Branch of 
French creek. 

Comparing Table A above with the following Table F it 
will be apparent that there must exist some such variations : 

E. On the meridian of Franklin. 

Third Oil Sand. 

A. T. 

Erie Divide, N. Y. State line, 1600'i: 

Franklin, Venango county, § 421' 

Fall, 1180 ± 

Distance in miles, 66' 

Rate of dip southward per mile, . . 21' 

*Same as at Beaver, 666'. N, p. 211. 

f A slight thickening of the formations southwards is not regarded. The in- 
terval thicknesses were obtained along the whole line, and grouped. 

X Mr. Carll has found reasons for suspecting the existence of such undula- 
tions, running east and west in Warren county. 

§ Report I.I.I. CarU, 1879, Plate VI, Fig. 28. 



48 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

According to the rate given along very nearly the same 
meridian in Table A, viz : 25' for the 36 miles from Corry 
to Oil City, the Third Oil Sand should rise in the 56 miles 
north of Franklin 1400', and stand at (1400'+421') 1821' in- 
stead of 1600' A. T. overlooking the lake. The loss of 221' 
can only be accounted for by supposing something equiva- 
lent to a belt of Jiorizontality somewhere between Franklin 
and Lake Erie nine {9) miles wide^ which would more than 
cover the South Branch French creek topography. Or, by 
diminishing the width of this belt to 4 or 5 miles we are 
entirely at liberty to suppose a narrow belt of gentle north 
dip, which would make the South Branch actually drain 
along a trough. 

The following tables show the slope of the stratification 
from east to west : 

G, Along the parallel of Wattshurg, 

Third Oil Sand (base.) 

Miles, A, T, Per mile: 

At Wattsburg, N. Br. French oreek, 1876' 

Near McKean's Corners, 16 1200' 11' 

If, Along the Erie-Crawford Co. line. 

^ Third Oil Sand.. 

N. of MiU Pond, Oil creek, 1175' 

N. of Spring P. O., 36 925' 7' 

/. Along the parallel of Meadville. 

Shenango Sandstone. 



I 



a, I mile below Tidioute, Warren co 1600 

6. 5milesN. ofTitusville, 11 1645' 6' 

c. Townville 12 1610' 3' 

d. l\ miles N. of Meadville, 13 1470' 8' 

e. Ohio State line, * 20 1375' 4.76' 

a tod, 36 (Fan 130') 3.6' 

a toe, 57 (Fall 225?) 8.8'? 

K, Along the parallel of FranJclin. 

Shenango Sandstone (base.) 

Franklin, Venango oo., 1095' 

Shenango village, Mercer CO., 30 1090' 0.2' 

* Here the elevation A. T. is calculated in the air from the next outcrop. 



GENERAL DIP. Q^. 49 

The rate of the dip along east and west lines is therefore 
not constant over the region, but diminishes southward, 
from IV per mile to almost nothing. The four parallels of 
latitude to which the table attach are distant from each 
other respectively 10, 14, and 18 miles. 

As there are two pairs of observations, one in the Third 
Oil Sand, and the other in the Shenango Sandstone, 675' 
above it ; and as both pairs obey the same law, it ought to 
govern all four, whether the two sands keep a constant dis- 
tance of 675' apart or not. * 

But this conclusion does not seem supported by the two 
following tables of elevations observed along two parallel 
lines 30 miles apart, both trending S. 65° W. ; one along the 
Lake Erie shore ; the other from Garland, in Warren county, 
to Jamestown, in the southwest corner of Crawford. 

L. Along the Lake SJiore^ S. 65° W, 

PortcLge flags (top). 

A, T. 

New York State line, 476' above the lake, 104S' 

Near the Ohio State line— lake level, 573' 

Fall of the top layers of the Portage, 475' 

Distance in miles, 40' 

Rate of fall S. 65© W. per mile, 12' 

M. From Oarland to Jamestown^ S. 65"^ W. 

Sharon Conglomerate. 

A. T, 

Garland, 6 m. E. of Crawford- Warren line,t 1833' 

Jamestown-Adamsvillehill,:|: 1250'± 

Fall of Sharon Conglomerate, 583' 

Distance in miles, 54' 

Rate of fall S. 650 W. per mile, 11' 

* These results agree with others obtained by a similar comparison of ele- 
vations at the outcrops of other rocks in the series, especially at the outcrops 
of the very persistent Mcadville Lower Limestone^ the exposures of which, 
however, are less numerous than those of the great sandrooks, and, therefore, 
the lines of comparison are shorter. 

t Report I., Uarll, p. 38. 

X Report Q^, Wliite, pp. 198, IW. 

4Q*. 



60 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Considering the length and parallelism of these lines, the 
agreement of their average rates of fall (westward) is very 
striking and important; and all the more so, seeing that 
the Sharon Conglomerate overlies the Portage flags by 
about 1250'. 

As undulations from the south northward have been 
shown to be probable, iso it is possible that delicate undu- 
lations from the east westward may exist. But as the gen- 
eral dip towards the south and the general dip towards the 
west must be satisfied by one resultant general dip towards 
the Southwest^ so a set of undulations north and south and 
a set of undulations east and west may resolve themselves 
into one set of undulations southeast and northwest normal 
in the Appalachian flexures. But this is not necessary. In 
all parts of the State a dimple structure has been demon- 
strated, the main system of flexures being crossed by a 
subordinate system transverse to it, neither of them being 
symmetrical, although obeying a general law. 

This dimple structure is finely shown by the example of 
the Somerset county coal basin map published in Report 
HHH, Piatt, 1877 ; in the patches of Coal Measures on the 
Lycoming and Sullivan county maps, in Report GGr, Piatt, 
1880 ; on the maps of McKean, Clinton, Potter, Tioga and 
Bradford counties in Reports R, Ashburner, 1880, G, Sher- 
wood, 1878, G^ Piatt, 1880, and G^ Chance, 1880. And it 
is now known to be illustrated on an unexpectedly grand 
scale in the Anthracite coal basins, as shown in the map and 
model of the Mahanoy and Shenandoah district lately con- 
structed by Mr. Ashburner. 

The upper northeast end of a synclinal trough in the 
Venango Oil Sand Group is shown by contour lines in the 
four small underground maps of the vicinity of Pleasant- 
ville in Venango county, given on pages 19 and 21 of Report 
I, Carll, 1875. 

These maps instruct us concerning the irregularities which 
must necessarily exist in general dip over a large region 
like that of Erie and Crawford counties, and how the result- 
ant dip shifts often 10°, 20°, or even 50° in a few miles. 



GENERAL DIP. 



Q*. ^1 



One very remarkable result from the above table requires 
a more particular notice. 

The series of east and west lines give diminishing rates of 
west dip^ going south ; thus : 



11' w.. 



»E. 



10 miles. 



7' W.. 



E. 



14 miles. 



4' W.^ 



.E. 



18 miles. 



0' W. 



E. 



The series of north and south lines give diminishing rates 
of south dip going west ; thus . 



N. 



N. 



10 miles. 



S. 
17' 



8. 
21 



N. 



20 miles. 



S. 
25' 



52 Q*. 



REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



These of course agree in showing a warped structure^ as 
if the whole area crossed by these lines had at first been 
horizontal, and then had been tilted by the elevation of its 
northeast corner ; but that in the tilting the northwest cor- 
ner had sagged downwards, or not wholly shared in the 
regular general tilt. And the area crossed by these lines is 
very extensive, being 42 miles long by 30 miles broad, al- 
lowing ample space for many slight undulations, dimples, 
or other undiscoverable slight irregularities. 

But, on the other hand, no siich warped structure is 
shown by the two diagonal lines, S.*65° W. thus : 



S. 650.W. 
12' 






8. 650 W. 
11' 



These seem to show that the whole region has been tilted 
regularly and evenly at its northeast corner^ without any 
warping or sagging — so far as it concerns the geological 
horizon of the top of the Portage Flags — and so far as it 
concerns the geological horizon of the Sharon Conglomer- 
ate, 1250' higher in the series. 

Is it possible then that the warped structure is (Confined 
to some one or more intermediate geological horizons — that 
of the Third Oil Sand for example ? 

From a mechanical point of view this would seem to be 
impossible. 

But from a sedimentary point of view it is quite possible. 

There is then a suggestion of non-comformdbility in the 



GENERAL DIP. Q*. 59 

above tables — supposing, of course, that their data be re- 
liable. 

In other words, it looks as if the sediments overlying the 
Portage were thinner — and the sediments underlying the 
Sharon Conglomerate were thicker — in the northwestern 
region of the general area, than in the eastern and southern 
regions. 

A gradual thinning of the Sub-Carboniferous and De- 
vonian measures from Middle Pennsylvania into Ohio was 
demonstrated by the First Geological Survey, and has been 
amply discussed and illustrated in the Reports of 1875-1880, 
particularly in a special report in G^ Chance, 1880. It ap- 
peared also from the reports of the New York State Survey 
published in 1844, and in the various recent reports of the 
Ohio State survey ; and it must be an important factor in 
all future calculations of dip and thickness where the strati- 
fication approaches the horizontal, as in the Lake Erie re- 
gion. 

The normal directions of dip in Western Pennsylvania 
are northwest and southeast wherever the undulations are 
prominent, with their axes striking N. E. — S. W. 

But beyond the last noteworthy anticlinal crossing But- 
ler, Clarion, Forest and McKean counties the whole coun- 
try to the northwest of it is practically destitute of anticli- 
nals and synclinals, and exhibits not N. W. — S. E. dips but 
a general southwest dip into middle-eastern Ohio. 

To get one single direction for this general dip is impos- 
sible, as it varies ; and its variations are due to a dimple 
structure upon a general southwest slope. 

In Erie county we might assume the direction at S. 80'' 
W. by comparing Table G with Table L. For we have a 
fall-rate of 11', S.65°W. in one, and of 12', S.90°W. in the 
other, and the resultant would be something 12' plus, about 
S.80'W. 

But the one is along the top of the Portage and the other 
is along the horizon of the Third Oil Sand, 550' higher in 
the series. Any thinning of this interval westward would 
materially affect the direction of the resultant. 

In Crawford county we may compare with far more sue- 



54 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

cess tables H and M ; for their lines meet eastward in War- 
ren county ; and they both relate to the Sharon Conglom- 
erate. 

In Table H we have a rate of 7', S.90°W. 

In Table M we have a rate of 11', S.66°W. 

There is no question here qf a resultant between these two 
directions. There must be a still greater rate at any angle 
less than ff5°, 8, W. 

In table A we have a rate of 26' South, (dependent how- 
ever on a calculation of thickness) but relating to the She- 
nango Sandstone which underlies the Sharon Conglomerate 
only a few yards. 

In Table F we have a rate of 2V South, along the line of 
Table A projected to Lake Erie. 

It is possible then that we have south of Corry a Trntxi- 
mum rate of ^5' locally directed southward. 

It is also possible that there is a greater rate than 25' along 
a line west of South. But this cannot stand for a general 
southwest rate for the whole region. 

Mr. Carll' s rate and direction between Tidioute and Rouse- 
ville, 20.7 miles, taken on the upper surface of the Third 
Oil Sand in Venango county, is 21.7', S.45°W.* 

This agrees sufficiently well with the data obtained in 
Erie and Crawford counties, and may be accepted as the 
best general formula to be obtained in the premises. 

And on the basis of a 21.7', S.45°W. the 11' and 12' rates 
of fall along the Lake shore and the Crawford county long 
S.65°W. line come in just right. 

*See Report I, Carll, 1875, p. 18. The elevations are numerous ; all of them 
instrumentally referred from oil well records to Tide level ; and therefore as 
reliable data for the calculation as could be desired. 

[Note, Dec. 22, 1880. I have just received from Prof. J. W. Spencer of Win- 
sor, N. S., his triangulated dip of the top of the Niagara limestone from the 
west end of Lake Ontario S.20O W.— rate 25^ to the mile.— J. P. L.J 



POTTSVILLE CONGLOMERATE. Q^ 55 



Chapter VI. 
Pottsville Conglomerate, No. XII. 
This great fonnation of Eastern and Middle Pennsylvania, 
Maryland and Virginia, is represented along the southern 
border of Crawford county, by four more or less massive, 
and sometimes pebbly sandstone deposits separated by softer 
shaly layers, which in the neighboring counties hold beds 
of coal, limestone and iron ore, as shown in the following 
generalized section, Fig. 8 : 



HOMBWOOD Sandbtonb, . 



( Upper Sandstone, 



CoBNOtjUBNBasiNO, { Q.uakertown beds, . 

I 

t Lower SANDSTONE, 

■ Upper iron shales, 

Coal, 

Sbarok, { 

Lover shales, 5 

GONaLOMBRATB, .20 

Average total in Crawford nouiity. 



Homewood > 

This deposit, which is of such importance in every part 
of the Bituminous and Anthracite coal fields of Pennsyl- 
vania, haa been almost entirely eroded from the snrface of 
the Lake Erie region, and the few fragments of it which re- 



56 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

main along the southern edge of Crawford county, in the 
highest summits, are concealed beneath a covering of 
Northern Drift. 

Where the Fairfield-Greenwood township line joins the 
county line, a coal boring on a small hill top went through 
50' of sandstone, probably the Homewood, 

In Wayne township, south of Sugar lake, near the county 
line, a Drift-covered hill top, rising 325' above the Shenango 
sandstone^ ought to hold the Homewood. 

Mercer Chovp. 

The Mercer shales (60' to 70' thick in Lawrence and Mer- 
cer counties, with three or four coal beds, and two lime- 
stones), appear along the southern border of Crawford 
county only as sandy shales, everywhere concealed by the 
Drift ; but a drill-hole near the southwest corner of Fair- 
field reported a few inches of coaly substance (no lime- 
stone) in 30' of shales. 

Gonnoquenessing Upper Sandstone. 

This rock caps a number of high knobs. 

On Culver and Dyce's knob, in the middle of Greenwood, 
1400' A. T., large masses of grayish-white pebbly sand- 
stone lie 130' above the Sharon coal opened in the flats 
below. 

Jno. Shepard's knob, in E. Fallowfield, 1420' A. T., is 
capped with massive white sandstone, 125' above the Sharon 
coal. 

Several hills in Fairfield towards French creek and Con- 
neaut lake are capped by it. 

Voison's quarry, on the south side of a high ridge in 
Randolph, shows 30' of very hard, white, tolerably coarse- 
grained sandstone. Top of rock about 1550' A. T. 

McCartney's ledge, near Randolph P. O. The upper sur- 
face of the white, coarse sandstone is scored with glacial 
furrows. Top of rock 1650' A. T. Dip for five miles to 
Voison's, south, 20' per mile. 

Powers' knob, 2 miles east and a little north of McCart- 



POITSVILLE CONGLOMERATE. Q^ 67 

ney's ledge, at the southern edge of Richmond, is capped 
with white sandstone ; 30' visible ; top 1650' A. T.* 

Honey-comh rock, — In Troy and Steuben townships where 
the hills often rise above the horizon of this stratum, there 
are often found great numbers of small bowlders of a sand- 
stone which is pitted with small cavities in such a manner 
as to give it a rude resemblance to honey-comb, or more ac- 
curately, to a hornet's nest. The small cavities seem to be 
filled with a ferruginous clayey material which readily 
crumbles and falls out when it is exposed by fracture and 
thus leaves the sandstone punctured with numerous small 
holes \" to f in diameter. 

At Franklin in Venango county, away back in the hills 
somewhere, therp is a quarry in a stratum that is marked 
in exactly the same manner. It is used for railroad bal- 
last along tlje Allegheny valley, and it always presents 
this same peculiar appearance. I have never had the op- 
portunity to go up to the quarry n^r Franklin, but it lies 
probably 200-250' above the Shenango Sandstone which is 
the lower quarry rock there, and from this fact I have 
thought it possible that the " pitted " sandstone at Frank- 
lin may be identical with the Upper Connoquenessing ; but 
whatever the rock may be the blocks scattered over the east- 
em portion of this district have evidently come from the 
same bed ; and the fact that they are found 20 miles and 
more away from Franklin shows that this peculiar structure 
must have been characteristic over a wide extent. The sub- 
ject deserves further investigation at Franklin, and perhaps 
the stratum may be identified by this peculiar feature far 
to the eastward. 

QuaJcertown Shales. 

The Quakertown coal exists in the Voison Knob, S. W. 
corner of Randolph ; since lumps pf outcrop coal are found 
in th,e large spring under the quarried sandstone. 

Elsewhere its outcrop is always concealed by sandstone 
fragments fallen from above. 

* If this be the Conn, Upper SS., it ought to be bigher than McCartney's. 
It is probably, therefore, the Conn. Lower SS. which would agree with the 
fact that the Shenango SS, is seen just west of it, only 200' lower. 



58 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

A coal bed opened in Pine Knoll, Wayne, and a coal bed 
opened south of Sugar Lake, which I at first identified with 
the Qudkei town coal oi Mercer county, 180' above the Mead- 
ville Upper Limestone, I afterwards saw cause to identify 
with the Sharari coal. 

The Quakertown iron ore of Mercer county lias not been 
seen in Crawford. 

Connoqiienessing Lower Sandstone. » 

This rock is seen at several localities along the southern 
border and is nearly always a very hard, coarse, sometimes 
pebbly, often micaceous, grayish brown sandstone, with oc- 
casionally a tinge of buflf. 

On Miller's land, S. line of E. Fallowfield, it overlies the 
Sharon coal 15', and is 40' thick ; disintegrating on expos- 
ure to the weather. 

At McEn tire's, further north, in E. Fallowfield, only 10' 
of it remains (from 6' to 10' above the Sharon coal) broken 
into large and small fragments, perhaps by the passage of 
the Northern Ice. 

At the top of Pine Knoll, west part of Wayne, it overlies 
a worked coal bed, and is crushed to fragments. It is here 
a very coarse, micaceous stone, readily disintegrating under 
the weather. 

On Wentworth's and other farms south of Sugar lake, 
and on McDaniel's land at old Liberty Furnace, across the 
Venango county line, it is visible. 

The Connoqvenessing Lower Sandstone is sometimes it- 
self divisible into two, separated by 20' or 30' of shale ; its 
lower sandy mass then forming the roof of the Sharon coal 
bed. 

Sharon Upper {Iron) Shales. 

Owing to the very limited extent of the Sharon coal in 
this district, the usual iron hearing shales y so often seen 
above it in the Mahoning and Shenango valleys, are but 
seldom exposed, and have yielded iron ore only in two in- 
stances. • 

At Jas. M. Snodgrass's near Jamestown, in S. Shenango, 



P0TT8VILLE CONGLOMERATE. Q^. 59 

a 2' solid iron ore bed, covered by 4' blue shale, was stripped 
from the hill top, and sent to Greenville & Middlesex; fur- 
naces. The ore, lying in dish shaped depressions, frequent- 
ly ran out. 

A thin coal bed underlies, the ore, and may represent a 
rider of the Sharon coal^ as often happens in Mercer county. 
It lies 140' above the base of the Slieaango Sandstone in 
the hollow to the west.* 

At McDaniel's on Sugar creek and the Venango county 
line, a rich carbonate iron ore bed^ V has been stripped and 
drifted into for Liberty furnace. The shales above it hold 
much Kidney ore^ which was also mined. The Sharon coal 
lies 20' under it. 

This iron ore horizon might doubtless be found workable 
at other places along the southern edge of Crawford county, 
but I could hear of no explorations for it. 

Sharon Coal. 

This coal bed, so important in Mercer county, and across 
the State of Ohio, is thin and poor and appears only at in- 
tervals around the edges of the high isolated areas of Con- 
glomerate, in Crawford county ; but its theoretical outcrop 
is marked by a continuous dotted black line upon the map. 

Except in a few isolated knobs which catch it in their 
summits further north, it is confined to the southern tier of 
townships in Crawford county ; and as a workable bed it is 
almost confined to East Fallowfield, through the hills of 
which it spreads pretty generally and regularly. 

At 0. K. Millef s mine near the county line (where sev- 
eral hundred tons were taken out before bad drainage spoiled 
the workings) the bed varies from 3' to a few inches, and 
in some directions to nothing. It is somewhat slaty, but a 
genuine "block coal" as in the Mahoning and Shenango 
vallevs. 

It lies in 25' of shales ; 15' over it is seen the base of 40' 
of Conn. L, SS. ; 10' under it is seen the top of the massive 
Sharon Conglomerate^ here very pebbly. 

*I have never seen the Sharon coal itself,^ in the vaUey to the south, more 
than 100' above the base of the Shenango sandstone ; bat on the edges of the 
old ooal swamps the ooal sometimes rises 40' or 50' in a few rods. 




60 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE* 

The McEniire settlement^ two miles north of Miller's 
mine, furnished coal at an early day which was hauled to 
Meadville. 

Jesse MoEntire's coal was chiefly stripped ; 20' of shales 
and broken sandstone were sometimes thrown off, and then 
gangways were driven in the bed. 

Jas. M. McEntire on the adjoining farm, described his 
coal bed to me thus. Fig. 3 : 



Cannel, impure, 6' 

Block ooal, 4' 

Total thickness, 10' 



The upper bench was really a bituminous shale, although 
it could be burned, and very variable, often running down 
to nothing. 

The lower bench also varies frequently between a maxi- 
mum of 4' and nothing. * 

These McEntire mines were long ago exhausted. 

Sharon coal bed floor, is here, 1330' a. T. 

Sharon conglomerate, 10' lower, 1320' 

Shenango sandstone, 75' lower, 1255' 

In Greenwood township several boring, have reported the 
Sharon coal. 

In Union township Huber & Clippel stripped a few tons 
from the steep slope of Dutch Hill, a high knob half a mile 
from French creek. 

Sharon coal bed is here, 1440' A. T. 

Shenango SS. (base,) 95' lower, 1345' 

Meadville U. Limestone^ 135' lower, 1305' 

French creek level, 385' lower, 1055' 

On the opposite slopes of French creek valley, two miles 
distant, t Byhm's shaft was sunk in 1878. Under 55' Drift 

*The identity of this ooal with the Sharon is proved by the Conglomerate 
outcrop under it, and Jackson's quarry in the Shenango sandstone, full of 
ball ore and tish remains, 75' below it, to the west. 

t Near the north line of E. Fairfield, on Byhm's land ; shaft sunk by Mr. 
Lewis of Pardee. 



P0TT8VILLE CONGLOMERATE. Q*. 61 

it reached the coal bed where the glacial movement had 
crushed it into an unminable condition. 

Sharon coal bed is here, 1445' A. T. 

Shenanffo sandstone (baee} 125' lower, 1320' 

Meadville U. Limestone, 100' lower 1285' 

In Mead township, three or four water wells report the 
coal bed, always under Drift and in a broken up condition : 
In Wright's well, 2^ milesdue east from Meadville, under 25' 

of Drift, ... 1545' A. T. 

Andin Boyles well, eouttiofthelaat, ISIS" 

In Wayne township (southwest part) on the summit of 
Pine Knoll, where the coal has been worked on a small scale 
for a long time, many holes have been 4. 

bored and the gangway has been carried 
far into the hill, and the outcrop tlioroughly 
explored, but nothing has been made of 
the bed better than as represented in the 
following Peter Mentro section, Fig. 4 : 

Conn. L. SS. onarae and pebbly, . . 15' 
Sharon shales, tBndy, 10' 



Sharon coal bed 1 ' 1475' 

Meadville U. L. (1 m. 89,W.) . . 1300' 

That this is the Sharon and not the Qua- 
kertown coal (as I at tirst thought, on ac- 
count of the 175' interval below it), is prov- 
ed by the normal dip of (1475' — 1445') 30' 
from here to Byhm' s shaft, 6 miles west. 

The interval {Sharon coal down to Mead. U. L.) has a 
regular thickening eastward, as shown thus : * 

At McEatire settlement, 120 

At Huber'a, in Union, 10 miles, 185' 

At Byhm's abaft, 2 " IflO' 

At Pine Knoll, 6 '■ 175' 

Total IncreaBB in 18 " 55' 



• A part; of thin increment is probably due to the thickening of the Sharon 
OonglOTneraie eastward in Warren, where it ia the great Qarland Congloin- 
trate ot Mr. Carll'a reports, and Into MoKean, where It Is tbe atill more 
massive 0!ean Conglomerate of Mr. Aahbumer'B reports. 




62 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

In the Wentworth oil boring (S. E. edge of Wayne) the 
SJtaron coal hed was reported, at a depth of 55', thus :;— (A.) 

Coalf upper bench, 1- . . . 10" 

Cannel slate parting, . . . . • 6' . . 4' 0" 

Coalf lower bench, 2' ... 1' 6' 

I tested the accuracy of the driller's report by a section, 
Fig. 5 (B), at an old Liberty Furnace opening, on a branch 
of Deckard's run, a mile distant, just over the Venango 
county line. Here the slaty parting could be burned. * Both 
top and bottom benches looked like block coal, free from 
sulphur. 

Sharon eoal^ here, 1460' A. T. 

Meadville Upper i., 180' lower, 1280' 

showing a further slight increase of the interval in an east- 
ward direction. 

In Troy and Steuben townships numerous highlands rise 
high enough to catch the Sharon coal, but it has not been 
found, nor indeed much looked after. 

Sharon Lower Shales. 

Fireclay underlies the Sharon coal bed, and rests on 
shales, whicli sometimes graduate downward into the Sha- 
ron Conglomerate series. The interval between the bottom 
of the coal and the top of the solid sandstone varies from 
5' to 15'. ^ 

Sharon Conglomerate. 

This wide spread deposit of sand and pebbles of quartz, 
has been surveyed throughout the whole extent of the 
western and northern counties of Pennsylvania from the 
Ohio river to Potter and Tioga counties, and is the accepted 
representative of the whole or of the lower part of the Ohio 
Conglomerate. 

In Warren and Venango counties it is known under the 
name of Garland Conglomerate. 

* I found in this slate a species of Lingula not distinguishable from L. New- 
berryiii Hall ; found in the Cuyahoga shale formation of Ohio. 



POTl'SVILLE CONGLOMERATE. 



Q*. 63 



I 



In McKean, Forest, Elk, Cameron, Clinton, and Potter 
counties it is known as the Olean Conglomerate. 

In the Clarion, Butler, Mercer, Lawrence, and Beaver re- 
ports it is called the Sharon Conglomerate. 

In the nomenclature of the Oil drillers it is the Second 
MouNTA IN Sand. * 

In Crawford county it is exhibited in a remarkably satis- 
factory and complete manner, by the Meadville quarries, 
in the College Hill, where it is plainly divis- 
ible into an upper and a lower member, as 
shown by the following section, Fig. 6 : 

Here building stone layers, with an occa- 
sional pebble, occupy the upper 35'; and 
the lower 10' is a conglomerated mass of 
quartz pebbles. 

This subdivision is by no means a uni- 
versal feature of the deposit, but recurs in 
so many places that its significance should 
be studied. It is a marked feature of the 
fonnation at Sharon in Mercer county, 
where 8' of white sandstone cover 9' of peb- 
ble rock ; and at the fine cliflfs of the Cuya- 
hoya river in Ohio. 

It characterizes the few exposures which 
I have happened to encounter in Warren, 
Venango, and Forest counties. And, so 
far as I know, wherever the formation con- 
tains a considerable amount of pebbles they 
are vastly more numerous at and a few feet 
above its base ; and also larger. 

At Meadville the upper beds are of a 
rather hard, coarse, dull gray sandstone 
(often reddish when first quarried), contain- . 
ing an occasional pebble of quartz ; but 
building stone free from pebbles can usually 
be got by not quarrying down too low. 



J^ 



• v» 



'o'\ 



10 



♦ V » » v ^. », 



'¥m7 



[*In the Anthracite Coal Fields it is probably represented by the bottom 
layers of the Conglomerate No. XII underlying the Lykens Valley Coal bed. 
For a disoassion of its relationships in Armstrong, Indiana, Westmoreland, 
and Fayette, see my preface to Report H% W. G. Piatt, 1880, J. P. L.] 



64 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The building material obtained from it is quite durable 
when nothing but the homogeneous sandstone is used ; but 
toward the lower portion, where the pebbles increase in num- 
ber and begin to be scattered through the matrix, the sand- 
grains become quite coarse and seem to have little power of 
coherence, since they I'apidly break loose from each other 
on exposure, and the sandstone soon decays. 

The Methodist Episcopal stone church in Meadville seems 
to have had rock of this character built into many portions 
of its structure, and the more exposed parts of the building 
such as the copings, door, and window fixtures, are alreadj^ 
showing signs of disintegration. Great care should be 
taken in putting up a stone structure from this rock that 
no pebbles enter into the composition of any material ex- 
posed to the action of the weather. 

In some of the quarries at Meadville 30' of this upper di- 
vision is taken out. 

The lower division, as seen along the by-road passing up 
to the quarries, is a perfect mass of quartz pebbles, varying 
in size from a pea up to a hen's egg, and always egg-shaped^ 
never flattened or worn into thin forms such as we often see 
in the conglomerates which come in the series below this 
horizon. 

The matrix of these pebbles is a coarse greenish -grey sand 
which disintegrates very readily and lets the imbedded peb- 
bles drop out in a loose heap around the outcrop. 

A peculiar lithology, different from that of any other 
rock in the Conglomerate series, distinguishes the Sharon 
Conglomerate^ so that a person who has once learned to know 
it can rarely fail to recognize it even in scattered fragments ; 
this is especially the case with that portion of the stratum 
containing most pebbles. 

The size of the pebbles seems to increase going east ; for the 
largest seen by me in Crawford county, was not larger than 
a hen's egg ; whereas along the Allegheny river above Tid- 
ioute, I have seen many pebbles as large as a goose egg. 

The areas surrounded by local outcrops of Sharon Con- 
glomerate are shown upon the colored geological map of 
Crawford county, accompanying this report. The largest 



POTTSVILLE GONGLOMERATE. Q*. 65 

and longest are west of the meridian of Little Cooley and 
Townville. Between that meridian and the Warren countv 
line, in the upper Oil creek country, only small isolated 
patches of the rock have been left. 

VariahiUty, — These variations of erosion are mostly due 
to variations in the lithological constitution of the forma- 
tion ; for, instead of being as thick and massive every- 
where as it is at Meadville, it changes in many places to a 
series of thin bedded fine grained .sandstones, hardly less 
capable of resisting erosion than the formations underneath 
it. It is not unfrequently considerably current-bedded ; as 
for example at Henry's quarry in E. Fallowfield. 

Fossils, — And here also the top layer is honey- combed, 
apparently from the decomposition of the erect stems of a 
seaweed (f ucoid) ;* and it contains also fragments of the 
scales and bones of fish. 

The general northern outcrop of the Sharon Conglom- 
erate as a formation, or the line along the northern ends of 
all its separate areas, crosses Crawford county from its south- 
west corner to its northeast corner, and continues in the 
same (about N. 63^ E) direction to the northeast corner of 
Warren county. 

The elevations above tide along this line increase in that 
direction. 

At the Mclntire settlement («op), 1330' A. T. 

At MeadviUe, (bar.) 468' above RR. (<'p), 1548' 

At Garland, in Warren oo. (Carll's spirit levels) (6cwe), . . 1529' 

At Pleasantville in Venango county, It is the 45' sand in 
the Ennis well section, No. 21, Report I, Carll, 1875', p. 35 
{top 15^3',) . 

At Fagundus and Tidioute, I saw it as a great pebble 
rock capping the hills along the Allegheny river. 

At Franklin I find it in the first massive sandstone above 
the Franklin quarries, 170' above French creek, and there- 
fore about 1140', A. T. 

♦Remains of land plants I have never seen (except as undeterminable 
fragments) in this rook ; although multitudes of Lepidodendron Gaspianum, 
Dawson, (?) occur at Snod grass* quarry near Jamestown, near the top of the 
Shenango shales^ if not confined to them; for, in this quarry the Sharon Con- 
glomerate grows flaggy towards its base and passes insensibly down into She- 
nango shale beds, 

5 Qi 



66 Ql 



REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



Oeneralized section. 



8HENAN60, . * 



Sandstone ; maaedye ; JUh hedy . 25' 



( Upper shale^ 25. 

MeadviUCt . . -^ Upper Limestone ; fish bed, . . 1' 

( Lower shale, 40* 



Sharpsvilley . < 



Upper fiagSj SC 



Meadville Lower Limestone, . 2' 
, Lower flags, 12' 



Orangeville shale, 76' 



COBBT SANDSTONE, 



20' 



CUSSEWAQO, . * 



' Upper shales, 6' 

Limestone, 2' 

Middle shales and flags, ... SO 



Sandstone,* 26' 



Biceville shales, 80' 



Venango, < 



( Upper SS. (Ji'irst Oil Sand), 20' ^ 

Upper blue shales, .... 100' 

Middle SS. (Second O. S.), 20' 

Lower shales, \^^* - ^^' l HO' 
* ( blue, 125' S 

LowEB SS. (Third O. &), . 30' 



[si(y 



7. 



Shale, 60 ^ 



'AO 



tuum:^ 



'«5 



40 



f^ '^"^u 



w/y:m:'^^3^'aav^ 



\^fiA'^I^^A 



.lOO 



^MSifff^^i^'f. 



Ql 



*Mr. Carll has shown how it came to pass that this was named the First Oil 
Sand by the drilling in the Butler Fourth Sand cross belt ; the sand below it 
thereby becoming Seoond, Third and Fourth sands respectively. Report I.I.I. 



Chapter VII. 

Suhconglomerate Formations. 

This indefinite term must be applied for the present to a 
series of deposits underlying the Sharon Conglomerate in 
Crawford and Erie counties, and resting on the Venango 
Oil Sand Group. 

The belt of country in which they appear at the surface 
is exhibited by the light gray color on the geological map 
accompanying this report. 

They make most of the uplands of Crawford county, and 
a few of those in southeastern Erie ; while the. valleys be- 
tween are occupied, and the high divide overlooking Lake 
Erie is made, by the Venango Oil Sand Oroup, 

The generalized section. Fig. 7, given belo>v (in which is 
included that of the V. O. S. Group), will represent the 
series pretty accurately everywhere in the region, although 
innumerable local slight variations occur, both in the char- 
acter and in the thickness of its several members. 

The series may be subdivided into three groups, thus : 



SUB-CONGIiOMERATE, < 



' Shenango group, 75' ' 

Meadvxlle group, 205' 1=442' 

Oil Lake group, 162' 

Venango Oil Sand group, 310' 



This or some other such subdivision is called for — 

1. By the very peculiar and very widespread, coarse, 
massive and often pebbly, fish-bearing Shenango Sand- 
stone^ in the upper part of the series, represented by the 
Sub-Garland and Sub-Olean fiat pebble Conglomerate of 
Mercer, McKean, and other counties to the east : — 

2. By a well-marked sandstone horizon towards the bot- 
tom of the series (the Corry and Cussewago sandstones), 
which appears in the oil wells of Venango and Butler coun- 

(67 Q^) 



68 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ties as the Pithol^ Orit^ and spreads through Ohio as the 
Berea Grit* 

Cuyahoga Shale is a name in the geology of Ohio given 
to all the deposits from the Sharon Conglomerate down to 
the Berea Grit {Pithole Grit^ Corry Sandstone) ; but this 
name is objectionable when applied to the upper part of the 
series in Pennsylvania, because the Shenango Sandstone 
{Sub-Garland^ Sub-Olean^ flat-pebble Conglomerate) cuts 
the column in two, and separates the Shenango shales 
above from tlie Meadmlle shales below. 

Crawford shale is a name adopted in the Report on the 
Oil Region (I.I.I, 1880) for all the soft measures pierced by 
the drillers before reaching the First Venango Oil Sand^ 
including the Big reds {Bedford shale) and the Pithole 
{Berea Grit) over it, which is often passed in the oil-borings 
without noticeable difficulty, as soft flagstones or hard 
shales, a character which it bears also in Crawford county. 

The name Crawford shales if retained should be confined 
to that part of the Cuyahoga series beneath the Shenango 
sandstone and above the Corry sandstone^ a vertical inter- 
val of say about 200'; but, as this interval contains the 
Meadville limestojies, which have played so distinguished 
a role in settling our northwestern State geology, the name 
Meadmlle Group may replace that of Crawford shale en- 
tirely. 

The Waverly formation of Southern Ohio occupies the 
same general horizon as this series, its quarry rock being 
the Berea Grit.f 

The Pennsylvania names MaucJi Chunk shale^ No. X/, 

[ * Another element of classification is to be found in the remarkable de- 
posit of red shale at the bottom of the series, confined to a belt of country- 
extending, in a great curve, through Forest, Venango, southern Mercer, 
northern Butler, and Lawrence counties, in Pennsylvania, through the State 
of Ohio to the lake shore west of Cleveland. This deposit is called the Big 
Reds by the oil well drillers, and the Bedford shale by the Ohio geologists; 
and it overlies the Venango First Oil /Sawrf.— See map of this red belt in 
Rei)ort I.I.I, Carll, 1880, Chapter VIII, p. 91, FF J. P. L.] 

t Hitherto much confusion has characterized the application of the term 
Wave^'ly^ and it has therefore not been used in the Pennsylvania reports. One 
re-adjustment of its divisions is given by Prof. Ed. Orton, in the Amer. Jour. 
Science for August 1879, p. 139. 



8UBCONGLOMERATE. Q*. 69 

Pocono SandstoTie No. X, and QalsTcill No. IX, cannot be 
used with safety in this report because the great formations 
which they designate in Middle and Eastern Pennsylvania 
are much thinned and changed in character before they 
reach Crawford county. It isnot certain that No. XI exists 
at all in the Lake region, although it seems to be recog- 
nizable in Clarion county and in Beaver county.* There 
are reasons for believing that the Venango Oil Group in 
its upper part is Catskill No, IX ; but there are also reasons 
for considering it iu its upper part Pocono, No. X.f There 
is very little room to doubt tliat the series to be described 
in this chapter as a whole represents the Pocono. The 
questions left unanswered are : 1. 'Does tlw Shenango shale 
at the top represent the Mauch Chunk No. XI? and 2. 
Does the Big Red {Bedford') at the bottom represent lowei- 
Pocono., ov CaiskUlf But the question is of no practical 
importance in this report. 

The local names given to the beds and groups of beds in 

the series, with their thickness (observed, or estimated, or 

averaged as the case may be), are given in the generalized 

section, Fig. 7, the first part of which is given on page QG. 

?>contimied., 



The section at Sharon in Mercer county (Pig. 8,) and the 
section at Beater Falls in Beaver (Fig. 9,) published in Re- 
port QQ, p. 297, 298, 303, show the persistence of these sub- 
divisions of the series southward. 

•See Prefece to Report H', 1880. Also Report R, 1880. 
t See Report G', 1880. 



70 Ql 



EEPOET OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



Sharon section^ for comparison^ Fig, 8. 

Sharon, 
Shenanoo, 



Coal • .4' 

Fireclay and shales, 5' 

Conglomerate, 20' 



29" 



(Shales, ^^'{55* 

\ Sandstone, . .* lOM 

Meadville shales, sandy, 80' 

Sharpsville flags, 40' 

Drift* (rooks invisible), 43' 

Orangeville *' Blue slate," ". . . . 85' 

CoRRY, CussEW AGO, "Sandstone, white, sharp," . . 75' 

Biceville ^ "Light blue shales," fSOS' 

and i Sandstone, grey, fine, i 

Venango ) Third Oil 8and, (I. C. W.',) \ ^ 

Chemung^ )"'^ succession of blue, grey, and 

Oirard, i brown shales, interspersed with 

J\)rtaget % ^ thin layersof grit to bottom ( 1600' ) . 



a78' 



M^' 



SS5 



1005 



Sharon, 



ShenangOy 



Meadvilie? 



Sharpsville ? 



Orangeville ? \ 

CORRY ? 

Cussewago ? 



Venango, 



< 



69' 

1 21' 

40' 

5' 

10' 

75' 

40' 

12' 

6' 

25' 

18' 

7' 

8' 

20 

10' 

20' 

124' 



10' 

82' 
143' 

15' 
116' 

30' 



279' 



Bearer Falls {Econoray Well) Section, Fig. 9. 

Down to base of Lower Gonnoquenessing SS 210' 

Shales, brown 40' 

Sandstone and slate, brown, . . .24' 

Sandstone, 5' 

c Shale, light, 1' 

\ Sandstone, brownish yellow, . . 20 

( Shale, dark, sandy, 

j Sand, mixed with shale, 

I Shale, sandy, 

, Shale, light colored, 

. Sandstone, light grey, fine, 

Shale, dark, sandy, 

"Shell" [harder rock,] 

Sliale/ dark, sandy, 

Shale, brown, sandy, ^ . . 

Shale, soft, 

Shale, sandy, 

Sandstone, white, 

Shale, brown, sandy, 

Sandstone, hrovfYi, . . .• •. 

Sandstone, white, pebbly, .... 

Shale, dark, sandy, 

Shale, blue, 

Shale, olive, 

Shale, red, 

Shale, dark, 

Sandstone, hard, gray, (3d O S.), . 



\ 425' 



\ 396' 



♦Well mouth commences 57' above the top of the Orangeville blue slate, 
t Not SO', as in QQ, p. 298. J The well must have sunk into the Portage 
about 'the depth exposed on Lake Erie shore at the New York line, say 475'. 



If§ 8. iSecfion ottbe ivcks exposed in l/w vicinitj of Sbartm, 
ajidbored through, at ^aTonfumace,Mprcer 0}unt}'.Ps. 

Hg, 9: Section of the rocks passed throi^ in the weUhoring 
at £esvBr IblJs,£eacver Qtuzity: Jh. 



ti/tdmiBt if^ 



T^ 8. MaumatSS. 

aailonafSIUIlMCaU 



8TJBC0NGL0MERATE. 



Q*. 71 



Chemung^ 

Oirardf 

Fortage, 



' Alternations of thin sands and sandy 

shales, with soft shales (but no black >i240' 
slates) to bottom (2330'), 



My section of the exposures in the Tidioute bluffs, (Fig. 
10,) shows their persistence eastward. 



Tidioute Bluff Section^ Fig. 10. 



Sharon Conolomebate, 

Shbnanqo ^Shale, 60- 



80' 



•• 1 



80 



60' J 

Sandstone, massive, .... 20' ) 

Jfeac{vi72e Shales (and concealed), 100' 

/ Upper Sandstone, seen, ... 30' •\ 
Sharpsville, < Meadville Lower Limestone, 1\' > 41^' 

' Lower Sandstone, 11' ) 

OrangevUle, \ Shales, soft, blue, ^ | ^^ 



I \ 



CoRRY Sandstone, 

Cussewago 

and 
Iticeville, 



10' 



Shales, chocolate, and concealed, . . 123' 



> 403^' 



Venango, 



^ SS., massive, 13' ^ 

( I. ) Shale, 9' S 37' 

( SS., massive, ^15' 5 

Shales, red, and sandstones, . . 90' 

II. SS., massive, 25' ^ 326' 

Shales, blue, 6' 

Concealed to river 20' 

Concealed beneath river,* . . . 100' 

III. SS., average, say* 60' j 



The Meadville Lower Limestone is a fortunate key to this 
section, and to the geology of the surrounding country. 
The Upper Limestone may also be in its place, but con- 
cealed by the surface slides. 

One more section will suffice to show the normal arrange- 
ment of these subconglomerate rocks, taken as a whole. 

A bore-hole was drilled at Oil Creek Lake, on the bank 
above the water tank, at 1420' A. T. The Corry Sandstone 
is quarried in a ravine, distant a few rods from the bore- 
hole. The driller Mr. S. L. Dobbin's record is as follows : 



* Estimated from Mr. Carll's well records, Keport I.I. 



72 Q^ KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Oil Lake hore-hole Section. Fig. 11. 

loM 

),.... 76' I 



Corby Sandstone, 

Oil Lake Shales, and oonoealed to top of hole 

(Conductor) Drift, 14' 

Cusaewago "<Siand«<on^, very hard," 30' J 



130' 



r"i2«dMaZeat207' down," J 33, 

^ I "Slate," S 

* j *• Pebbly Sand," some oil, . . . . ) «, 

\ Third Oil Sand (I. C. W.), . . > 



\ 340' 



Chemung, 



} 266' 



f "Slate," 146' 1 

"Sand shells frequent in this inter- 
val, some 3' thick ; one with peb- 
bles at 694' down, 120' , 

Girard, "Soft slate," 262' 

Mortage, \ "^^^^^ «^^^^«» ^^^ ^^^'^ 20' j gg, 

^ * } Slate, soft to bottom (1000'), 78' $ 

From the base of the Sharon Conglomerate down to tin 
base of the Third Oil Sand, as I recognize it in the abovi 
sections, the distances are as follows : 

Generalized Section, t^g. 7, 752' 

Oil Lake Section,* Fig. 11, 750' 

Tidioute Section, Fig. 10, 732' 

Sharon Section, Fig. 8, 716' 

Beaver Falls Section,! Fig. 9, 780' 

There is, no doubt, above the upper limit of the sections, 
the Sharon Conglomerate, which I have traced continu- 
ously from point to point, except in the Beaver Falls Sec- 
tion, where I now think it may perhaps be wanting. 

The Sandstone zone some distance above the Venango 
First Oil Sand is a marked feature in these sections, 
although very changeable in thickness and detailed char- 
acter. It is, however, a persistent horizon, and represents 
the Berea Orit of Ohio, and the PithoU Grit of Venango. 
It is undoubtedly an extension westward of one of the 
heavy, massive deposits of the Pocono Formation, No. X. 
See Report on Blair county, T, 1881, and probably of the 
great conglomerate strata of the lower part of its middle 
member, in Huntingdon county. See Report F, p. 211, 
1878. 

*280' added above for estimated amount of erosion; the Cuyahoga shale 
series, as a whole, being of normal thickness in this vicinity, as my local sec- 
tions show. 

t Six miles from the Ohio river and 40 miles south of the Sharon section. 



SnS-CONGLOMERATE. Q*. 73 

f- 10 



74 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The shales which underlie this Sandstone zone are, at Oil 
Lake 331', at Sharon 305', at Beaver Falls 356' thick, and 
in them we ^ould find the Venango First and Second Oil 
Sands ; but tliese are wanting over the greater part of Craw- 
ford and Erie counties, or only represented by soft flag- 
stones, not recognized as "sands" by any driller. Their 
normal places, however, are given in the generalized section 
(Fig. 7) not to deceive but to guide the reader. ^ 

It must he distinctly urtderstood that the Venango First 
and Second Oil Sands are of no account in Crawford 
and* Erie counties. But the Venango Group as such is 
traceable through the region, not only by its relation to the 
Corry and Cusseioago Sandstone zone above it ; by its per- 
sistent thickness of between 300' and 350' ; but also, and 
especially, by a massive sand and sometimes gravel deposit 
at its base, which can be nothing else than the Venango 
Third Oil Sand; beneath which there is nothing but shales 
for hundreds of feet, (as under the pebble rock of the Oil 
Lake well,) or 1000', (as under the hard grey sandstone of 
the Sharon well,) or 1200', (as under the 30' sandstone of 
the Beaver Falls well,) or even more, as in all the deep 
wells of the Oil region. 



Note. — Mr. J. T. Hodge, Assistant of the First Survey, 
in 1837 made the following statement which may be found, 
substantially, in the Third Annual Report of the State Ge- 
ologist, p. 111. 

"A reference to the stratification, as we behold it in the 
vicinity of Meadville, will tend to convey a tolerably exact 
conception of the nature of the beds of rock which occupy 
the 400' of depth below the base of the conglomerate stra- 
tum (formation XII) which there caps the hills forming part 
of the general margin of the coal field. 

''These hills on the north and south of the town are at 
their greatest elevation 488' above the bottom of the canal, 
and expose the upper strata especially with some degree of 



SUBCONGLOMEKATE. Q*. 75 



76 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

distinctness. The lower ones are not so continuously ex 
posed to view, making it more difficult to determine thei: 
true order of succession. 

" Near the level of the canal, the beds are of brown slat( 
and sandstone, and over this we- find a f hin bed of clayej 
shale, then a sandstone repeated, and then another layer oj 
red and grey shale 2' or 3' thick. 

*'Near the outcrop of this bed of clayey shale a spring 
issues, near its upper surface, encrusting all the rocks be 
neath it with a coating of carbonate of lime. 

" At a higher level are seen thin beds of calcareous shale^ 
some of which abound in fossil shells and other organic 
remains. 

"From this shale to a height of 150' occur alternations 
of coarse brown sandstone and thinly laminated bluish 
slates and flaggy olive sandstones and olive slates.* 

''At that height we meet a bed of blue shale 4' thick, and 
over it a brown sandstone and olive slate, until we reach 
235' (above the bed of the canal.) 

" Here we encounter a bed of sandy limestone 

[See Meadville Lower limestone described below.] 

"Under the limestone, in a massive bluish sandstone, we 
find thin layers of an impure iron ore. 

"Ascending from the limestone, we pass thick beds of 
brown and bluish sandstone, (some of which latter are 
slightly calcareous^) thin beds otfossiliferous and calca- 
reous slate, succeeded by others of brown and blue shale. 

"At the height of 412' we arrive at the base of the great 
bed of (Sharon) Conglomerate, consisting of sand and sili- 
ceous pebbles, never larger than a common marble or a large 
pea. The same rock is seen at the height of 450'. Its soil 
is diflferent from that of the rocks beneath it, being said to 
be better fitted for wheat, and sustaining a luxuriant growth 
of chestnut trees. " 



Chapter VIII. 

Shenango group. 

In Ohio the interval between the base of the {Sharon) 
Conglomerate and the Berea Or it is occupied by {Cuya- 
hoga) shales.* 

In Pennsylvania, a sandstone makes its appearance among 
these shales, not far from their 'upper limit. 

This sandstone is traceable from Sharon northwards along 
the Shenango valley to Jamestown, and thence across Craw- 
ford into Warren and McKean counties where it is an im- 
portant conglomerate rock of strongly marked character, f 

The shales above it are a distinctly separate formation, 
including in the eastern counties black slate and some thin 
coal seams, red shale, and beds of iron ore. 

The shales below it graduate eastward into the Pocono 
{ Vespertine) flaggy sandstones ; as the sandstone itself 
does, going southward from McKean into Elk, Cameron and 
Clinton counties. 

The Pocono Formation^ No. X, therefore, in its upper 
portions^ is represented in Crawford county 1. by the She- 
nango sandstone ; 2. by the Cuyahoga shales proper^ down 
to the Berea Grit {Corry^ &c. ) 

The only question at all open is whether the Shenango 
Shales {above the Sandstone) are also to be considered 
Pocono { Vespertine) No, X; or whether they are a true con- 
tinuation into Ohio of the Mauch Chunk { Umhral) No, XL 

♦This is the case in Medina, Lorainf Ashland, Knox, and Licking counties, 
where they are said to he 250' to 300' thick ; about the same as in Crawford 
county, Pennsylvania, ©ut in Trumbull county, Ohio, the Sharpsville sand- 
stone has been mistaken for the Berea, and 100' of measurement therefore 
lost. In Ashland, Mr. Read's «' Olive Shale " is called 270' thick (Geol. Ohio, 
III, 523) down to the " Waverly Conglomerate ; " which again agrees with 
my measurements in Crawford county down to the Corry sandstone, 

t The Suh'Oarland conglomerate of Mr. Carll ; the Sub-Olean conglomer- 
ate of Mr. Ashburner. 

(77 Q*.) 




78 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

This question cannot be answered at all in the State of Ohio 
nor in Crawford county; nor with any certainty even a 
far east as McKean and Clinton counties, where Mr. Ash 
burner advocates the former and Mr. Chance the latter view 
and both of them with reasons not to be despised.* 

Shenango Shale. 

The Shenango shale deposit, .under the Sharon conglom 
erate^ in Crawford and Erie counties, generally consists en 
tirely of blue, gray and brown clay-shales, but frequently 
contains thin flaggy sandstone layers, which in one locality 
I saw merge into a solid 10'' sandstone. 

A streak of iron ore is almost always found at the bas( 
of the shales, in Crawford county ; an irregular layer of clai 
iron-stone balls. 

Fossils rarely appear in the Shenango shale. Whei 
found, they are of Sub-Carboniferous types ; badly pre 
served Productns^ Allorisma, Straparollus^ and Spirifer 

Lepidodendron Oaspianum^ or a closely allied plant, haj 
furnished abundant remains to the upper part of the She 
nango shale at Snodgrass Quarry, near Jamestown, f 

Lepidodendron Weltheimianum^ or some closely alliec 
form, is also seen there. 

The thickness of the Shenango shale^ when well exposed 
was nowhere less than 36', nor more than 60'. Near Sharon 
in Mercer county, on the Ohio line, it measures 47'. A 
Tidioute, in Venango county, I found it 60', and near Kin 
zua, in Warren county, about 45'.:]: Its average througl 
Crawford county may be called 50'. In Erie county, \\x 
bottom layers (if any) are left on the highest hilltops. 

The outcrop of the Shenango shale is marked upon tli( 
geological map in red^ with a sharp inner edge at the Sha 
ron Conglomerate^ but an indefined outer edge where it over 
laps the Shenango sandstone. This red color is proper t( 
the Mauch Chunk Formation No. XI. 

♦See Reports R, and G 4, 1880. 

t This is the only locality where any plants have been seen in these shales. 
^ Judging from the fact that from its top down to the base of the Shenangt 
sandstone (Su5-02ean Conglomerate) was 90'. 



SHENANGO GROUP. Q^ 79 

SJienango Sandstone. 

Ferriferous sandstone^ Report QQ^ 1878^ p. 95."^ 

Sub-Garland Conglomerate of the Oil Region reports. 

Svh-Olean Conglomerate of the McKean^ c&c, reports. 

Upper Pocono Sandstone ( Vespertine) No. X. 

This remarkably persistent, wide-spread and character- 
istic deposit, differs so much from all the other sand depos- 
its of the region that it cannot be mistaken. I discovered 
its importance along the Ohio line in 1876, and traced it 
northward and eastward from Sharon, in Mercer county, 
through Crawford into Warren and Venango and to McKean 
counties, where in 1879 I identified it at Franklin, Tidioute, 
Warren and Kinzua, with the first sand rock under the 
Sharon-Garland-Olean Conglomerate. 

In Crawford county it is always a sandstone, tolerably 
coarse in grain, yellowish brown or sometimes dull grey in 
color, crowded with balls of iron ore from 1" to V in diame- 
ter, or even larger. 

Fish bones, teeth, scales and spines are everywhere found 
in it ; often scattered through it in great numbers, usually 
badly broken and rubbed, and often mere blotches of bluish- 
white matter on the weathered surfaces of the rock ; neither 
specific nor generic characters recognizable. 

Small rounded pebbles of shale, or fine hard sandstone, 
are common in it. 

Small pebbles of a soft ochery substance are not unusual. 

Two plants are to be discovered in almost all its exposed 
outcrops ; the most common one closely allied to, if not 
identical with, Lepidodendron Oaspianum, Daws,f the 
other, less common, Lepidodendron Weltheimianum, St. 

Shells are occasionally found in it, but generally broken 
and unrecognizable, at least specifically. I have however 
found specimens of Orthis, Spirifera, Discina and Pro- 

♦This name which I at first gave it, locaUy, before I knew its geographical 
importance, was almost everywhere corrected out of my report on Lawrence 
county, and never used afterwards. 

t Figured from the Pocono {Vespertine) Formation No. X^ of Eastern 
Pennsylvania, in Geology of Pennsylvania, Vol. II, plate 21. See description 
1. 0. by Lesquereux. 



80 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ductus of forms apparently diflferent from those of th< 
Mauch OhunTc ( Umhral) Formation No. XI. 

As a building stone it is very valuable ; far superior t( 
the Sharon Conglomerate above it, in resistance to weather, ■ 
which is explained by the fact that it is composed of nearlj 
a pure quartz sand^ the grains cemented by peroxide o 
iron. Its ore-balls, however, are so numerous, that it h 
almosft impossible to dress up the blocks, which are there 
fore rejected for ornamental uses, and used almost only foi 
bridge abutments, piers and other strong structures. Thos( 
in the locks of the old Beaver and Erie canal are as sounc 
and the chisel marks as sharp as when laid fifty years ago. 

Jackson' s quarry, between Atlantic and Evansburg, haj 
furnished most of the bridge stone, &c. along the Atlantic 
and Great Western railroad. 

Its outcrops are to be found on the geological colorec 
map of this report by referring to the outside edge of th( 
red color surrounding the areas of Sharon Conglomerate, 
and at various distances beyond the red color. 

The outcrop enters Crawford on the east bank of the She- 
nango river, runs to the center of S. Shenango township, 
then east through W. Fallowfield and returns back of Adams- 
ville, 250' above the level of Crooked creek. 

It runs north and south through E. Fallowfield, overlook- 
ing the railroad ; circles at Stony Point through Sadsbury 
back into E. Fallowfield, and so follows the south hills ol 
Conneaut Lake creek through Greenwood and Fairfield and 
down French Creek valley into Venango county. 

It encircles the high lands in Yernon, and in Union, about 
250' above the level of Conneaut Lake creek. 

It runs along the Meadville hills, at about 375' above the 
level of French creek. 

It looks down from the south and west upon the great 
bend of Woodcock creek, along the north and west lines of 
Randolph. 

It stretches from around the hill tops of New Richmond 
southward into Venango county, east of Sugar Lake, and 
through Troy township. 

* It can also be more cheaply quarried than the Sharon Conglomerate. 



8HENANG0 GROUP. Q*. 81 

It occupies the high summits of northern Adams west of 
Riceville on Oil Creek ; of western Sparta, and east of Oil 
Lake, and enters Warren county east of Mill Pond. 

In Erie county it caps two or three isolated knobs in Con- 
cord township. 

Here it is I860' above tide ; at Snodgrass' quarry near 
Jamestown only 1190' ; distance about 46 miles ; rise 670' ; 
rate of rise (say N. 33° E.) IJ^^ feet per mile. 

The thickness of the Shenango Sandstone in Crawford 
county varies from 15' to 35'. At Sharon, in Mercer county, 
it is 7' ; in the Brookfield tunnel, near Sharon, only 3' ; but 
perfectly typical in character. 

Natural exposures of considerable beauty may be found 
in two localities: viz. — In Greenwood, half a mile south of 
Glendale, fine cliffs enclose a deep and narrow gorge, with 
a waterfall 30' high. Here immense quantities of ore balls 
may be seen, many of them larger than ostrich eggs ; base 
of rock, 1270' A. T. 

In Wayne, Grassy run ( a branch of Little Sugar creek), 
I mile above its mouth, cuts a chasm through the rocks ; 
with cliffs, 35' high ; base of rock, 1315 A. T. 

Hundreds of other inferior natural out-crops might be 
enumerated. 

As the Shenango Sandstone is followed eastward it be- 
comes coarser and more massive. At Meadville its bottom 
layers begin to be pebbly ; at Garland, in Warren county, 
its bottom layers are quite pebbly ;* at Warren, it is from 
40' to 45' tliick, and a pebble-rock throughout ; at Franklin, 
it is extensively quarried 120' above the water in French 
creek ; at Tidioute, 60' beneath Triumph hill conglomerate 
500' above the river ; at Kinzua, 540' above the river. In 
all these places I have recognized and studied it. 

Everywhere all its pebbles have the marked peculiarity^ 
first noticed by Mr, Carll^ of being fat or flatish^ not 
round as in the Sharon-Garland-Olean conglomerate above 
it ; and the same holds true all over McKean and adjoin- 
ing counties to the eastward. 

*Base 120' beneath the top of the Sharon-Oarland-Olean Conglomerate. 

6Q*. 



2 Q*. EEPOKT OP PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 




Chapter IX. 

Meadmlle Group. 

Meadville Upper Shales. 

These are bluish gray, or ashen gray in color, argillaceous 
at the top, sandy lower down ; sometimes flaggy, but never 
massive. 

Thickness where well exposed at the head of the Ceme- 
tery branch of the Mill run, near Meadville, 15' ; one mile 
east of this, 30' ; on Grassy run, in Wayne, 36^ ; at Glen- 
dale, 30' ; at Jamestown, 25' ; near Dutch hill, in Union, 
40' ; in E. Fallowfield, where the road crosses Uhger's run, 
15' ; at Franklin, in Venango county, 20', &c. 

Fucoids^ov sea- weeds, are numerous in these shales. 

Meddville Upper Limestone. 

This rock, which I found in 1879, has served me well as 
a key to the geology of the region. It is exposed in many 
places across Crawford county, and I found it at Franklin 
20' under the Shenango Sandstone. Its thickness seldom 
exceeds 1' (one foot), often not 6", and never more than 
1' 6". 

Fish scales^ teeth^ hones, plates^ and spines are so 
crowded in it, that at many localities it might be called a 
fishbone conglomerate, in which it is diflBlcult to detect any 
other materials. 

Scales of Palceoniscus are the most abundant ; and hun- 
dreds of them cover every slab. Cladodus, Orodus, Lamh- 
dodus, Mesodmodus, Stevimatodus, and others are of fre- 
quent occurrence. Spines of Ctenacanthus, Drepanocan- 
thus, and Batacanthus also occur. (One specimen was ap- 
parently identical with B. haculiformis, St. J. and W.) 

Spirit era, Streptorhynchus, Orthis, Productus,Discina 
Rhynchonella^ Conularia, and Orthoceras frequently 

(83 Q*.) 



84 Q**. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

abound in it. They seem to be mostly of xindescribe< 
species ; but the fades is most nearly like that of the Kin 
derhook fauna of the Mississippi valley, although some r€ 
semble Keokuk and Burlington types. 

From an inspection of a collection sent to Prof. A. H 
Worthen, State Geologist of Illinois, he opposed this opin 
ion, and was inclined to regard the fish as rather of Cheste 
Limestone aspect. 

Prof. Orestes St. John, of Topeka, to whom Prof. Wor 
then submitted at first a small collection, also recognized \ 
Chester facies, but noticed some Kinderhook affinities. 

On receiving a larger and better collection, Prof. St. Johi 
expressed an opinion in favor of the lower rather than o 
the higher horizon. 

From all the evidence, I am inclined to an equivalency 
with the Lower Keokuk or Upper Burlington fish beds, ii 
preference to the Kinderhook. There are certainly man] 
novelties in this Meadville Upper Limestone, and materiali 
for its study are abundant and easily accessible. 

Rounded pebbles of shale and fine sandstone are nearlj 
always to be found in it ; usually of a dark color, and de 
rived from some older strata of the series. In some placei 
these pebbles are immensely numerous. They are usuallj 
flat or lenticular, sometimes worn oval, and tapering to i 
blunt point. 

The Limestone matrix is not a pure carbonate of lime 
but contains much silica, &c., and often resembles a sand 
stone weathered. The rock has the peculiar sub-carbonif 
erous-limestone fracture of this region, the broken surface 
being covered with many small elliptical, glassy, sparkling 
spots (which look like small shells until they are closelj 
examined) due to a semi-crystallization of the carbonate oi 
lime. 

The best places to study this rock and to collect its fos- 
sils are as follows : 

The gorge south of Glendale ; the ravines east of Mead- 
ville leading into Mill run ; the ravines 2i miles east oi 
Meadville descending to Woodcock creek ; Grassy run, in 
Wayne township, a very fine locality ; the bluffs of French 



MEADVILLE GROUP. Q*. 85 

creek at Franklin ; the ravine at Jamestown ; and at Mc- 
Ellienny's, 2 miles north of Jamestown. 

Good exposures can be found on the numerous small 
streams descending to Adamsville ; but fish remains can be 
found almost anywhere on all the lines of out-crop. 

MeadvUle Lower Shales. 

These shales are, like the upper, generally ash-grey and 
blueish, sandy, alternating with sandy flags increasing in 
number towards the bottom. 

The thickness may be said to average about 40', although 
it sometimes reaches 60'. 

The out-crop extends little beyond that of the Shenango 
Sandstone^ because the latter was its only protection from 
erosion. 

Fucoids are numerous (as in the upper shale) and badly 
preserved shells^ evidently Spirifers^ ProdiLcti^ Allorismce^ 
&c, 

Sharpsville Sandstone. 

The sandy deposits at Sharpsville underlie the shales at 
Meadville ; and in some places the increase of muddy ma- 
terial upward is the only limiting circumstance. 

After my study of the persistency of the bed of limestone 
which lies in the body of the sands, I distinguished those 
above and below as Upper and Lower {Sharpville) sand^ 
stones. But apart from the limestone they form together 
but one deposit of sand, which I traced in 1876 along the 
Shenango and Pymatuning creeks into Vernon township, • 
Trumbull county, Ohio. Here I found it called by Mr. Read 
Lower Berea ; my Shenango Sandstone above it being 
called Upper Berea, But the original Berea Or it of Me- 
dina, Lorain, Ashland, and Richland counties of Ohio, 
under the Cuyahoga Shale formation of Ohio, lies from 
270' to 300' beneath the Ohio Conglomerate ; whereas this 
Sharpsville Sandstone ( " Lower Berea" ) lies only 145' be- 
neath the Sharon {Ohio) Conglomerate, and we must look 
100' lower for the genuine Berea, viz : in the Corry and Cus- 

♦Geol. of Ohio II, 505. 



86 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

sewago sandstones of the Oil Lake group (the PitJiole gr\ 
of the Oil regions. ) And this being done the Cuyahoga sha\ 
series is relieved of its supposed variability and shows 
constant thickness of about 300' all over northern Ohio an 
northwestern Pennsylvania, as may be seen by sections o 
pages 70, 71, 72, above. 

To illustrate the case, I give the following section whic 
I made in Vernon township, 3 miles north of Orangeville 
in Ohio. 

Sharon (Ohio) CoNOiiOMERATB, very pebbly,* 25' 

Shenango, 5 '^^^^^^ • • 50' 

< Sandstone, (Read's ^crea CTJRpcriS.)!, ... 15' 

Meadvxlle shales^ ... 80' 

Sharpsville Sandstone, (Read's Berea Lower 8,)%^ ... 60' 

Concealed to the level of the Pymatuning creek, 110' 

Sharpsmlle Upper Sandstone. 

Layers of fine bluish-gray or greyish-brown flagstone 
from V to 2' thick, alternate with thin layers of greyis 
shale. Rarely the shale amounts to one third of the mass 
often to so little that the flags are almost a solid series. 

Quarried in districts destitute of better stone, this depos: 
affords building materials for cellar walls and other roug 
work. 

Good building stone is got from one 3' layer just south c 
Atlantic station ; also near Jamestown at the county line 
also at Miller's 2 miles northwest. Its somber hue is dii 
liked. 

KJiynconella^ Allorisma^ Spirifer and Productus shelL 
poorly preserved, are usually found in it. I found a lars 
CtenacantJtus fish-spine in it, in Mercer county. 

TTte thiclcness of the Sharpsville Upper sandstone mas 
in Crawford county is about 50'. 

Its outcrop ranges considerable north of that of the SJu 
nango sandstone, but not far enough to croSs the Erie count 

* The Sharon coal overlies the Conglomerate close by. 

t Upper green line on Reed's map of Trumbull county. 

X Lower green line on the same. This out-crop of the rook I traced co] 
tinuously from Sharon, where it rises from the water, up the Shenango an 
Pymatuning valleys, by two lines, to the same point in the northern line < 
Trumbull county, Ohio. 



r 



MEADVILLE GROUP. Q*. 87 

line, except at its east end, where a few isolated knobs in 
Erie county hold it. 

Meadville Lower Limestone. 

This thin bed of impure limestone lying 235' above the 
level of the level of the canal* at Meadville is as remarkable 
a geological horizon as the Meadville Upper limestone already 
described. 

Wedged in between the SJiarpsmlle Uppei^ and Lower 
sandstones^ weathering like them, and covered by their 
fragments, I saw nothing of it at first in my survey of 
Mercer county. 

Seldom more than 2' thick, and often only 1', it is never- 
theless so persistent, that I found it in every part of Craw- 
ford county ; afterwards in Mercer county, along the She- 
nango valley for 21 miles, to where near Sharon it goes be- 
neath w^ater level ; on the Allegheny river, rising from water 
level between Franklin and Oil City ; cropping out all along 
the west bank of Oil creek at 1173' A. T. ; and at Tidioute 376' 
above the Allegheny river bed ; and represented, perhaps, 
by fragments on the Brokenstraw, at Garland, 135' beneath 
the Shenango sandstone. 

From the base of the Sharon Conglomerate down to the 
Meadville Lower limestone^ I make the interval, in Craw- 
ford county, never less than 190'. Mr. Randall's section at 
Warren (Report I, Carll, 1875,) places a limestone 200' be- 
neath the base of the Garland {Sharon) Conglomerate. At 
Tidioute I make it 210'. f 

This limestone is very hard and flinty, breaking with the 
same peculiai^ fracture mentioned already in the description 
of thQ Meadville Upper limestone. ''It lies," says J. T. 
Hodge, who first described it, "in large and nearly square 
masses, the angles of which are more or less rounded off, 
showing the readiness with which the lime is dissolved out 
of the rock. By the removal of this ingredient, and the 

* J. T. Hodge, 1837, in Third Annual Report of H. D. Rogers to the Legisla- 
ture, p. 111. 

t See Geology of Pennsylvania, 1858, vol. IT, pp. 648, 549, for the limestone 
at Smeth port 200' below No. XII.— See Report R, McKean county, Ashburner, 
1880. 



Lu^ 



88 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

oxidation of the iron in the stratum, it acquires a brown 
siliceous crust, sometimes thick, indicating it is to be feared 
too large a proportion of sandy matter, to qualify this rock 
to be converted even into an impure lime. In an attempt 
once made, the excess of sand in the rock produced with 
the lime a slag."* This feature characterizes also the Cuss- 
ewago limestone to be described further on. 

The hardness of these limestone beds compared with that 
of the measures enclosing them cause little water-falls in 
the beds of the streamlets, descending the hill slopes ; and 
in some places the water ilows over the limestone stratum 
for a considerable distant above such a cascade. 

Non-fossiliferous^ in Crawford county, as a rule, this 
Z/oto^r Mead ville limestone, differs in a striking manner from 
the Upper one. At ojie or two localities only I found a few 
jish scales and Linguloid shells. But in Warren county 
at Garland, and in Venango county at Tidioute, it is a perfect 
mass of broken shells^ misshapen Spirlfers and unrecog- 
nizable other forms. At Tidioute the shell lime is bleached 
white, and has been popularly mistaken for quartz. Spiri- 
fer disjuhcta (or some allied species) is most common. 

A very good and nearly pure white lime has been made 
from this stone in certain exceptional localities in Crawford 
county. On Deckard' s run it was once quarried to a con- 
siderable extent by Mr. Shuey and burned into plastering 
lime. As flux for Liberty Furnace, mixed with Lower 
Mercer Limestone from near Utica, it was a failure. 

Analysis^ by Dr. F. A. Genth,t of a more than ordinarily 
siliceous specimen: 

Carbonate of Iron, 3.62 

Carbonate of Manganese, 0.31 

Carbonate of Magnesium, 1*70 

Carbonate of Calcium, 27.61 

Alumina, 4.24 

Silica, 60.43 

Water, 1.74 

Total, 99.66 

* In Prof. H, D. Roger's Third Annual Report to the Legislature, 1838, p. 
Ill, 112. Repeated in Geology of Pennsylvania, 1858, vol. I, p. 584. 

t For Mr. Carll. 



MEADVILLE GROUP. Ql 89 

Judging from the appearance of specimens the silica is 
usually not more than 20 per cent, of the whole. 

Out-crops excellent for study may be found in Crawford 
county, near Jamestown, in the hollow down from the 
bridge below Snodgrass' s quarry ; near Meadville, in the 
cemetery grounds, at the hydraulic ram on Mill run ; at 
Geneva, Greenwood, bed of run just west of RR. station ; 
in Hayfield township, west branch of Cussewago creek, 
heads of ravines ; in Mercer county, opposite Sharpsville, 
in the banks of the Shenango ; in Venango county, in the 
bluffs opposite Oil City ; and in Warren county, in the north 
river slopes at and below Tidioute. 

Sharpsville Lower Sandstone. 

This is a series of 6" to 2' flags exactly like those above 
the limestone. 
Its usual thickness is from 10' to 12' ; in one place 30'. 

Orangeville Shales. 

These bottom deposits of the Cuyahoga formation of 

Ohio* — 120' thick on the Shenango river at Sharon, 120' 
thick on Cussewago creek, usually 100' throughout Craw- 
ford county, and in very few places less than 60' — are gen- 
erally dark bluish shales (with a few scattered thin layers 
of sand,) of ten. holding small lenticular nodules of clay-iron- 
stone, but more commonly weathering brown fromdissemi- 
nated iron. 

LingulcB and Disdnce in great numbers, and a few Jlsh 
remains are its only fossils, and are distributed from top 
to bottom ; but more abundantly toward the bottom. The 
species being Cuyahoga forms : 

Lingula melia^ Hall. 

Lingula m^mbranacea, Winchell. 

Disdna pleurites^ Meek. 

Discina Newberryi^ Hall. 

I have never seen these species in any of the underlying 
rocks, although another very different species of Lingula 
is common in the underlying Oorry sandstone. 

* See Report QQQ, foot note to p. 63. 



90 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

At Tidioute, where only 22' of characteristic shales are 
represented, the rest of the interval being occupied by sandy 
flagstones, I could find hardly any of these shells. 

At Trumbull county, Ohio,* on the contrary (at Warren, 
O.) they are more numerous even than in the best fossil lo- 
calities in Crawford county, which are, among many others, 
principally these : 

The ravines of Hayfield township, right bank of Cusse- 
wago creek ; the ravines of Mead and E. Fairfield town- 
ships, left bank of French creek; and the banks of the 
Shenango at Jamestown, where the Gibson well starts at 
the top of the shales. It is frequently well-exposed in the 
common road cuttings of Richmond, Randolph, Woodcock, 
Vernon, Sadsbury, Summit, and Summit Hill townships. 

* Here also it is darker and even some thin layers bituminoos, which goes 
to support Prof. Orton's identification of it with Prof. Andrews' Waverly 
Black Slate of S. E. Ohio. 



- V 

I ' 



Chapter X. 

Oil Lake Group. 

Berea Orit of Ohio. 

Pithole Grit of Venango. 

Pocono Sandstone No. X, in part. 

This group is composed of the Corry and Cussewago 
sandstones and the included Cussewago limestone and 
shale. 

In the Beaver Falls well,* Beaver county, it is recorded 
as one solid pebbly sandsone 124' thick. 

In a well 3 miles north from the last f it is recorded pebbly 
throughout 102'. 

In the Sharon well,:}: Mercer county, 30 miles further north, 
it is recorded as "white sharp sandstone, 75'. 

In the Gibson well at Jamestown, on the Mercer-Craw- 
ford county line, 18 miles further north, § the record gives 
30' fine blue sand, 65' blue slate, ?' coarse light colored sand 
=10Q'+. 

At Oil Creek Lake, Crawford county, 38 miles further 
northeast, my section makes the whole thickness 130'. (See 
Fig. 11 page 75, above.) 

At Tidioute, Warren county, 22 miles further east south- 
east, my section. Fig. 10, makes sandstone predominate 
through about 75'. 

At Cleveland, in Ohio, 65 miles due west of Jamestown, 
Dr. Newberry's section! would make its thickness 103'+, 
if my identifications as given below prove correct. (See Fig. 
11&, page 82, above.) 

♦See Fig. 9, p. 73. 

t See Report QQ, Fig. 17, p. 257. 

X See Fig. 8, p. 73. 

§ Report QQQ, p. 201, Fig. 118. 

II Geol. Ohio, Vol. I, p. 197. 

(91 Q*.) 



92 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



Bebea Gbit [Corby S.?] exposed for 30' ' 

> 103' 



Red Shale, 38j 



t / 

3 

Blue Shale, 16' 

Blue Sandstone,* [CussBW AGO S?l 20' 

Cleveland Shale^ black, 55' 

Erie Shale to the level of the lake, 182' 

In Ashland county, Ohio, 50 miles southwest of Cleve- 
land, Mr. Read's section f exhibits beneath 270' of Olive 
{Cuyahoga) shales, a ( Waverly) conglomerate, 130', which 
I interpret as representing ftiy Oil Lake group. {See Fig. 
llCy page 82, above.) 

in Richland county, Ohio, which adjoins Ashland, Mr. 
Read's section,:]: makes this (Waverly) conglomerate 100' to 
190' thick ; beneath it ''Argillaceous and sand shales, some- 
times bituminous," 65'; beneath these " Shales with bands 
of flaggy sandstone," 235'; and then the ^^Berea saTtd- 
stone P {See Fig, lid.) 

It certainly looks as if the Waverly Conglomerate of these 
sections, the Berea Grit of Ohio, and my Oil Lake group 
in Crawford and Erie counties, occupied the same horizon ; 
and if so, important consequences flow from the identifica- 
tion, as I shall show elsewhere. 

Corry Sandstone. 

{Third Mountain Sand of Venango.) 

At all its numerous quarries, in Erie and Crawford coun- 
ties, this rock presents similar features. 

The two Corry quarries in the hilltop, one mile south and 
300' above the town, Colegrove's on the east side and Heath's 
on the west side of the road, are the most extensive in the 
region.— 1740' A. T. 

Only 8' of the rock has escaped erosion, and 4' is so shat- 
tered that only the lower 4' can be used. 

Its hard yellowish-brown layers vary from 2" to 1', and 
contain a few ill-preserved fossils. 

* Quite massive at the East Cleveland quarries, but not so ooarse as the Chis- 
sewago usually is in my district. 

t Geol. Ohio,*^ Vol. Ill, p. 523. 

t Geol. Ohio, Vol. Ill, p. 316. 

§ See also general section of Knox county, just south of Richland, Geol. 
Ohio, Vol. in, p. 335. 



OIL LAKE GROUP. Q*. 93 

Elsewhere the Corry sandstone is usually 10' or 15' thick ; 
I have nowhere seen it more than 30'. 

A yellowish-white or buflf-gray tint, and a compact fine- 
grained structure distinguish it from all the higher sand- 
stones of the region. 

In one or two places only I have found pebbles in it ; and 
in one of these (in Concord, Erie county) pebbles of jasper ; 
others dark and green; and small fragments of white 
quartz. 

From its base large' springs of water issue. It is the 
fountain horizon oi the whole region, and when concealed 
may be thus found. 

It rises from the bed of Oil creek near Titusville; is 
finely exposed along Pine creek; and identified along 
Thompson's run with the Third Mountain Sand of the 
Pleasantville (Venango) wells by Mr. Carll. 

East of the county line, in Warren, on the road to Enter- 
prise, it is finely exposed, 20', massive, very fossiliferous 
near its base.* 

North of Titusville, 2^ miles, just below Kerr's mill-dam, 
on Thompson's run, is a fine massive ledge of it ; and from 
here up both sides of Oil creek it can be studied at Hyde- 
town, Centreville, Riceville, and at Dobbins' quarry on Oil 
Lake. 

Along French creek it shows itself in many ravines, and 
was once quarried in the bluflf opposite Meadville. 

On Cussewago creek, at Little's Corners, and on the next 
run, a mile above, considerable amount of stone has been 
taken out. 

At Mr. Montgomery's extensive quarries in Summer Hill 
township, 2i miles east of Conneautville, it is 10' thick. 

In Pine township, just north of Linesville, and also in 
the hills one mile east of the P. & E. railway station, are 
quarries from which much thin stone has been taken for 
wall work, &c. 
' Near the northwest corner of N. Shenango township its 

* Here Mr. Hatch discovered and coUected many tine specimens of Syringo- 
thyria typa, Speri/era alta, StraparoUtbs, PLatyceraa (all very numerous), 
and others. 



94 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

outcrop passes into Ohio and continues west as Dr. New- 
berry' s Berea Or it outcrop.* 

Its rise northward up Oil Creek valley shoots it over all 
Erie county except a few highest hills in the southern parts 
of Concord, Union and Le Boeuf. 

Cussewago Limestone, 

This rock greatly resembles the Meadmlle Upper and 
Lower Limestones^ and shows the same glassy fracture, but 
is a better limestone 

It underlies the M, L. L, by 120' to 130'. 

No fossils have been found in it in my district ; but it 
may be represented in Warren county by the Spirifer bed^ 
exposed in the railroad cut at Garland, 350' under the Sha- 
ron {Garland) conglomerate^ V thick, and a mass of shells. 

It was not described especially by Mr. Hodge in 1837, 
who only speaks of calcareous shales at this horizon of his 
Meadville section. 

In Cussewago valley, it may be seen in several ravines. 

It is finely exposed on Mr. Line's farm, 1^ m. below Lit- 
tle' s corners ; and at Bar tholemew' s quarry above Little' s 
corners. 

In Venango township, \ m. west of Venango village on 
French creek, in Kleckner's ravine, it is 2' thick. Blocks 
of it, strewn along the run, have made tolerably good lime. 

Here it underlies the top of the Corry sandstone by 20'. 

At the center of Concord township, (the only place in 
Erie county where exposures were seen on this geological 
horizon,) in D. Matterson's ravine, it is V thick, and pure. 

Here it underlies the top of the Corry sandstone by 25'. 
Its elevation is 1675' A. T. 

Cussewago Shales. 

These separate the Corry sandstone above from the Cus- 
sewago sandstone below, and hold (near the top) the Cusse- 
wago limestone; corresponding thus to the calcareous 
shales in J. T. Hodge' s Meadville section of 1837. 

In some jjlaces the interval between the Corry sandstone 

* The rock of the East Cleveland quarries looks very like the Ck)rry rook. 



OIL LAKE GROUP. Q*. 95 

and the Cussewago sandstone is filled, not with shales 
(with the limestone,) but with sandy flags (without the lime- 
stone ;) and this accounts for the great thickness of the 
whole sandstone mass recorded by the wells of Mercer, 
Lawrence and Beaver counties. 

The Bedford red shale formation of Ohio, should in my 
opinion belong here, but I have seen no red shale ; although 
Mr. Hodge speaks of one 4' ' ' red and grey shale ' ' bed in 
his Meadville section of 1837.* 

The prevailing color of these shales is a bluish or ashen- 
grey. 

Their average thickness is about 35'. 

Cussewago Sandstone. 

As it exhibits itself along the Cussewago valley this very 
peculiar rock (commonly of a buffish-brown color) is quite 
coarse, and in many places contains pebbles ; but its sand 
grains cohere so loosely that the seemingly massive rock 
crumbles after a short exposure to a bed of sand.f 

Manganese oxide (Wad) fills the crevices of the rock as 
exposed just west of Little's Corners, X and is the probable 
agent in blackening the top of the formation elsewhere. 

At Meadville it lies in the hillsides 140' above French 
creek. 

From French creek to the Ohio line it can generally be 
traced by the sand along its disintegrated outcrop. 

From French creek eastward, it seems to become harder 

♦See for a discussion of the Big Reds (Bedford?) over his First Oil Sand, 
and the belt of country to which they are confined, Mr. CarU's third Report 
on the Oil Regions, 1880. 

t Where it crops out on the road side, near Summit Station (P. A E. RR.) 
it can be shoveled lilse beach sand, and I should have mistaken it for Drift, 
hut for shales and sandstone layers overlying it in place. 

The story is told, that a Mr. W. had a quarry of the flinty Sharpsville Tjower 
sandstone in his hill top ; but, wishing to find some stone less costly for the 
cellar walls of his new house, he sought, found, stripped, and opened the out- 
crop of the Cussewago sandstone in the ravine below. The stone was appa- 
rently sound enough ; the house was built. One winter's frosts sufficed to 
crumble the foundation, and the house fell. 

% Here tunnels have been foolishly driven into the rook in search of coal. 



96 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

and more compact ; on Oil creek it is a very hard sandstone, 
30' thick. 

Its color is not always buflf-brown ; occasionally it is a 
dark-green, or greenish-blue. 

Fragments of wood are sometimes imbedded in it, as at 
Bartholomew's, in Hay field. 

Flat quartz pebbles are seen in it at many localities. 



Chapter XI. 

Riceville Shale. 

Beneath the Cassewago sandstone and down to the First 
Oil sand of the Venango growp^ a distance of say 80', comes 
in a series of very fossiliferoas drab, bluish and gray, sandy 
shales, sometimes shaly sandstones. 

On Oil creek this series is well exposed in the bluflf just 
west of Riceville. 

On French creek, right bank, southern edge of Hayfield, 
may be seen under the Cussewago sandstone^ the following 
section : 

Sandstone, flaggy, 12' 

Blue sandy layer, containing many fossils : Pi^oductua Boydii^ 

Spiriffera disjuneta^ a small Orthoceraa, &o., 1' 

Concealed, 6' 

Shales, blue sandy, 6' 

Concealed, 6' 

Sandstone, hard, flaggy, dark-bluish, & 

Concealed, 12' 

Sandstone flags, Interstratifled with bluish shales, 25' 

Shales, pale blue, 5' 

The fossils mentioned in the section above I have seen 
abundant at many places in the district, 15' or more beneath 
the outcrop of the Cussewago sandstone. My identifica- 
tion of them as Chemung forms was confirmed by Mr. 
Whitfield, of the Museum of Natural History in New York. 

If the Venango Oil Sand group, however, be either Pocono 
or CatsJcill^ the presence of Chemung forms here only shows 
that they survived in this region long after the deposits of 
the Chemung age proper had ceased. 

If any part of the Riceville shale represents the black 
Cleveland shale of the Ohio geology it shows no black lay- 
ers in this Erie and Crawford region, except at one place, 
on Cussewago creek, in a ravine just south of Little's Cor- 
7 Q^. (^) 



98 Q*, REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ners. Here a few thin layers of bituminous slate scatters 
through 2' or 3' of shale, 25' under the Cussewago sandstoi 
{i. e. 50' beneath its top line) were opened for cannel coa 
The chippings would bum, but were mostly ashes ; and tl 
streaks never came together to form a bed. 

If any part of the Hiceville shale represents the Bedfor 
sTiale (which overlies the Cleveland shale) in Ohio, it sho\^ 
no red layers in this district of Pennsylvania. But a 
abundance of red beds overlie the First Oil Sand furthe 
southeast, south and southwest of Crawford county, s 
described by Mr. Carll in Report 1. 1. 1., 1880. 



Chapter XII. 

Venango Oil Sand Oroup. 

For an exhaustive description of this important and most 
interesting series of deposits the reader of this report is di- 
rected to the first and third Reports on the Oil Region of 
Venango, Butler, and Clarion counties.* 

In these volumes, especially the latter, and on the plates 
of long sections in the atlas of illustrations accompanying 
it, may be seen amply displayed the three Oil Sands — their 
local sub-divisions into four, five, six, and sometimes 
seven — their separation from one another by shales of va- 
rious color and consistency — the solidarity of the group, 
with a persistent thickness of 300' more or less — the great, 
rapid local changes of character which each Oil Sand under- 
goes when followed by the observer from one group of oil 
wells to another, over a large area of Western Pennsylva- 
nia — the perfectly definite upper and lower limits of the 
group — the overlying '^soft drilling measures"— and the 
underlying soft measures, persistent from the floor of the 
group downwards for at least a thousand feet, wherever 
pierced by deep wells. 

The universal rise of the Palaeozoic rock-deposits of 
Western Pennsylvania in the direction of the New York 
State line and Lake Erie brings the Venango-Butler Oil 
Oroup (sands and shales) to the surface for examination 
along an extensive belt of country stretching through Mc- 
Kean, Warren, Crawford, and Erie counties into Ohio. 

The examination of this broad out-crop can teach us 
nothing more respecting the essential nature of the group, 
its average thickness and constitution, than we have already 

* Reports of Progress 1, 1875, 1.I.I., 1880, by J. F. Carll. 

(99 Q*.) , ■ ^. .. ><:■ 



100 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

learned from the myriads of wells bored through it whei 
it lies beneath the surface.* 

But some radical changes of constitution take place i 
the Venango Oil Oroup towards its outcrop in Crawfor 
and Erie counties. 

The most practically important of these changes was dis 
covered in the early years of the oil excitement, when 
suflBcient number of bore-holes had been drilled northwes 
of Titusville to prove the absence of the Oil Sands as oi\ 
hearing sands in all the country between the Oil Bell 
which crosses lower Oil creek and Lake Erie. A coars 
sandstone is the only reservoir of free petroleum ; and 
loose gravelly sandstone is the only kind of "Sand" fror 
which an oil producer expects a free ilow of petroleum, f 

The deposits of coarse, gravelly sand in the Venang 
Group are confined to two narrow belts of country ; one 
commencing in southern Warren county, and stretchiuj 
through Venango into northern Butler; the other com 
mencing near Clarion, crossing the Allegheny river at Park 
er's, and ending in southern Butler county.:^ 

Between the two oil belts is a barren belt, along whicl 
the Oil Sands were deposited, but in the form of fine sane 
and muti mixed ; destitute of petroleum. 

In the country southeast of the southern ("Lower") oil 
belt, the same conditions obtain, and trial wells failed. 

So in the country northwest of the northern ("Upper" 
oil-belt, the sands were deposited, but in the form of com 
pact, fine-grained muddy flagstones ; and in this form the^ 
make their appearance at their outcrops through Cyawforc 
and Erie counties. 

This statement must nevertheless be modified to meet ai 
important exception ; for, while it is true of the First anc 
Second Venango Oil Sands^ it is not true of the TMn 
Venango Oil Sand^ if my identification of it with the L 

*Some idea of the enormous mass of material at hand for the explanatioi 
of this wonderful part of the Palaeozoic column can be got by examining th 
volume of well-records published as Report I.I. in 1877. 

t In large quantities at a time. The Bradford region Aimishes vast quant: 
ties, because every well yields a moderate quantity. 

X SeT ]JZap.in,4tl^ <to Report I.I.I. 1880. 



1 > 



VENANGO OIL SAND GROUP. Q*. 101 

B(Buf Conglomerate be correct. And this identification I 
account the most important discovery to which my survey 
of the district has given rise. 

During the summer of 1879 I traced and studied the out- 
crops of the measures of the Venango Group over a large 
portion of Erie county, and along their exposures on both 
sides of French creek in Crawford county. 

The measures underlying the Venango Group {Chemung^ 
Girard^ Portage) exposed for a maximum thickness of 
1000' I had the best possible opportunities for studying in 
the gorges of Conneaut, Elk, Walnut, Mill, Crowley's, Six 
Mile, Elliott' s, Scott' s, Twelve Mile, and Twenty Mile creeks, 
and in the many other and shorter ravines which open upon 
the lake shore ; so that the question of the extension of 
the Oil Sand members of the Venango Group in an identi- 
fiable condition northwestward, as far as Lake Erie, and 
into the State of New York, may now be considered settled, 
as shown in this report. 

While the First and Second Oil Sands fine into shales 
northward and westward, and cannot be clearly distin- 
guished even in the Oil Creek Lake boring, nor in the 
Sharon and other wells of the Shenango, Mahoning, and 
Beaver rivers, the Third Oil Sand is struck in all the wells 
as a massive deposit, unmistakable in its position, and in 
its character ; and it is possible to show that It (and the 
Venango group as a whole) extends through the State of 
Ohio as far as its central area in Knox and Ashland coun- 
ties. 

The Venango Group of rocks crop out over most of the 
surface of Erie county south of the great Divide, or high 
water shed ; and the area thus occupied is shown by the 
light red color on the Geological Map. 

The thickness of the group, averaged by Mr. Carll at 315', 
I find varying in my district between 250' and 350'. 

Venango Upper Sand. 

{First Oil Sand.) 

This is shown on the generalized section, on the side of 
the Geological Map, as a sandstone 20' thick. All that can 



102 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

be said of it is, that sandy deposits occur at this horizoi 
in other words sandy shales or flags occur among the fin 
muddy shales in the exposures of Erie county. But in ] 
case have I seen coarse or pebbly strata. 

At Meadville 20' to 25' of sandstone flags rise out of tl 
bed and run along the west bank of French creek, and a 
easily traceable by frequent exposures northward. 

Two miles north of Saegertown they form a fine bluff, c 
the east bank of French creek, where 20' of coarse dai 
brownish sandstone layers (1' to 2' thick) are cut throu^ 
by the railway. 

In Erie county these flags lie high up near the hill top 
and are often grayish white. 

At Anderson's quarry, 2 miles west of Edinboro', ove 
looking Conneautee lake, 1425' A. T., they are bluish white 
fine grained; sometimes a perfect mass otfucoid casts 
smelling of petroleum; and sometimes stained black 
Only 5' is quarried ; and the bottom layer is coarse graine( 
disintegrating on exposures. 

A hill-top, 1 mile south of Union city, 1500' A. T., an 
hill-toi)s near the northern line of Union township show 
flaggy sandstone probably referable to this horizon. 

At Russell's quarry, just north of Corry, near the count 
line, a bluish white sandstone lies at 1640' A. T., the sean 
and crevices of which 7iold petroleum^ and parts of tl 
quarry rock is stained with it. 

Productella Boydii^ Aviculopecten suhorhicularis^ Ptevi 
nites^ spJ and Spirifer disjuncta (all of them considere 
good Chemung types) I have collected from this horizon \ 
my district. t 

[♦This supports my view of the indigenous origin of petroleum. See n 
report on the East Kentucky Oil Springs of Paint Fork of Sandy, Proc. Amc 
Philosophical Society. 1865, J. P. L.] ^ 

t In a visit to the Allegheny river exposures I saw the First Oil Sand, 15 
above water level, at Tidioute, and double, as shown in my section there, Fi 
10, p. 75 above. T think it is probably represented in the bluff, 2 miles aboi 
Irvineton, right bank of the river, by a 25' pebble rock, the top of which is 18 
above water level, 1375 A. T. I think it is the quarrj^-rock at Warren, in whi< 
Mr. Randall hcs found HolopfychiuSfCoccosteuSj and a multitude of other ^, 
remains ; its top 240' above the river, 1440' A. T. I think it is represented 
the Great Bend section below Kinzua by the pebbly sandstone 240' abo^ 
the river, and 375' beneath the Olean {Oarlandt Sharon,) conglomerate. 



VEl^ANGO OIL SAND GBOUP. Q*. 103 

Venango Upper SJiale. 

Pale blue shales^ 90' to 100' thick, underlie the Upper 
Sand everywhere through Erie county. 

Occasional thin sandy layers may be seen, and these 
sometimes thicken into sandy flags. 

Fossil shells are quite abundant in most places where the 
shales appear, the prevailing forms being of Chemung type. 

Venango Middle Sandstone. 

{Second Oil Sand,) 

This horizon makeg little show in Erie county, being 
merely marked (everywhere) by a greater number of sandy 
shales or flagstone layers, in the mass of softer shales. 

In many places in Erie county its presence is indicated 
by the shape of the ground, or it is actually exposed along 
streams ; but nowhere have I found it a sandstone mass, or 
seen it exhibit a layer of pebbles. 

At Harry Comer's quarry, however, in Washington town- 
ship, 1355' A. T. are exposed 12' of bluish white sandstone 
(in 1' and 2' layers) the upper half shaley, the lower half 
quite solid, smelling strongly of petroleum^ which floats 
off on the water of the springs which issue at the base. 
Underneath are seen blue shales. 

In the Maynard's run bluffs. Amity township, the same 
flags crop out 125' above the Le Boeuf Conglomerate ( Ve- 
nango Lower Sandstone) in the bed of the stream. 

A red streaJc has been seen at several places in Erie 
county near this horizon.* One such place is just south of 
Doolittle's quarry. Amity township, where red shale^ 15' 
thick, shows in the roadside, 120' above the top of the 
qnarry-rock, the Venango Lower Sandstone. Another is 
at Oil Creek Lake where the well record puts a red bed 166' 

*In the Venango county oil region, at Tidioute on the AUegheny river, I 
recognized its fine exposure in massive layers of pebbly sandstone, its top 65' 
above water level. Followed down the river it sinks to water level, and at 
Trunkeyville, 4 miles below Tidioute, its upper surface (10' above railway 
grade) is honeycombed by numberless vertical stems of a fucoid^ 6" to 8" 
long. 



104 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

above what seems to be the same Venango Lower San 
stone. * 

Venango Lower Shales. 

In the interval of from 100' to 125' between the Venan^ 
Middle and Lower sandstones^ lie blue, gray and bro\^ 
shales, very fossiliferous. 

Sometimes the whole interval wears a dark colored aspec 

Rhynchonella contracta^ Streptorhynchus Chemunge\ 
sis, Leiorhynckus Tnesacostalis, Productella Boydl% Spir 
fera dlsjuncta^and many other distinctively Chemung typ( 
which I could not specifically identify are scattered throu^ 
the interval. 

Two Spirifer beds are noticeable in some localities, fro 
8'^ to 12" thick ; and I was surprised to find in them a sufl 
cient explanation of those soft, rotten, blackish lumps < 
material, filled with casts of fossil shells, which may be see 
with scattered over the surface of the ground, and also mixe 
the Northern Drift., not only in Erie and Crawford count 
but as far south as the Ohio river. The rock when broke 
is as hard as flint ; but of its old exposed surfaces nothin 
is left but the soft, earthy, darkened matrix, all the lime ( 
the fossils having been dissolved ; the decomposition of te 
penetrating to a depth of a foot. Many of the scattere 
blocks retain a core of the hard rock. 

Venango Lower Sandstone. 

{LeBoeuf Conglomerate.) 
{Panama Conglomerate.) 
{Third Oil Sand .) 

Oil well borings between Titusville and Lake Erie enabi 
me to identify the famous "Third Sand" of the old oil n 

♦So also iri the Beaver Falls well in Beaver county, the well record puts 1. 
of red shale at 116' above what seems to be the same rock. I noticed at Col 
ham, 6 miles above Tidioute in Warren county, two massive sandstones (2i 
and 16' thick, separated by 15' of shales) occupying the Venango Midd\ 
Sandstone horizon^ and the upper 25' division was equally sub-divided b 
several feet of red, green, and variegated shales. But this coloring occurs i 
so many horizons that it has no classical value except where it prevades 
great thickness of rocks, and persistently. 



VENANGO OIL SAND GROUP. Q*. 105 

gion with the outcrop of a remarkable set of sand rocks 
capping the Great Divide overlooking Lake Erie, as shown 
by the northern edge of the red color on the geological map. 




Other ontcrops of the same deposit descend French Creek 
valley, and IjeBoeuf Creek valley to their junction ; encircle 
Black run and the head of Elk creek and enclose Conneaut 
creek for four miles above and below Spring P. O. 



106 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Its varying depths in the wells added to my hillside sec- 
tions place it 750' beneath the Sharon Conglomerate.''' 

I have traced this deposit across Erie county from the 
Ohio line to the New York State line. 

Its exposures always show it charged with petroleum^ 
even where it is a sand and not a gravel rock. 

Its lower layers yield excellent building stone nearly 
everywhere. 

It is the principal quarry rock of Erie county. 

East of LeBceuf creek it is partly a coarse conglomerate ; 
and with a peculiarity, for a great many pebbles of meta- 
morphic rocks are found in it. 

It rises to the surface in LeBceuf township at the mouth 
of LeBceuf creek, and here the Carroll quarries have been 
wrought for more than fifty years. (Fig. 12.) 

Section at Carroll Quarries. 



Shales, 6' 

Spiri/er bed, 1' 

Shales, 8' 

Pebble rock * ' ' ^' J ir;' J ^^^' ^''^' 

Sandstone, bluish white, 8' 3 M 1205' A. T. 

Shales, blue, to level of French creek, 15' 



The division into an upper gravel and a lower sand is 
realized at many other places in the county. 

The upper gravel rock is a mere mass of quartz pebbles, 
mostly fat, or much broader and longer than thick ; their 
smooth rounded edges showing long continued attrition. 
The quartz is mostly white ; but jasper, green, and dark 
pebbles occur, and occasionally pieces of feldspar. Fossil 
shells are often seen in it, and fragments of plants. 

The lower sandrock is tolerably tine-grained, of a pecu- 
liar bluish-gray or whitish color, everywhere throughout 
the county. Its layers are from &' to 2' thick, splitting and 
dressing easily to a beautiful building-stone. 

No constant division plane exists between the gravel-rock 

♦Mr. Carll's Pleasantville section. Fig. 12, Plate 4, Report I.I.I, shows the 
hotiom of the S. C; at 1476' A. T., and the top of the 3d Oil Sand at 767' A. T. 
Difference. 709'. Add 37' for thickness of 3d O. S. DiflFerence between bottom 
of S. G. and bottom of 3d O. S., 746'. 



VENANGO OIL SAND GROUP. Q^ 107 

and sand-rock ; the gravel-rock thickening at the expense 
of, or thinning in favor of, the sand-layers. 

Petroleum pervades both the gravel-rock and the sand- 
stone layers; but there is more in the gravel-rock; and 
quarrymen say that they can occasionally collect a gallon 
of heavy oil at one time from the crevices at its base ; and 
always enough to grease their wagon wheels.* 

The top of the deposit is here at 1220' A. T. 

DooUttle^ s quarry is on the north branch of French creek, 
in Amity township, six miles northeast of the Carroll quar- 
ries; and the top of the exposure at 1340' A. T.f The 
section is shown in Fig. 13. 

Sandstone, hard, flinty, fossiliferous, 2' 

Pebbly layer, 3' 

Sandstone, bluish-gray, reported, 15' 

The top rock is almost a chert, and is crowded with fos- 
sils, the most abundant form being Rhynchonella contracta. 

The layer beneath it is a mere mass of pebbles, cemented 
into a muddy-gray matrix of coarse sand. I noticed in it 
one piece of feldspar as large as my fist. 

The quarried layers resemble those at the Carroll quar- 
ries, and smell strongly of petroleum; as does the pebble- 
rock. 

Allem! s quarry, 2^ miles from Doolittle's, shows the fol- 
lowing section (Fig. 14) : 

Sandstone, cherty, 2' 

Shale, • 2' 

Pebble rock, 2' 6" 

Sandstone, flaggy, 5' 

Shale, blue, 7' 

S Sandstone^ 1' 0" j 
Shale, blue, 6'' [ 2' 6" 
Sandstone, 1' 0" ^ 

Shale, blue, visible for 5' 

On Mr, SmitKs farm, about 3 miles N. of Doolittle's, 
on the Amity north line, the following section shows the 

* The stone is hauled to the P. & E. R. R. for shipment at Erie. 

t Base of the quarry rock 1320' A. T. Rate of dip towards the southwest, 
say Biy per mile. 




108 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

deposit in the form of an immense gravel bed (pervaded 
with petroleum)^ thus (Pig. 15) : 

Shale, visible, 3' 

Pebble bock, (a mass of pebbles) 20' 

Shale, blue, (with/ueotd«,) 5' 

On Mr, Bailej/s land in Venango township, near the 
New York State line, 2^ miles northeast from Smith's, this 
gravel-rock is seen thinned down to next to nothing, thus ; 
(Fig. 16.) 

Pebble rook, 0' 6" 

Shales, 2' 

Sandstone, 0' 6" 

Shales, 2' 

Sandstone in the bed of the ran, 1' 

Elevation of base of deposit at Bailey^s, 1425' A. T 

Elevation of base of deposit at Smith*s, ..***... 1875' 

Mate of/all towards the southwest, per milej 20' 

From Bailey's to CarrolPs, distance 14 miles.* 

Bate of fall towards the southwest, per mile, 17' 

West of French creek the pebble r.'^ck soon disappears 
from the outcrop exposures and only the characteristic blue 
flags remain. 

Reynold^ s quarry^ in Summit township, 1^ miles west of 
Jackson RR. station, 8 miles from Erie, has been worked a 
long time and here a small run exhibits the following ex- 
posures, (Fig. 17:) 

Sandstone, fucoidal, visible, 2* 

Shale, blue, ... 8' 

Sandstone, bluish-white {quarried,) 6' 

Base of the rock, ISIO' A. T, 

From this westward the fucoldal sandstone becomes a 
new and constant feature, and sometimes there is to be seen 
^. fucoldal sandstone also beneath the quarry rock. 

Oil-springs issue from the f ucoidal sandstone ; and por- 
tions of the quarry rock are rejected because saturated with 
petroleum. 

At Middleboro\ a run descending from the southeast 
shows the following section, (Fig. 18 :) 

* Air line, on the map. 



VENANGO OIL SAND GBOUP, 



Q*. 109 



Bbsle, blue, Tiaibls, S' 

BandMoQe, (rucoidal,) 7' 

ShalM and flags, 12' 

Sandacone bluJeb-gray, (quarried,) T' 

Sate of Toek, leos' A. T.* 

The veTticixXfucoidal stems give the upper sandstone {as 
at Reynold's) a very rough aspect; but some of them lie 
horizontal. They occur also in the lower sandstone, which 
seems completely saturated with petroleum, for pools of it 
are to be seen all around the outcrop. 

15. 18. 




Howard qiiarry at Stone-quarry village, in Franklin town- 
ship, long and extensively worked, shows the following sec- 
tion, (Pig. 19) : 

Sandstone, hard, cough, /ucoWoI, 6' 

Shales and sloga, 10' 

Sandatoue, (quarry roek,) 4' 

Shales, 10' 

Sandstone,t hard, rough, /ucoida;, 8' 

Base of quarry roek, ijso' A, T, 

'Fall aouthwestward in 6 milaa 95' ; rate 19'. 

4 Probably existing in the previoua Beotions but not exposed. 



110 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The quarry rock here is like that beneath the pebble ropk 
at the Carroll and other quarries, and in many of its por- 
tions filled with petroleum. 

Fossil sJtells are so abundant that portions of the rock 
are calcareous sCnd as hard as flint. The species determined 
by Mr. Whitfield and Prof. Stevenson, of New York, are 
the following: 

Productella^ spec, 

Chonetes llUnoisensis. 

Streptorhynclius CTiemungensis, 

Rhynconella contracta^ {Stenochysma contractum^ Hall.) 

Edmondia Burlingtonensis^ White and Whitfield. 

Orammy^ia Hannihalensls^ Shumard. 

Aviculopecten^ spec. 

Pteronites^ spec. 

Goniophora Aeola^ Hall (and W.)* 

Oo niophora rigida^ White and Whitfield. * 

Platyceras paralium^ W. and W.* 

Orthoceras, spec. 

Bellerophon^ spec. 
with the remark that "the fossils represent an horizon well 
down in the Chemung, so that if they are not Chemung, 
then there is no Chemung anywhere." 

Fucoid casts also are numerous in the quarry rock. Many 
of those in the upper and lower sandstones have their stems 
vertical, and some of them seem to have a Tiorse-sTioe sJiajye^ 
or to enter the top of the rock somewhat like a staple driven 
into a piece of wood. 

Shells filled with petroleum have been found in the quarry 
rock. Mr. Howard tells me that he has frequently found 
shells from which when broken open he has obtained a 
spoonf ull or more of pure oil. 

Goodman^ s quarry^ north-east from Howard's quarry, is 
on a stream, up and down which the following section is 
seen, (Fig. 20.) 

Sandstone, flinty, fucoidal^ 10' ' 

Shales, .... 12' 

Sandstone, bluish gray, gwarrted, 8' ^48' 

Shales, lO* 

Sandstone, flinty, /i^cotdaZ, 8'> 

♦ Burlington Group, Iowa. 



VENANGO OIL SAND GROUP. Q*. Ill 

The Upper and lower fucoidal sandstones are exactly 
alike. In both the atems are vertical. 
The quarry rock contains petroleum.'* 
Near Spring Village, on Conneaut creek, is the only out- 
20. 



crop of this rock which I have found exposed in Crawford 
county. . 

The various elevations above tide at the above places were 

* For other looalities in Erie oonnty see Fart II of this report, giving the de- 
t&lled geology of eaoh townahip. 



MiUa.Fall. 


Rate, 


.13 


285' 


20' S. 320 W. 


.18 


320' 


18' S. 460W. 


.23 


425' 


18i' S. 340 W. 


.11 


160' 


15i' 8. 66O W. 


.22 


320' 


14|' S. 700 W. 


. 7 


65' 


8' 8. 780W. 



112 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

not obtained by spirit leveling, but by Hicks' compensated 
field barometer, and the following results only approximate 
the absolute ; yet they evidently obey a fixed law of max- 
imum dip more south than south-west, thus : 

• 

Howard quarry to Spring village, . . 
From Middleboro' quarry " •* 

From Reynold's Quarry, «* " 
From ** ** to Stone quarry, . 
From CarroU Q. to Spring viUage, . . 
From Middleboro' Q. to Stone quarry, 

Eastward from Erie county, through the western part of 
the State of New York, I traced the outcrop of the Venango 
Lower Sandstone ( Third Oil Sand, and Le Beouf Conglo- 
merate) beyond Clynier, and identified it to my own satis- 
faction with the Panama Conglomerate, capping the high- 
land south of Chautauqua lake.* 

[* For Mr. OarU's views, see his Report I.I.I, 1880, pages 58 and 69. His de- 
scription of the Panama Conglomerate oocupies Chapter VI, pages 57 ff. 

At Panama he determined its elevation (top 1671' A. T.) by spirit leveling 
from Grant railroad station grade (1437' A. T.) and its thickness as 69'. North 
of Block ville and west of the lake 50'+, (1660' by barometer) A. T. At El- 
lory Center, east of the lake, fragments left on hill top, (1750' A. T.)— William's 
quarry, 4 miles north of Panama, lower beds? (fia^e 1660' barom. A. T.) — 
Lewis' quarry, \ mile west of last. — Chautauqua quarry, near Panama station, 
6 miles west of Panama, quarry sandrook, underneath flat-pebble conglomer- 
ate, (base of quarry, barom. 1600' ± A. T.— Bleaksley quarry, 3 miles south of 
Wattsburg, Erie county, shows 15' of sand and gravel rock ; but a bore hole 
reports 60', {base 1340') A. T.— Beaver run, west side, blocks. Doolittle quarry, 
3 miles west of Bleaksley; {ha^e 1330' barom. A. T.) a well here yielding a 
little oil, 42' to 130' down —Quarries in Waterford, on McClelland's and Mid- 
dleton's farms, old, reported by Hodge in 1837. — Moravian (or Carroll) quarry, 
near Le Boeuf, (6cmc of pebble rock, 1220' barom. A. T.) 

Thus in 1875, Mr. Carll followed the Parhama Conglomerate south westward 
into Erie county 35 miles, identifying it with the Le Boeuf Conglomerate of 
the Carroll quarry ; and in 1879 Prof. Wliite followed the Le Boiuf Conglom- 
erate from the Carroll quarry northeastward into New York, and identified 
it with the Panama Conglomerate. There can be no doubt of the identity ; 
and the distance being 35 miles, and the difference of elevation (base 1750' 
Chautauqua county ; 1220' at Le Boeuf) being 530', the rate of fall is about 15' 
per mile, about S.6OOW. 

Mr. Carll thinks that this rate would carry it beneath the surface beyond Le 
Boeuf, and therefore we find no more conglomerate in that direction. But 
Mr. White explains the fact satisfactorily, by showing that only the pebble 
rock layer dies out, but that the accompanying fucoidal sandstones keep on 
beyond Conneaut creek into Ohio. 

We have seen above that the rate of fall continues about the same beyond 



VENANGO OIL SAND GROUP. Q^ 113 

Tf the Salamanca Conglomerate be the same deposit, its 
great elevation at Salamanca (2190' A. T.) is explained by 
the continuance of the same rate of dip for 40 miles east- 
ward beyond Panama. 

In Crawford county a number of bore holes have struck 
this Venango Lower Sandstone at various depths, and at 
some of these bore holes it contains more or less petroleum / 
(see Part II of this report.) In Mercer county I recognize 
it as the 30' rock of the Sharon well (Fig. 8) and also in the 
Beaver Falls well (Fig. 9. ) 

Its frequent exhibitions of petroleum with the numerous 
oil springs along its outcrop through Erie county have been 
a fruitful source of vain hope and bootless exterprise to ex- 
plorers. Little supposing that the show came from the out- 
crop itself and had nothing to do with the under rocks, ex- 
plorers have drilled in almost every township to depths 
varying from 100' to 1800'. Probably half a million of dol- 
lars has been thus wasted on dry holes, in Erie county, sunk 
through measures underlying the Third Oil Sand for which 
the drillers were seeking. 

There is something ludicrously sad in imagining the sober 
rock looking down from a hillside day after day upon a 
derrick and a group of busy men, wondering what they 
were about, they all the while ignorant of its presence, and 
prob ing the earth to great depths to find it. A geologist 
who had studied the district thoroughly could have stopped 

Le Boeaf, viz: 22 miles to Spring viUageon the Conneaute, 11^' per mile, 8. 70^ 
W., but that a rate of 20' per mile is shown along a line of 13 miles S. 320 w. 

Eastward from Chautauqua Mr. Carll in 1875 followed the outorop of the 
Panama Conglomerate but a short way, and could not identify it with the 
Salamanca Conglomerate on account of the intervening 40 miles of compara- 
tively low country (I.I.I, page 78.) I consider this good evidence of an origi- 
nal failure of the gravel deposit in that direction, and that the belt or stream 
of its deposit ran more northward and is now lost in air ; its passing sideways 
(eastward) into sandstone, soft flags or shales, permitting easier erosion. 

This, I suspect, will prove to be the explanation of the diappearance of the 
Panama Conglomerate southward in northern Warren count v ; thus a/>- 
parenUy cutting its connection with that portion of it reoogniZiCd in Southern 
Warren and Venango as the Third Oil Sand ; just as Mr. White shows its mas- 
sive pebbly character vanishing west of Le Boouf in Brie county. 

Thus the independent surveys of Mr. Carll and Prof. White are harmon- 
iMd.-J. P. L.] 

8Q^ 



114 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

every such boring by merely pointing to the rock whore it 
showed its face in the hillside, and tracing its line of out- 
crop on the county map. 

The quantity of petroleum which the deposit originally 
held cannot now be estimated. For ages on ages the oil has 
been creeping through it towards its long lines of surface 
outcrop, seeping away from it in springs, and evaporating 
as gas. The whole deposit in Erie and Crawford counties 
seems to be now practically voided, as the dry holes show ; 
but a residuum of oil, lowered in gravity and partly oxi- 
dized, still remains, as the quarries show enough in places 
to unfit the stone for being used as in building. Petrolev/m 
still oozes from the black stained walls of the Eagle hotel 
in Waterford. 

The origin of petroleum receives an important explana- 
tion from these quarries. 

My observations convince me that the theory of distilla- 
tion from below is not only unproved, but unnecessary ; 
and that the theory of indeginous generation is demon- 
strated on the very face of the exposures. 

In other words the oil did not flow into the rock as dis- 
tilled liquor into a condenser, or water into a reservoir ; but 
was manufactured in the rock itself, and remained stored 
up where it was made. 

The fossil forms of the organic beings out of which it 
was manufactured crowd the rock itself — shell-fish and sea- 
weeds — as already described. 

My opportunities for observing the facts have been un- 
usually favorable in Erie county ; and for that reason I may 
claim both for my facts and my conclusions careful con- 
sideration. 

The conversion of the gelatinous tissue of Silurian coral- 
line animals into petroleum in situ was observed long ago. 
The conversion oifucoids into petroleum, and of carbonifer- 
ous waier-trees into cani^el^ has been advocated by Lesqne- 
reux. But I have noticed what at first sight looks like the 
conversion of the wood of air breathing trees into petroleum. 

At a quarry on Mr. Canty' s land, just above the Carroll 
(Le Boeuf) quarry, the massive pebble-rock is completely 



VENANGO OIL SAND GROUP. Q^ 116 

saturated with oil, ^\n{e fragments of trees stretch through 
it in all directions^ like a fallen forest^ or rather like a 
matted natural river raft. 

The woody fiber of these trees has not been replaced by 
mineral matter ; but instead of that, the cavities in the rock, 
or rock-molds left by the decomposition of the trees, are 
now occupied by a soft, rotten, 'somewhat cellular substance 
with the strong odor, and the general appearance, in parts, 
of the residuum from evaporated and oxidized petroleum. 

A thin film of coal is noticeable on some specimens ; but 
in most cases the wood itself looks as if it had been con- 
verted into petroleum. 

This can hardly be accepted as possible in the strict sense ; 
but these Devonian plants may have had soft parts, with a 
structure analogous to that of the sea weeds, which would 
furnish the petroleum ; and then, what of the woody fiber 
was left would be charged with it. 

Such deposits of drifted land-plants may exist elsewhere 
in the oil measures may exist ; but only in this one locality 
in Erie county did I see any notable quantity of them in 
this rock ; which nevertheless is saturated with oil more or 
less everywhere. 

I agree with Mr. Lesquereux therefore in referring the 
origin of the oil in the rock to fucoids, whose forms are visi- 
ble by millions at all the exposures, with possibly one or 
two exceptions.* 

Of course to the petroleum generated by the decomposition 
of sea-weeds in situ, must be a^ded whatever petroleum 
was generated by the decomposition of the soft parts of 
moUusca in situ, the forms of which are also verv numer- 
ous at some of the rock exposures. 

If the oil (or gas) ascended from the deeper formations 
and was merely condensed into and held by the Oil-sand, 
surely some of the lower rocks ought to retain and exhibit 
traces of its passage upwards. 

To test the possible fact, I made a special study of every 
stratum exposed beneath the Howard quarry. The lowest 

(* See his memoir in the Transactions of the American Pliilosophioal Society, 
Vol. XIII, p. 818, Pliiladelphia, 1866. ) 



116 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

bed of the Venango Lower sandstone here makes a cascade 
60' high, from the foot of which the stream rushes down 
towards Elk creek at the rate of 150' per mile ; and along Elk 
creek are perfect exposures all the way to Lake Erie. 

In 700' of strata thus exposed to minute examination I 
could not detect a single bituminous lamina. 

Not a trace of oil in any of the coarse Chemung flag- 
stones. 

The horizontality, the absence of faults, slides, fissures 
or crushes of any kind, and the multiplied alternations of 
impervious clay deposits, make the ascent of petroleum in 
the shape of gas a physical impossibility. 

Beneath the 700' thus exposed, 500' more have been pierced 
by wells at the mouth of Elk creek, through nothing but 
the same gray shales, without a trace of bitumen. 

Towards the New York State line 1000' of layers beneath 
the Venango Lower sandstone are exposed, and no bitu- 
minous shales appear. 

Some of the thin sand-layers of the Portage group are 
indeed more or less saturated with oil in many places ; but 
that the oil is indigenous to them also is plainly shown by 
its absence from similar layers above and below them. 



Chapteb XIII. 

Middle Devonian Rocks, 
{Chemung * Oirard^ Portage^ No. VIII.) 

Only 325' of typical Chemung strata underlie the Ve- 
nango group along the New York State line, which consid- 
ering the great thickness of the Chemung to the east and 
southeast, is I think an additional argument for including 
the Venango group in the same formation, I should there- 
fore prefer to consider these 325' of flag-stones as (palaeon- 
tologically) Lower Chemung. 

The 225' of underlying Girard rocks yield no fossils ^m- 
cej^t/ucoids^ and they may be considered (palseontologic- 
ally) either as a Chemung group, or as a Portage group, or 
as a transition group, or as an independant intermediate 
group, according to circumstances outside of the district 
under review. 

The 475' of underlying Portage rocks exposed above water 
at the New York State line, are also nonfossili/erous, ex- 
cept /or /tccoids. 

The distinction between the Girard and Portage beds is 
therefore one of mineral constitution, and is founded on the 
relative proportion of sandstone layers and shale layers, 
only. 

Chemung. 

Alternate groups of shale and sandstone ; fossiliferous, 
especially in the upper half, with a thin limestone lager at 
the bottom ; thickness, say 325' ; outcrop along the Lake 
Erie slope. Their top layers are exposed also in the val- 
ley of French creek, as represented by the light tint of 
Vandyke brown upon the map. 

* As I am disposed to look upon the Venango group as Upper Chemung ^ on 
aooount of its fossils, I should prefer to call thase Lower Chemung. [My rea- 
sons for not agreeing to this are given in the Preface.—J. P. L.] 

(117 Q*.) 



118 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Oeneralized Section. 

Shales, blue; with thin sandj layers, 25' 

Spirifer bed, 1' 

SaDdstone, somewhat massive, 15' 

Shales, ... 20* 

Saudstone, flaggy, 15' 

Sandstone, and epirifer beds, 12' 

Shales, blue, 80' 

JSpiri/er bed, 1' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 2(y 

Shales, blue, fosaili/erous^ 50' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 20' 

Shale, blue, 3' 

Sandstone, flaggy^ 17' 

Shale, blue, foanili/erous, 10' 

Sandstone, flaggy, .* lO' 

Shales and > ye, 

Sandstone, flaggy, ) 

Limestone, impure, 1' 



' Total thickness, say . . . 325' 

Some tolerably massive sandstone layers occur in the up- 
per part of the series ; but no pebbles — nothing coarser than 
sand grains— have been noticed. 

Fossil forms (except fucoids) are wholly wanting at the 
base of the series ; increase in number upwards ; and be- 
come very abundant through the upper 175' ; with numer- 
ous spirifer heds^ two of which are si)ecially mentioned in 
the section. 

Rhynchonella contracta^ Leiorhynchus Newberryi^ Spir- 
ifer disjuncta^ Spirifer mesocostalis ? Productella Jiirsviay 
Productella lacJtrymosa? Productella Boydii^ are the com- 
mon forms. Atrypa Tiystrix and many other genuine Che- 
mung types occur. 

Oirard Shale, 

A succession of ashen-gray and bluish shales, with only 
now and then a thin sandy stratum ; no fossils except j^«^- 
coids ; thickness, say 225' ; tinted a darker Vandyke brown 
upon the map; forms the Drift-covered rock-surface of 
western Erie county facing the lake, and is finely exposed 
in every ravine which descends northward from the Great 
Divide ; but especially along Elk creek, above Girard. 
Seen at a distance, its bluflf-slopes look remarkably like 
the Bowlder clay of the Drift, and sometimes like vast 
banks of gray coal-ashes. 



MIDDLE DEVONIAN ROCKS. Q*. 119 

Its base, or lowest layer, is at lake-level at Raccoon 
creek, near the Ohio State line, and 4TO' 2L 

above lake-level at thiTNew York State line. 

I have never found a single fossil shell in 
it, at hundreds of exposures examined ; but 
fucoid casts are very abundant. 

Its thickness of 225' was fixed by several 
direct vertical measurements, and if in the 
Oil Lake well-section (Fig. 11) the "266' of 
shells" be Chemung, and the "262' of soft 
slate" be Girard, their united thickness 
(528') will nearly equal my 325'4-225=550'. 
This argues against any rapid or consider- 
able tliickening for some distance towards 
middle Pennsylvania, where the thickness 
is' so very great. 

Portage ,flags. 

A succession of alternate layers of grey 
shale, and thin layers of hard sandstone ; 
no fossils except /Wo/t?« ,■ thickness seen 
above water level at the New York State 
line, 475'. 

The top layers rise from water-level with- 
in 2 miles of the Ohio State line, and slope 
np along the lake fixjut to 475' on the New 
York State line ; and so more and more of 
the formation gets above the lake as des- 
cribed by Hall in 1844. 

The layers of sandstone are usually 12" 
or less in thickness ; occasionally 2'. 

Fucoids are characteristically abundant. 
Hall's vertical fucoids of the upper layers 
are not seen in Erie county, and the massive 
sandstones which carry them have evident- 
ly thinned and lined westward. But his 
facoides graphica, casts of mud flowing 
over sand, and cone-in-conestructure occur in Erie county. 



120 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

PetroLewrri and gas issue from some of the thin sand 
layers. 

Collections of condensed gas undoubtedly exist ; for quar- 
rymen report the not infrequent occurrence of explosions, 
when they lift courses of the rock ; and there seems no other 
explanation at hand for those sharp little ridges, or minute 
cracked anticlinals, seen in the shales along the streams. 
The gradual removal of the rock above has permitted the 
pressure beneath to exert itself forcibly and suddenly, up- 
ward along a short crack. 

The gas and oil wells at Erie vary in depth from 450' to 
1200'. Deming's planing-njill well got gas at 453' (/. e, in 
Portage layers 650± from the top down.) The average 
depth of gas flow is about 600'; the Fortuna well got a lit- 
tle oil at 585'; Jareki's two wells 700' and 1200'; Brevillier's, 
625' (running for years ; Conrad's brewery well, 600'. (See 
Report J, p. 38, Wrigley, 1875.) 

Dr. Newberry identifies the New York Portage with the 
Ohio Huron {Great Black) slate. 

Mr. M. C. Read's section of rocks in Knox and Ashland 
counties, Ohio, makes the interval from the top of the Cuya- 
hoga shale or base of Sharon Conglomerate down to the top 
of the Huron black slate the same in middle Ohio as in 
Erie county, Pennsylvania, thus : 

From lowest ooal in Knox county, O. down to 
top of Huron slate, (Geol. Ohio, Vol. Ill, p. 335,) . . . 1265' 

Suh-carhoniferous and Venango^ 750' ' 

Chemung flags, '. 325' 

Oirard shale, 225' 

From lowest coal in Ashland county, O., down 
to Huron slate, (Geol. O., Vol. Ill, p. 523,) . 1376' 

From Sharon coal in Mercer county, Pa., down 
to Portage flags, I make, ... 1350' 

With such general conformity over such an area is it pos- 
sible that the whole Erie shale of the Ohio system can thin 
to a knife edge in the section in Huron county next north 
of Ashland — ^letting the Waverly down on to the Huron f 
Supposing my identification of the Ashland Waverly con- 
glomerate with my Oil Lake group to stand good, the Ash- 
land Erie group is 900' thick. Can all this be lost in cross- 
ing one countv line ? 



* in Erie co., 1300' 



CBAWFORD AND ERIE. 



PART II. 
Detailed Geology of the Several Townships. 

i. Wayne^ in Crawford County. 

This township is situated on the Venango county line, 
and is drained by Little Sugar creek. 

Across its southwestern corner flows French creek ; across 
its northeastern corner Sugar creek. 

Sugar lake lies 2 miles from the county line, in a Drift- 
filled valley, as described in Part I. At Mr. Allen's, two 
miles above the lake, an oil well passed through 80' of Drift 
below the level of the creek before striking any solid rock. 

The height of the lake above tide is between 1275' and 
1280', as determined with Aneroid Barometer, carefully 
checked at three different times. 

Mr. G. W. Long, who has lived on its banks for 65 years, 
tells me that 43 years ago he took soundings in various 
parts of the lake, and found the average depth, at some 
distance off shore, to be 30' to 32' ; but now he says the 
depth is only 16' to 18'. Its pure, cold water formerly con • 
tained a great many trout, as well as large quantities of 
black bass, perch, and sunfish, but owing to continual fish- 
ing, very few of any kind remain. Artificial hatching would 
probably prove successful, since numerous large springs 
around it, at 20' to 50' above its level, would serve that pur- 
pose very well. 

The general surface of Wayne township is quite rough, 
since, in most cases, the streams have carved their channels 
down through the massive rocks at the base of No. XII ; 

(121 Q*.) 



122 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

while many of the hills in its southeastern portion rise high 
enough topographically as well as geologically to take in 
the whole of the Conglomerate series^ and possibly a small 
portion of the Lower Productive Coal column. Hence this 
township contains the highest rocks known anywhere in 
Crawford county. It is, therefore, one of the few in which 
coal occurs. 

The Wentworth well was drilled near the southern line of 
the township, about 2i miles south from Sugar lake. The 
following record is furnished to Mr. Carll by Mr. Thos. T. 
Hall : 

Wentworth bore-hole. Fig. 22. 

1. "Clay and Gravel," 46' to 46' 

2. "Slate,*' 8' to 54' 

f 1. Coal, 1 \ ff 

8. " Coal, ) 2. Slate, 5' J ^ . 8' to 62' 

( S. Coal, 2' ) 

4. "Slate," 6' to 68' 

5. "Sandstone," ! ... 82' to 100- 

6. "Bluff S.S.," 100' to 200' 

7. " ? ", 100' to 300' 

8. "Mt. Sand," 100' to 400' 

9. " ? ", 300' to 706' 

10. "1st S. S.," 15' to 721' 

11. " ? ", 281' to 952' 

12. "2d Sand (some oU)," 10' to 962' 

13. "Slate," 15' to 977' 

14. "SdSand (better oil show)," 2' to 979' 

15. "Slate, soapstone, &o., nothing hard to drill 

through to bottom of hole (at 1100)," .... 121' to 1100' 

From Mr. Wentworth, who worked at the drill hole, 
I learned that from No. 10, several gallons of oil were 
obtained with much gas, and that the ''shells" in connec- 
tion with No. 14 were perfectly saturated with oil, though 
the rock was too fine in texture to hold any considerable 
quantity. It seems to me that this No. 10 stratum is 125' 
too low for the First Oil Sand. 

As the drillers had reported a large bed of coal, a coal 
operator was employed to drill a hole about 8 rods south 
from the oil well, and reported as in Fig. 23, (transferred 
to the oil well section Fig. 22,) and the work was abandoned. 

Liberty furnace, about one mile west from this just over 



Q'. 123 




1 



124 Q^ REPORT OF PR0GRE8S. I. C. WHITE. 

the Venango line, used native ores and went out of blast 
35 years ago. It was located near the head of one branch 
of Deckard's run, on the McDaniel property, where the coal 
of Wentworth's bore hole was mined, and the following 
section can be got along the run, (Fig. 24) : 

Liberty Furnace Section. 

1 . Conoealed, 50' 

2. Iron orCf 1' 

3. Shales, massiye^ SS., 20' 

r 1. Coal, 10" N 

4. Coal,) 2. Cannel slate, 4' 6" > Sharon, . 6' 10" 

( 8. Coal, 1' 6" ) 

6. Shales, 3' 

6. Massive SS. in clifBk, 20' 

7. Grayish shales, 16' 

8. Massive SS. in difOi, 25' 

0. Shales, brown and sandy, 2C' 

10. Sandstone, seen, 10' 

11. Concealed with oooasional outcrops of massive SS., . . 87' 

12. Meadville Upper limestone, 2' 

Iron ore (No. 2,) was here the principal source of supply 
for Liberty furnace ; it is a carbonate ore and quite rich. 

Sharon coal ? (No. 4) — This identification is doubtful, be- 
cause it comes so far (180') above the Meadville Upper lime- 
stone. 

Its upper and lower benches are of very fair quality, and 
were mined for the old furnace. The middle bench is an 
impure variety of cannel^ and Mr. McDaniel states that it 
burns tolerably well if the purer portions only are selected. 
It is finely laminated in some portions ; and again it breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture. 

Lingula. — In the laminated portions I saw many speci-^^ 
mens of a Lingula which I could not distinguish from L. 
melia^ Meek, of the Cuyahaga shale. The shells have left 
nothing on the layers of cannel except a shining film mark- 
ing with great distinctness the outline of the shell. 

Sandstones Nos. 6 and 8 are both quite heavily bedded, 
and each makes a line of cliffs along the hillsides. No. 8 
may possibly represent the Sharon Conglomerate^ unless 
the report of an old miner be true, who tells that once (40 
or 60 years ago) after a flood had stripped away all the d6- 



1. WAYNE. Q^ 125 

bris and left the strata completely exposed, he saw a bed of 
coal 4' thick just below oar No. 10 in the interval now 
concealed. If this were true it would represent the Sharon 
coal^ while Nos. 6-10 would represent the Connoquenessing 
SS. ; but this would place the Sharon coal only 80' above the 
Upper Meadville limestone; while the least interval between 
the two elsewhere seen in Crawford is 135', so that the 
"report" is to be received with much incredulity. 

Meadville Upper limestone No. 12 was once mined on the 
land of Mr. Shuey, one half mile above Deckard P. O., and 
used as a flux at the Liberty furnace. It is 2' thick but 
quite silicious, so that it had to be mixed with the Lower 
Mercer limestone from Utica. The rock cannot now be seen 
in bed, but Mr. Shuey showed me the bench where he had 
quarried it during the time the furnace was in blast. He 
also burned it and reports that it made very beautiful lime, 
being exceedingly white. 

Hoffmanns oil well boring, — Just above where the lime- 
stone was quarried, and near the county line, a well was 
once drilled on the land of M. Hoffman. It commenced at 
an elevation of 1290' above tide, about at the horizon of the 
limestone, and was drilled to a depth of 725 feet ; no record 
was preserved except in the memory of Mr. Hoffman — "63' 
of drive pipe was used before rock was struck. First show 
of oil was between 300' and 400' ; last sand struck at 650' 
(10' thick) with strong show of gas and oil ; sand good, and 
oil green." This would be the 3d oil sand horizon^ if it be 
the base of the Sharon Conglomerate that is seen 100' above 
the mouth of the well. 

A heavy vein of water was struck in the drift deposit at 
60', and it still flows from the casing in a large stream. 

An abandoned oil boring was drilled on the farm of Mr. 
Tingley just south from Deckard' s P. O. to a depth of 700' 
commencing at 1350' above tide, and reported to have a very 
good ''show of oil." 

Feldmillef s oil borings. — A short distance above the 
mouth of Deckard' s run, on the Little Sugar Creek bottoms, 
two wells were drilled on Mr. Feldmiller's land each 600' ; 
both gave some show, but only produced gas and water. 



126 Ql REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Grass run. — One mile north from the mouth of Deckard's 
run, a small stream called Grass run puts into Little Sugar 
Creek and along the lower portion of its course the Slienango 
sandsfone is seen in great development. Where the road 
crosses Grass run, one mile above its mouth, the stream has 
cut down just to the top of the rock. After rushing along 
on its top for 100 yards, it leaps into a deep and narrow 
chasm with an almost perpendicular fall of 35 feet. A short 
distance below the falls I obtained the following carefully- 
leveled section, (Fig. 25) : 

1. Shenango sandstone in oliffs, 80' 

2. Shales, blue, very soft and argillaceous, 86' 6'' 

8. Meadville Upper limestone^ . 2' 

4. Shale and flaggy sandstone, visible 5' 

5. Concealed to level of Sugar creek, 125' 

The STienango sandstone extends along each side of 
the gorge in a long line of unbroken cliflfs, getting higher 
and higher above the stream as it rapidly descends through 
the soft shales of the Cuyahoga formation. It is very 
massive and contains immense numbers of iron halls^ vary- 
ing in diameter from 1 to 6 inches. The rock is coarse, gray- 
ish-brown in color and contains many^^A remains^ chiefly 
unrecognizable fragments of scales and bones. The base of 
the stratum comes here 1315' above tide as determined by 
three carefully checked barometical measurements. 
• The blue shale has been scooped out perpendicularly for 
several feet under the cascade. 

The Meadville Upper Limestone is finely exposed for 
several rods along the gorge ; very fossiliferous ; filled with 
commingled fish-scales^ teeth^ spines and bones ; and many 
shells of Dlscina.Spirifera^ Productus^?iXi^Rhynchonellaf 
The stratum is quite silicious and in the^^A layer is a con- 
glomerate mass of smoothly worn and mostly flat pieces of 
shale and fine-grained sandstone. Top, 1280' A. T. 

The rocks beneath, partially exposed, appear to consist 
mostly of flaggy sandstone with alternations of shale. 

Pine Knoll is a very high knob nearly a mile northwest 
from the last locality. Rising far above any of the surround- 
ing hills, its crest, covered with a dense growth of tall pines, 
makes a conspicuous object in the general landscape. 



1. WAYNE. Q^ 127 

The Sharon (?) coal bed has been mined near the snmmifc 
of the knob for 50 years or more ; at one of the old open- 
ings I saw the following succession : 

Conglomerate sandstone, massive, visible, 15' 

Shale grayish sandy, 10' 

Coal, 1' 

The sandstone is quite coarse and often conglomeratic ; 
easily disintegrates and seems in all the exposures to be 
all broken up, probably by the Glacial ice ; since the top 
of the knob is only about 50' above the coal. 

The coal bed although so thin, has been opened in several 
places around the knob» and a considerable amount of coal 
has been taken from it, since no other bed is acceissible for 
a distance of many miles. It is an impure hlocic coal and 
may represent either the Sharon or the Quakertown. 

Its elevation is 1475' A. T. and (1475—1280') 195' above 
the Meadville Upper Limestone^ on Grass run, J of a mile 
south. But as there is a slight rise here to the northwest, 
the true interval is probably not far from 175' ; which agrees 
quite closely with that found between the sandstone and 
coal at Liberty Furnace. Mr. J. T. Hodge called it the 
Sharon coal in 1838, and it may possibly be that bed ; but 
the interval between it and the limestone is only from 100' ^ 
to 135' along the western line of the county ;. but the inter- 
vening measures may thicken eastward. 

Just opposite Pine Knoll, on the west side of Little Sugar 
creek, a very high ridge of land on the property of Mr. 
Slingluflf catches a small area of the coal, but it has never 
been mined there to any extent. 

Tosef s coal, — On the summit one and a half miles north- 
east from Pine Knoll Mr. Yoset dug a well, and foimd 8" 
of slaty coal^ having the same hlocJc-liJce appearance as 
that on Pine Knoll. Well mouth, 1525' A. T.; coal bed, 
1505' A. T. 

Messerell saw-mill section : — On the land of Mr. Messer- 
all, near the northern line of Wayne Tp., a small stream 
puts into Big Sugar creek, and at the saw-mill the follow- 
ing succession occurs : (Pig. 27.) 



128 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

1. Shenango sandstone^ visible, 20' 

2. Shales and oonoealed, 35' 

3. Meadville Upper Limestone, 2 

4. Concealed to level of Creek, 30 

The sandstone is here very massive, and forms a bold 
cliff along the stream ; a cascade 20' high affords excellent 
water power at the saw mill. 

The limestone was once quarried and burned by Mr. 
Messerall who reports it as making a very fine white lime, 
though it had to be calcined quite long before it would 
slack well. The horizon of the limestone was concealed 
by debris when I visited the locality, but Mr. Messerall 
showed me where he had dug it out of the bank and also 
some loose pieces lying along the stream. 

The base of the sandstone in the section lies 75' above the 
level of Sugar lake, 2 J miles to the southeast. There is a 
considerable dip in that direction, so that at the lake the 
sandstone is only 30'above the water, as is shown by a row 
of immense blocks of the sandstone, none being seen on the 
slope above. 

A line of large springs also issue from a little below the 
horizon of the sandstone blocks. Such springs are nearly 
always found at its base. 

About one atid a half miles south of the lake a long high 
ridge of land rises 400' above the lake. This is high 
enough to catch the ferriferous limestone^ unless the drift 
which covers up everything out of sight on the ridge be 
very deep. 

Barometric elevationB in Wayne township. 

Sugar lake, (above tide,) 1280' 

Crossing of road south from the lake, " • 1275- 

Cross roads at J. Lepley's, " 1670* 

** " Drake's School House, " 1500' 

Deokard P. O., " 1240' 

Forks of road at P. HoUbaugh's, " 1335' 

Cross roads at R. Heath's, " 1370' 

School house east from W. Roberts, " 1140' 

Cross roads at W. Watson's, »« 1290' 

" " J. Lubold's School House, " 1440' 

Bresler's Flouring Mill, on Sugar creek, .... '* 1090' 

W. L. Lnbold's, «« 1305' 

Crossing of Sugar creek at R. Raster's^ " 1140' 



DETAILED GEOLOOT. 

26. 




^*k«yw««. 



Wmljr.Z. . 



9Q*. 



130 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Forks near S. Houtz's, ** 1206' 

•* next above, •' 121(y 

Forks at J. D. Frost's, " 1830' 

" W. McElroy's, •« 1350' 

" D. Dupont's, . " 1350' 

«« A. Pegan's, »* 1370' 

" W.Reoord's, »* 1290' 

Grossing of Grass run, ** 1345' 

Gross roads at Jannesat*s School Hoase, ** 1440' 

Grossing of Grass run east of Sctiool House, .... '* 1430' 

Gross roads near G. Long's, '* 1520' 

George McDaniei's School House, ** 1340' 

Forks next east '' 1320' 

" next south east, ** 1310' 

Level of Big Sugar creek on John Allen's estate 

(road crossing,) ** 1290' 

Forksat J. Boyd's, ♦• 1800 

«< near W. McDUl's School House, *' 1475' 



2. JSast Fairfield, Crawford county. 

This township stretches along the east bank of French 
creek, sonth of Mead. 

Along its central portion parallel with French creek, ex- 
tends a long high ridge, high enough in some places to hold 
the Sharon coal. The descent to French creek westward 
is rapid. East of it is the valley of Little Sugar creek, 
which curves through Wayne township and enters French 
creek at Cochranton, near the southern corner. 

Sharon coal bed. — A small patch of this bed remains on 
the ridge near the northern line, about a mile east of French 
crfeek, on the land of Mr. A. H. Byhm. 

In the summer of 1878, Messrs. Lewis and Oliphant, of 
Pardoe, explored this deposit, because it was reported that 
4 feet of coal had been drilled through on the opposite side 
of French creek, 2 miles distant, and at a much lower level. 
Four or five holes were drilled on Byhm's hill, arid some 
coal was found in each. Then a shaft was sunk 55' through 
drift ; but the coal when reached was so broken and mixed 
with drift deposits that its original thickness and character 
cotild not be told. In none of the holes was anything but 
drift found over the coal — 1510' ; coal bed 1445' A. T. 



2. EAST FAIRFIELD. Q*. 131 

Just south from Mr. Byhm's, a small stream starting on 
the high divide flows west into French creek, and exposes 
a very good section for a portion of the distance ; and de- 
scending it from the Byhm shaft, the following succession 
occurs, (Fig. 28) : 

Byhni s run section. 

Drift in shaft, 55' 

Sharon? Coalj ? 

Concealed, 100' 

Shenango Sandetone, massive 25' 

Concealed with occasional exposures of flaggy sandstone, . . 80' 

Sharpsville Sandatone, flaggy, 40' 

Meadville Lower Limestone^ 1' 

Sandstone, flaggy, and concealed, 75' 

Orangeville Shales, bluish, 2' 

Concealed to level of French creek, 80' 

The Shenanago sandstone here forms a conspicuous cliflE 
around the head of the ravine, and is the same coarse brown- 
ish yellow rock filled with iron halls that always occurs at 
this horizon in Craw^ford county. Mr. Lewis drilled 20' into 
it for coal but abandoned it. 

The Sharpsville sandsto?ie makes very steep slopes along 
the stream, and many of its layers are very compact. 

The Meadmlle Lower Limestone is seen wedged in be- 
tween layers of sandstone ; it is quite siliceous and breaks 
with the glassy peculiar fracture described on page 84. 

Of the Orangeville shales only the lowest 2' are seen ; the 
upper 60' is here concealed. 

About } of a mile above Shaw's Landing, a very good 
section of the measures below the Shenango Sandstone is 
obtained in descending a ravine on the land of Mr. Adam 
Shreck, as follows : (Pig. 29.) 

Adam SchrecJc's Section, 

Shenango Sandsionet visible, 10' 

Concealed, 5' 

Shales, bluish, sandy, 20' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 5' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, 1' 6'' 

Concealed, 10' 

Sandstone flaggy, and sandy shales, 30 

Shales, slaty 5' 

Sharpsville Upper Sandstone, flaggy, 40' 



132 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Meadville Lower Limestone^ 1' 

Sharpsvilte Lower Sandstone, 15' 

Orangeville blue ehales with Lingulae and Diacinae, . . 55' 
Concealed to level of French creek, 110' 

The Upper Lirriestoiie is a perfect mass of smoothly- 
rounded and mostly flat pebbles of shale ; nodules of iron ; 
and fragments of fishes^ including scales, teeth and bones. 

The Lower Limestone is here found in the center of a 
quite hard and massivie sandstone, from which its weathered 
surface cannot be distinguished ; but a fresh fracture re- 
veals its limy character at a glance. 

In the Orangeville shale many specimens of Lingula 
mella and Discina pleuritis were seen in it, at this locality. 
The shale is quite tine-grained and has in it a very few thin 
layers of grit. 

Railroad deep cut section, — One mile below Shaw's Land- 
ing, and just above the bridge across French creek, the fol- 
lowing rocks are seen in a deep cutting along the A. & G. 

W. R. R: (Fig. 30.) 

• 

Corry Sandetone, 10' 

Shales, blue, 25' 

Concealed, 25^ 

To level of French creek, 1055' A. T. 

The Corry Sandstone comes in layers here V to 2^' thick, 
and is a tolerably coarse, brownish-colored rock. Its top 
lies about 180' lower than the base of the Shenango Sand- 
stone. 

The fine-grained, bluish-gray shales contain three or four 
layers of lean siliceous iron ore 2 to 3 inches thick. 

Sharon Conglomerate? — As we ascend the hill- road to 
the east, just below this, the outcrop of a massive sand- 
stone is seen at 1340' A. T. up to 1370' at the summit. The 
surface is strewn with blocks of pebbly sandstone. 

On the ridge road near Mr. J. F. Powell's, an old valley 
of erosion is seen str^tching across from Little. Sugar creek 
to French creek, with a general level of 1240' A. T. Its 
side slopes are 100' to 150' high.* The lower part of the 
present valley of Sugar creek has the appearance of being 

* See Part I, p. 86. 



EAST FAIRFIELD. 

a recent cut, for its sides are very steep, and 
often show the horizontal strata cropping 
out free from Drift. 



Q*. 133 



Barometric Elevations in E. Fairfield. 



Forks MR. Cochran's. (above tide) 


1100' 


" J. KUnger'8, 


1270" 


Cross-roads at Lafferty's school- 




house, ' 


1885' 


Forks at T. F. Prtwell's, 


1840- 


" H. Haath'H, 


1160' 


Lane at Jninea Macley's, " 


1175' 


Eoad at, J. F. FoweH's, 


1250- 


" D. MoFate's, 


1310' 


" school-house, next north, *' 


1360" 


Cross-roads at R. MoFarUnd's, 


1390- 


CrOB^g of run at J. Stonebrooks', " 


1305' 


CroBs-roads at J. Sboddard's, ... 


1230' 


A. S. Beatty's, ... 


ino' 


Forks at E. E. Smith's 


1445' 


" L. Bybm's " 


1510' 


" F. FryermuthlB, " 


1410- 


Ccow-roads at D. Vemln'is . . 


1250' 


Crosaingof Little Sugar creek, next 




east, 


1176' 




1200' 


Crossing of Sugar craeltat O. Mill, 


1100' 


Porks at H. Stitzer's, 


1180' 


" E. MoFato's, " 


1200' 



3. Union, in Craisford County. 

This township occupies the triangnlar area between French 
creek and Conneant Lake creek. Small streams descend 
from its centml high land both ways. Its northern line fol- 
lows a low valley, through which the A. & G. W. R. R. 
passes, from French creek two miles below Meadville, over 
to Conneaut Lake creek at Geneva. Some of the elevated 
land rises higli enough to take in the Sharon Coal. 

On the land of Mr. Juo. Klipple the Sharon Coal oat- 



134 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

crop is seen in a ditch near the summit of theliill. There is 
no covering above it, however, except Drifty and the coal 
has been so very badly broken up that it was found impos- 
sible to mine it with any success. But Mr. Pierson, of 
Meadville, once succeeded in getting several wagon loads. 
The outcrop of the Sharon Coal is seen on the bluflf just 
west from French creek, where the following section was 
made (Fig. 31) : 

Section at J. Klipple' s. 

Drift, 26' 

Sharon Coal bed, . . 2'-3' 

Concealed, but oontaining the \ 

Massive Shenango S. S, at base, > 95' 

5 feet of which can be seen, / 

Shales, bluish and i ^, 

Sandstone, fosaili/erouSi flaggy* ' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, 2' 

Flaggy 8. S. and shales, with fucoids, 8' 

Concealed, 25' 

Flaggy 8. 8., containing many fueoids^ 15' 

Concealed, 40' 

Flaggy 8. S., 10* 

Concealed to level of French creels, 135' 

Here we get an interval of 135' between the Sharon CoclL 
and the Meadville Upper Limestone ; but the Sharon Con- 
glomerate seems to have a very poor development in this 
section, since it does not make any show and this probably 
renders the interval less than it would otherwise be. 

The Shenango sandstone^ the lowest 6', of which only 
are visible, makes a steep bluff ; many huge blocks of it lie 
scattered over the surface below, some of them pebbly. 

The flaggy sandstones beneath it contain sub-carbonifer- 
ous forms of Spirifera and Allorisma, 

The Meadville Upper Lim^estone is here quite silicious, 
and breaks with its usual glassy fracture. 

The flags under the limestone contain a gi-eat many GyV 
\xiA.Y\Q.di\fucoids. 

A bore hole was drilled b v two men a short distance north 
from the line of section described above, commencing 75' 
below the coal^ and they reported 3J' of coal, 50' down. 

Mr. Lewis of Pardoe offered to purchase if they would 



3. UNION. Q*. 135 

allow him to pat a hole down along side of theirs to test 
the coal ; this they refused to do, and woald only allow 
bim to test within 10 rods south of their hole, at about the 



^^ 




-.-z^a 




same level, but no coal was found at 50', and the deception 
was evident. 

Berg's quarry. About one mile west from Mr. Huber's, 
a high ridge, on the land of Mr. Berg, has its top covered 
with massive blocks of white sandstone {Sharon Conglom- 



136 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

€frate or possibly Lower Connoquenessing S, S,) The rock 
has been quarried to some extent and makes an excellent 
building stone, although rather hard to work. 

Descending from this, south, toward Conneaut Lake creek 
the following succession occurs : (Fig. 32. ) 

Berff's quarry section. 

Concealed, and oovered with white S.S. blocks, 100' 

Shenango Sandstone^ 20^ 

Concealed with an occasional outcrop of flaggy sandstone, . . 150' 

Meadville Lower Limestone^ (1165' A. T.,) 1' 

Sharpsville Lower Sandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Concealed to level of Conneaut Lake creek, 90' 

The Shenango 8, S. is seen in large blocks scattered over 
the hill side ; was formerly quarried quite extensively and 
used in the construction of the old Beaver canal feeder. 

The Meadville Lower Limestone, seen along the road a 
few rods above where it crosses the old canal feeder, is very 
hard and flinty, and has sandstone above and below it which 
it outwardly resembles. 

Barometric elevations in Union. 

Township line, on road | mile west from French 

creek, (above tide,) 1320' 

Forksofroadat J. Hank's " 1275' 

Crossing of A. <fe G. W. R. R. near G. Reitzer's, . . " 1090' 

Forks at Bierly heirs, ♦* 1130' 

** George Perkin's, " 1176' 

" S. A. Beer's, " 1355' 

Lane near Fred. Steins, «* 1405' 

Road at Huber's School House, " 1435' 

** J. Bower's, «* 1435' 

Forks at Adam Rungs, " 1380' 

Cross roads at F. Karn's, ** 1420' 

Lane at O. Power's, ^ " 1370' 

Cross roads at H. Power's, ** 1080' 

Creek opposite, ** 1055' 

Forks near Asa Smocks " 1105' 

Forks near O. H. P. Herrington's, ** 1095' 

Crossing of A. <fe G. W. R. R. next north, .... •* 1095' 

Forks at J. Hannah's, •* 1240' 

" C. Van Horn's " 1115' 

Crossing Reitzer's run next north, »* 1075' 



4. FAIRFIELD. Q*. 137 



i. JFairfield, in Crawford County. 

This township lies between French creek, Conneaut Lake 
creek, and the Mercer county line. 

Along the county line the land is quite elevated, and many 
of the hills rise high enough to take in the Homewood S. 8. 

Near its southwest corner, at the county line, Mr. Bick- 
erstaflf once drilled and reported 3' to 4' of coal, at a depth 
of 80'. He also tried to open the bed at the outcrop, but 
found that the massive sandstone roof cut out the coal. 
The bed is that mined on the land of Mr. John Pulk, in 
Mercer county, one mile south, described in QQQ, page 205. 

On the summit at Mr. Wm. Johnson's, a well was dug, 
and in it a coarse pebbly sandstone, partially decomposed, 
was struck at T below the surface ; this is most probably 
the representative of the Homewood sandstone. 

On the land of Mr. Gourley, two miles west from John- 
son's, and near the county line, a hole was drilled to a depth 
of 120', testing for coal ; the rock was struck at a depth of 
20'. Somewhere between 80' and 100' Mr. Gourley says 
the drillers found something blacky which they claimed as 
coal^ but others thought it only black slate. One of the 
Mercer coals ought to have been found in this interval, 
since it is only f of a mile north from Chateley's, in Mercer 
county, where the Mercer Lower coal was once mined (see 
QQQ, page 206. The surface at Gourley' s is 1445' A. T., 
nearly 100' higher than Chatley's coal mine. 

Just north from the cross-roads at J. H. Calvin's the out- 
crop of a massive sandstone, coarse and white, is seen at 
an elevation of 1465' A. T. It is probably one of the Con- 
noquenessing sandstones. 

One mile north from this a great many sandstone blocks 
are seen scattered over the ground, and a ledge of the rock 
from which they were derived crops out near Mr. S. Hills, 
at 1390' A. T. 

One half mile further north the outcrop of the Shenango 
sandstone makes a steep bluflf around the hills at 1290' A. 



128 Ql REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

1. Shenango sandstone, visible, 20' 

2. Shales and concealed, 35' 

3. Meadville Upper Limestone, 2 

4. Concealed to level of Creek, 30 

The sandstone is here very massive, and forms a bold 
cliff along the stream ; a cascade 20' high affords excellent 
water power at the saw mill. 

The limestone was once quarried and burned by Mr. 
Messerall who reports it as making a very fine white lime, 
though it had to be calcined quite long before it would 
slack well. The horizon of the limestone was concealed 
by debris when I visited the locality, but Mr. Messerall 
showed me where he had dug it out of the bank and also 
some loose pieces lying along the stream. 

The base of the sandstone in the section lies 76' above the 
level of Sugar lake, 2^ miles to the southeast. There is a 
considerable dip in that direction, so that at the lake the 
sandstone is only 30'above the water, as is shown by a row 
of immense blocks of the sandstone, none being seen on the 
slope above. 

A line of large springs also issue from a little below the 
horizon of the sandstone blocks. Such springs are nearly 
always found at its base. 

About one and a half miles south of the lake a long high 
ridge of land rises 400' above the lake. This is high 
enough to catch the ferriferous limestone, unless the drift 
which covers up everything out of sight on the ridge be 
very deep. 

Barometric elevations in Wayne township, 

Sngarlake, (above tide,) 1280* 

Crossing of road south from the lake, «* • 1275' 

Cross roads at J. Lepley's, " 1670' 

** " Drake's School House, " 1600' 

Deckard P. C, " 1240^ 

Forks of road at P. HoUbaugh's, " 1335' 

Cross roads at R. Heath's, «* 1870^ 

School house east from W. Roberts, " 1140' 

Cross roads at W. Watson's, " 1290' 

" «* J. Lubold's School House, " 1440' 

Bresler's Flouring Mill, on Sugar creek, .... •* 1090' 

W. L. Lubold's, " 1305' 

Crossing of Sugar creek at R. Raster's^ ** 1140' 



DITTAILED GEOLOGY. 

SB. 



Q". 139 




9Q*. 



180 Ql REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Forks near S. Houtz's, ^ . . '* 

** next above, ** 

Forks at J. D. Frost's, " 

•* W. McElroy's, " 

" D. Dupont's, . «* 

«« A. Pegan's, »* 

" W.Reoord*8, " 

Grossing of Grass run, *^ 

Gross roads at Jannesat's School Hoase, ** 

Grossing of Grass run east of School House, .... '* 

Gross roads near G. Long's, *^ 

George McDaniei's School House, *' 

Forks next east, '* 

" next south east, ** 

Level of Big Sugar creek on John Allen's estate 

(road crossing,) *' 

Forks at J. Boyd's, '♦ 

" near W. MoDill's School House, *' 



1205' 

121(y 

1880' 

1350' 

1350' 

1370' 

1290' 

1346 

1440' 

1430' 

1620* 

1310' 

1320' 

1310' 

1290' 
1300 
1476' 



2. East Fairfield^ Crawford county. 

This township stretches along the east bank of French 
creek, sonth of Mead. 

Along its central portion parallel with French creek, ex- 
tends a long high ridge, high enough in some places to hold 
the Sharon coal. The descent to French creek westward 
is rapid. East of it is the valley of Little Sugar creek, 
which curves through Wayne township and enters French 
creek at Cochran ton, near the southern comer. 

Sharon coal bed. — A small patch of this bed remains on 
the ridge near the northern line, about a mile east of French 
crfeek, on the land of Mr. A. H. Byhm. 

In the summer of 1878, Messrs. Lewis and Oliphant, of 
Pardoe, explored this deposit, because it was reported that 
4 feet of coal had been drilled through on the opposite side 
of French creek, 2 miles distant, and at a much lower level. 
Four or five holes were drilled on Byhm's hill, arid some 
coal was found in each. Then a shaft was sunk 55' through 
drift ; but the coal when reached was so broken and mixed 
with drift deposits that its original thickness and character 
cotild not be told. In none of the holes was anything but 
drift found over the coal — 1510' ; coal bed 1445' A. T. 



2. EAST FAIRFIELD. Q*. 131 

Just south from Mr. Byhm's, a small stream starting on 
the high divide flows west into French creek, and exposes 
a very good section for a portion of the distance ; and de- 
scending it from the Byhm shaft, the following succession 
occurs, (Fig. 28): 

BylmCs run section. 

Drift in shaft, 55' 

Sharon? Coal, ? 

Concealed, 100' 

Shenango Sandstone, massive 25' 

Concealed with occasional exposures of flaggy sandstone, . . SO' 

Sharpsville Sandstone, flaggy, 40' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 1' 

Sandstone, flaggy, and concealed, 75' 

Orangeville Shales, bluish, 2' 

Concealed to level of French creeic, 80' 

The Shenanago sandstone here forms a conspicuous cliff 
around the head of the ravine, and is the same coarse brown- 
ish yellow rock filled with iron halls that always occurs at 
this horizon in Crawford county. Mr. Lewis drilled 20' into 
it for coal but abandoned it. 

The Sharpsville sandstone radik^.^ very steep slopes along 
the stream, and many of its layers are very compact. 

The Meadville Lower Limestone is seen wedged in be- 
tween layers of sandstone ; it is quite siliceous and breaks 
with the glassy peculiar fracture described on page 84. 

Of the Orangeville shales only the lowest 2' are seen ; the 
upper 60' is here concealed. 

About f of a mile above Shaw's Landing, a very good 
section of the measures below the Shenango Sandstone is 
obtained in descending a ravine on the land of Mr. Adam 
Shreck, as follows : (Pig. 29.) 



Adam SchrecJc's Section. 

Shenango Sandstone, visible, 10' 

Concealed, - 5' 

Shales, bluish, sandy, 20' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 5' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, 1' 6'' 

Concealed, 10' 

Sandstone flaggy, and sandy shales, 30 

Shales, slaty 5' 

Sharpsville Upper Sandstone, flaggy, 40' 



/ 



132 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 1' 

Sharpeville Lower Sandstone, 15' 

Orangeville blue shales with Lingulae and JHseinae, . . 55' 
Concealed to level of French creek, 110' 

The Upper Limestone is a perfect mass of smoothly 
rounded and mostly fiat pebbles of shale ; nodules of iron ; 
and fragments of fishes^ including scales, teeth and bones. 

The Lower Limestone is here found in the center of a 
quite hard and massive sandstone, from which its weathered 
surface cannot be distinguished ; but a fresh fracture re- 
veals its limy character at a glance. 

In the Orangeville shale many specimens of Lingula 
melia and Discina pleuritis were seen in it, at this locality. 
The shale is quite line-grained and has in it a very few thin 
layers of grit. 

Railroad deep cut section, — One mile below Shaw's Land- 
ing, and just above the bridge across French creek, the fol- 
lowing rocks are seen in a deep cutting along the A. & G. 
W. R. R: (Fig. 30.) 

Corry Sandstone, 10' 

Shales, blue, 25' 

Concealed, 25' 

To level of French creek, 1055' A. T. 

The Cbrr^/ Sandstone comes in layers here V to 2^' thick, 
and is a tolerably coarse, brownish-colored rock. Its top 
lies about 180' lower than the base of the Shenango Sand- 
stone, 

The fine-grained, bluish-gray shales contain three or four 
layers of lean siliceous iron ore 2 to 3 inches thick. 

Sharon Conglomerate ? — As we ascend the hill-road to 
the east, just below this, the outcrop of a massive sand- 
stone is seen at 1340' A. T. up to 1370' at the summit. The 
surface is strewn with blocks of pebbly sandstone. 

On the ridge road near Mr. J. F. Powell's, an old valley 
of erosion is seen stretching across from Little. Sugar creek 
to French creek, with a general level of 1240' A. T. Its 
side slopes are 100' to 150' high.* The lower part of the 
present valley of Sugar creek has the appearance of being 

* See Part I, p. 36. 



EAST FAIRFIELD. 

a recent cut, for its sides are very steep, and 
often show the horizontal strata cropping 
out free from Drift. 

Barometric Elevatiorts in E. Fairfield. 



Q*. 133 



Forks at R. Cochrane (above Ude) 


IIOO' 


J. Klingar'B, 


1270' 


Cro6»-roads at Laflbrty'a achool- 




honse, " 


1385' 


PorksatT. P. Powell's, " 


lun- 


H. Heath'8, 


1160' 


Lane at Jamea Marley's, " 


117S' 


Road at J. F. Powell's. 


1250' 


" D. MoFaWa, " 


ISW 


" iohool-house, uext aorCh, " 


1360- 


Crom-roadB at R. MoFarland'a, 


ISSC 


CroB^ng of run at J. Stonebrooka', " 


1305' 


Cross-roads at J. Stoddard's. ... 


i^ao- 


" A. 8. Beatty's, ... " 


1110' 


Forka at E. E. Smith's, 


1445' 


L. Byhm's 


1510' 


" F. Pryamiuth's, " 


HIO* 




laso- 


CrosBitigof Little Sugar creek, next 




east, 


1176' 




1200' 


Croaaing of Sugar creek at Q. MUl, 


llOO- 


Forka at H. SUIaar'a, 


1180' 


E. MoFate's, 


1200- 



3. Union, in. Crawford County. 

This township occupies the triangular area between French 
creek and Conneunt Lake creek. Small streams descend 
from its central liigh land both ways. Its northern line fol- 
lows a low valley, through which the A, & G. W. R. R. 
passes, from French creek two miles below Meadville, over 
to Conneaut Lake creek at Geneva. Some of the elevated 
land rises high enough to take in the Sharon Coal. 

On the land of Mr. Jiio. Klipple the Sharon Coal out- 



144 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Just west from this, one fourth of a mile, on the land of 
Mr. Jesse McEntire, the coal was once mined quite exten- < 
sively, though none has been taken out for the past twenty 
years. 

It was, according to Mr. McEntire, a genuine tlock coal^ 
though the central part had a tendency to run into cannel^ 
and varied in thickness from 2' to 8'. It was hauled to Erie 
and also to Meadville a long time ago. 

The coal lies 25' beneath the highest surface ; ovei^it, 
broken sandstone, mixed with clay, 10' ; the rest Drift, At 
other places, where the sandstone had been entirely eroded, 
the coal was worked by stripping off 5' to 8' of Drift. The 
area of workable coal was probably 6 or 7 acres. It was 
used by smiths, and seems to have been tolerably pure in 
parts of the bed. 

Quarries, — About one mile southwest from McEntire' s, 
on the land of Mr. Jackson, the Shenango sandstone has 
been extensively quarried by the A. & G. W. R. R. Com- 
pany for building bridges, arches, &c. The base of the 
sandstone, seen along a small run west from the quarry, 
comes 80' below the level of the coal at McEntire' s. Only 
10' of the sandstone, was quarried ; a coarse brown rock, 
containing multitudes of iron halls and fish reinains. 
These are especially numerous along the planes of bedding, 
between the layers, and very greatly mar the looks of the 
blocks when dressed. These quarries have been almost 
abandoned of late years, the company getting most of its 
stone now at Berea, in Ohio. 

One half mile east from* the Jackson quarries, and 60' 
higher, we come to the base of the Sharon Conglomerate 
which makes a cliff around the hill, often with a perpen- 
dicular face of 20'. 

It is a coarse grayish-white rock and contains many quartz 
pebbles. Where the top of this stratum is exposed in the 
road near Mr. Unger's it is furrowed with glacial striae (di- 
rection S. 30 E. magnetic. Elevation 1340' A. T. 

The hill top rises to 1390' A. T. but no coal has been found 
in the interval. As this place is nearly south from where 



6. EAST FALLOWFIELD. , Q*. 145 

the coal occura on the McEntire property, it looks as if it 
were outside the rim of a local coal marsh. 

As we descend the hill, on the opposite side from where 
the ice scratches are seen, I got the following section : 

(Pig. 37.) 

Ungefs run section. 

Concealed, 50" 

Sharon Conglomerate, 20' 

Concealed, 65" 

Hhmtango sandttone, (baae.) 10' 

Blue shales, 15' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, 1' 



The Sharon Conglomerate top was seen one fourth of a 
mile north from Unger's run. 

The interval of 55' appears to consist chiefly of shales, 
though it was mostly concealed. 

'Yhe S henango Sandstone is only exposed for 10' at its 
base, and there is probably as much more concealed above. 

The interval between the Shenango Sandstone and Liffie- 
stone is exceptionally small, and consists entirely of fine 
bluish-gray shales. 

The Meadville Upper Limestone is seen in the bed of the 
10 Q*. 



146 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

run below the old mill-dam, and is quite hard, breaking 
with glassy fracture and containing ^5 A remains. 

Quarries. A short distance south from Unger's run the 
Sharon Conglorrberate has been quarried on the land of Mr. 

D. P. Clennahan ; its top seamed with glacial furrows ; 
some S. 30 E.; others S. 40° E. magnetic* 

A higJi Jcnoh^ about one mile from Mr. Clennahan' s on the 
lands of T. J. and O. K. Miller, takes in a considerable area 
of the Sharon coal^ (mined to a small extent,) and rises 70' 
above the coal : (Fig. 38. ) 

Millefs Jcnoh section. 

Concealed from top of hUl, 16' 

Connoqueneasing Lower sandstone, 40' 

Shales blaish gray, ' 15' 

Sharon coal bed, (1330' A. T.,) 3' 

Concealed, 10' 

Sharon Conglomerate, massive, visible, 10' 

The Sharon coal is here 30' higher than the scratches on 
the sandstone at Clennahan' s. Mr. T. J. Miller sunk a 
shaft 20' deep to it, and found it too thin to mine. But it 
was thick enough to mine on the east side of the road, on 
the land of Mr. O. K. Miller. A great many tons of toler- 
ably fair coal were taken out of a drift for domestic use ; 
but the bed varied in thickness, 3' to nothing, often slaty, 
and otherwise impure even where of workable thickness. 

The Connoquenessing Lower Sandstone is seen along the 
road which passes over the hill above the coal ; a coarse 
grayish white rock ; in some portions quite micaceous ; 
weathering away very readily ; and scratched by ice, S. 35° 

E. magnetic. 

The Sharon Conglomerate makes a bold outcrop down 
in the field below Mr. O. K. Miller's, as a very coarse pebbly 
grayish white stratum, from which immense blocks have 
been detached, which now lie scattered over the ground. 

The Sharon coal also is visible, in a spring, on the land 
of Robert Ransom, one mile east from Miller's, two feet 

[* This shows that the ice moved in two different directions at two diflferent 
times, and is one evidence against the power of ice to erode the surface ; for 
otherwise the first set of scratches would be removed by the second ice cur- 
rent. — J. P. L.] 



6. EAST FALLOWFIELD. Q*. 147 

thick ; but it has never been mined except to a small extent 
by stripping, 

Quarry, A short distance southwest from Miller's the 
Sharon Conglomerate has been quarried for shipment on 
the A. & G. W. R. R. This is on the land of Mr. Henry, 
to the right of the road leading to Atlantic Station. It is 
a rather hard reddish-white sandstone. A curious verti- 
cally stemmed fucoid is seen in the top-most layer. It 
contains fish remains^ and some iron balls ; and is much 
cross bedded. A dip of 2° to the southeast is visible at the 
quarry. Top of rock, 180' above A. & G. W. R. R. at At- 
lantic"^ Station, =1328' A. T. 

Quarry, About three fourths of a mile west from Henry's 
quarry, and nearly one half mile east from the Atlantic 
Station, on the land of Mr. Blair, is a quarry in the She- 
nango Sandstone exactly 25' thick ; a tolerably coarse 
brown sandstone ; soft ; splitting readily into blocks of 
almost any desired size ; and containing vast quantities of 
iron balls oxidiflsh fragments in scattered layers, princi- 
pally near the top. Stone from this quarry is also shipped 
on A. & G. W. R. R. to various points for building pur- 
poses. — Top, 70' below top of Henry's quarry in the Sharon 
Conglomerate ; L e. 1258' A. T. 

A short distance below where the road crosses McQuis- 
ton's run, one mile north from Atlantic, the bottom of the 
Orangemlle shale is seen, and 20' of the blue shales them- 
selves appear in the side of the bluff along the run, resting 
on the top of a sandstone, at 1030' A. T. 

A Jcnoh in the southwestern corner of this townshii) on 
the land of Mr. Jno. Shepard, rises to 1420' A. T. One of 
the Connoqitenessing sandstones forms its summit ; proba- 
bly the Upper ^ since, further west along the road, we come 
to the top of the Sharon Conglomerate at 1300' A. T. 

Quarry. Here the Sharon Conglomerate has been exten- 
sively quarried on the land of Mr. Mayo. Top (as above) 
1300' A. T. 

Glacial strice are seen here — S. 30° E. Magnetic. 

The Shenango Sandstone is seen making a steep bluff, 
75' lower down on the hill-side. 



148 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Where the Atlantic Road crosses Henry run, the follow- 
ing is seen in descending the steep hill slope. 

Henry run section. 

Sharpaville Upper Sandstone^ ^lAggy, 5(y 

Meadville Lower Limeetone, (1115' A. T.,) 1' 

Sharpsville Lower Sandstone, tiaggy, 15' 

Orangeville shale in bed of stream, — 

The Sharpscille Upper Sandstone^ in layers J' to 2' thick, 
(one 4') very fine-grained, bluish-white ; holding a species of 
Rhynchonella ; has been quarried to some extent on the 
bank of the stream. 

Meadville Lower Limestone juts out of the bank in large 
angular masses ; breaks with a glassy fracture and is quite 
siliceous. Here as nearly everywhere else it is wedged in 
between two masses of sandstone. 

The top of the Orangeville shale is seen in the bed of the 
stream, containing a great many Lingulce. 

In the vicinity of Stony Point, near the northern line of 
the township, the Shenango Sandstone is frequently seen. 
At the railroad station its top comes near A. & G. W. R. R. 
level, 1284' A. T. 

A knoh on the land of Wm. Mushrush, one mile south- 
west from Stony Point, rises to 1335' A. T., and the Sharon 
coal is reported 2' to 3' thick, 5' below the soil, 70' above 
the Shenango Sandstone seen one half mile north. 

Drift mound : — A large round hill of gravely sand and 
bowlders occurs on the land of Mr. D. M. Calvin, two miles 
south from Stony Point and just west from the A. & G. W. 
R. R., and has been largely quarried for ballast and fillings 
along the raiboad. It is simply a hillock of Drifts 50' of 
which is visible in the quarry ; as much more lies higher to 
the top of the hill ; and no one knoAvs how much more lies 
beneath the quarry. 

Barometric elevations in East Fallowfleld : 

Forks of road at Jon. Shepard's, (above tide,) 1400' 

Cross roads near S. Lingo's, ** 1336' 

** ** H. Blair^s, " 1135' 

" " S. & W. Elsworth's, " 1065' 

«* " G. Gaston's, " 1075' 

Crossing of Crooked creek, west, ** 1000' 



7. WEST FALLOWFIELD. Q*. 149 



Forks of road near Joseph Duncan's, ** 1070' 

Cross roads near Jno. Kee's, ** 1810' 

" next south, " 1320' 

" near Joseph Henry's, *• 1855' 

Forks at Town House, '* 1290' 

" next north, " ISIO' 

Gross roads near Jesse McEntire's, " 1340' 

Lane n^r J. W. McEntire's, " 1310' 

Forks next east, '* 1290' 

" «« «* 1290' 

Cross roads east from Stony Point, " 1270' 

Forks near Wm. Carman's, " 1310' 

Cross roads near S. De Arment's, " 1280' 

Cross roads due north of township line, ** 1255' 

" *» west of last, " 1250' 

Forks near J. McVicker's, *» 1210' 

*' « 8. H. Haller's, " 1120' 

" " J. Shellito's, " 1075' 

Gross roads near S. Greenlee's, ** 1050' 

* " *» D. M. Calvin's, *' ' 1255' 

" " crossing, above Randolph's run, . *' 1040' 



7. West Fdllowfield in Crawford county. 

This township stretches along the west side of Crooked 
creek. A high plateau extends north and south along its 
western margin, from which the rain-fall descends into the 
creek. The northern end of the township is swampy and 
the water flows into Pymatuning creek. 

Just west from Adamsville a small stream breaks over 
the Shenango Sandstone with a perpendicular fall, and de- 
scending to Crooked creek exposes the following Fig. 39 : 

Adamsville Section. 

Shenango S. S, massive, visible, 10' 

Blae shales and flaggy sandstone, 23' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, (1215' A. T.,) 1' 

Blue shales and flaggy sandstone, 35' 

Sharpeville Upper sandstone, flaggy, 50' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 1' 

Sharpsville Lower sandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Orangeville shale (a few feet) and concealed to creek, . . . 120' 

The Shenango Sandstone is quite massive and forms a 
steep bluif and cliflf around the hill. It is the same coarse 
brownish gray' iron bearing rock as elsewhere. 



146 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

run below the old mill-dam, and is quite hard, breaking 
with glassy fracture and contsdning^fi^sh remains. 

Quarries. A short distance south from linger' s run the 
Sharon CongloTrterate has been quarried on the land of Mr. 

D. P. Clennahan ; its top seamed with glacial furrows ; 
some S. 30 E.; others S. 40° E. magnetic* 

A higJi Jcnoh^ about one mile from Mr. Clennahan' s on thfe 
lands of T. J. and O. K. Miller, takes in a considerable area 
of the Sharon coal^ (mined to a small extent,) and rises 70' 
above the coal : (Fig. 38.) 

Millefs knob section. 

Concealed from top of hlU, 15' 

Connoqueneasing Lower aa/adaUme, 40' 

Shales blaish gray, ' 16' 

Sharon coal bed^ (1330' A. T.,) 3' 

Concealed, 10' 

Sharon Conglomerate^ massive, visible, 10' 

The Sharon coal is here 30' higher than the scratches on 
the sandstone at Clennahan' s. Mr. T. J. Miller sunk a 
shaft 20' deep to it, and found it too thin to mine. But it 
was thick enough to mine on the east side of the road, on 
the land of Mr. O. K. Miller. A great many tons of toler- 
ably fair coal were taken out of a drift for domestic use ; 
but the bed varied in thickness, 3' to nothing, often slaty, 
and otherwise impure even where of workable thickness. 

The Connoquenessing Lower Sandstone is seen along the 
road which passes over the hill above the coal ; a coarse 
grayish white rock ; in some portions quite micaceous ; 
weathering away very readily ; and scratched by ice, S. 35° 

E. magnetic. 

The Sharon Conglomerate makes a bold outcrop down 
in the field below Mr. O. K. Miller's, as a very coarse pebbly 
grayish white stratum, from which immense blocks have 
been detached, which now lie scattered over the ground. 

The Sharon coal also is visible, in a spring, on the land 
of Robert Ransom, one mile east from Miller's, two feet 

[* This shows that the ice moved in two different directions at two different 
times, and is one evidence against the power of ice to erode the sarface ; for 
otherwise the first set of scratches would be removed by the second ice oar- 
rent.— J. P. L.] 



6. EAST FALLOWFIELD. Q*. 147 

thick ; but it has never been mined except to a small extent 
by stripping, 

Qtbarry. A short distance southwest from Miller's the 
Sharon Conglomerate has been quarried for shipment on 
the A. & G. W. R. R. This is on the land of Mr. Henry, 
to the right of the road leading to Atlantic Station. It is 
a rather hard reddish-white sandstone. A curious 'Gerti- 
colly stemmed fucoid is seen in the top-most layer. It 
contains fish remains^ and some iron balls ; and is much 
cross bedded. A dip of 2° to the southeast is visible at the 
quarry. Top of rock, 180' above A. & G. W. R. R. at At- 
lantic*^ Station, =1328' A. T. 

Quarry. About three fourths of a mile west from Henry's 
quarry, and nearly one half mile east from the Atlantic 
Station, on the land of Mr. Blair, is a quarry in the She- 
nango Sandstone exactly 25' thick ; a tolerably coarse 
brown sandstone ; soft ; splitting readily into blocks of 
almost any desired size ; and containing vast quantities of 
iron balls ^ndi fish fragments in scattered layers, princi- 
pally near the top. Stone from this quarry is also shipped 
on A. & G. W. R. R. to various points for building pur- 
poses. — Top, 70' below top of Henry's quarry in the Sharon 
Conglomerate ; i. e. 1258' A. T. 

A short distance below where the road crosses McQuis- 
ton's run, one mile north from Atlantic, the bottom of the 
Orangemlle shale is seen, and 20' of the blue shales them- 
selves appear in the side of the bluff along the run, resting 
on the top of a sandstone, at 1030' A. T. 

A Icnob in the southwestern corner of this township on 
the land of Mr. Jno. Shepard, rises to 1420' A. T. One of 
the Connoquenessing sandstones forms its summit ; proba- 
bly the Upper ^ since, further west along the road, we come 
to the top of the Sharon Conglomerate at 1300' A. T. 

Quarry, Here the Sharon Conglomerate has been exten- 
sively quarried on the land of Mr. Mayo. Top (as above) 
1300' A. T. 

Glacial strice are seen here — S. 30° E. Magnetic. 

The Shenango Sandstone i^ seen making a steep bluff, 
75' lower down on the hill-side. 



148 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. T. C. WHITE. 

Where the Atlantic Road crosses Henry rnn, the follow- 
ing is seen in descending the steep hill slope. 

Henry run section. 

Sharpsville Upper Sandstone, flaggy, SCV 

MeadvUle Lower Limestone, (1116' A. T.,) 1' 

Sharpsville Lower Sandstone, tiaggy, 15' 

Orangeville shale in bed of stream, — 

The Sharpsville Upper Saridstone^ in layers i' to 2' thick, 
(one 4') very fine-gi'ained, bluish- white ; holding a species of 
jRhynchonella ; has been quarried to some extent on the 
bank of the stream. 

MeadvUle Lower Limestone juts out of the bank in large 
angular masses ; breaks with a glassy fracture and is quite 
siliceous. Here as nearly everywhere else it is wedged in 
between two masses of sandstone. 

The top of the Orangeville shale is seen in the bed of the 
stream, containing a great many LingulcB. 

In the vicinity of Stony Point, near the northern line of 
the township, the Shenango Sandstone is frequently seen. 
At the railroad station its top comes near A. & G. W. R. R. 
level, 1284' A. T. 

A knob on the land of Wm. Mushrush, one mile south- 
west from Stony Point, rises to 1335' A. T., and the Sharon 
coal is reported 2' to 3' thick, 5' below the soil, 70' above 
the Shenango Sandstone seen one half mile north. 

Drift mound : — A large round hill of gravely sand and 
bowlders occurs on the land of Mr. D. M. Calvin, two miles 
south from Stony Point and just west from the A. & G. W. 
R. R., and has been largely quarried for ballast and fillings 
along the railroad. It is simply a hillock of Drifts 50' of 
which is visible in the quarry ; as much more lies higher to 
the top of the hill ; and no one knows how much more lies 
beneath the quarry. 

Barometric elevations in East Fallowfield : 

Forks of road at Jon. Shepard's, (above tide,) 1400' 

Gross roads near 8. Lingo's, ** 1336' 

** •* H. Blair's, " 1135' 

" " S. & W. Elsworth's, " 1066' 

" " G. Gaston's, " 1075' 

^ Crossing of Crooked creek, west, *^^ 1000' 



7. WEST FALLOWFIELD. Ql 149 



Forks of road near Joseph Duncan's, " 1070- 

Cross roads near Jno. Kee's, " 1310' 

" next south, " 1320' 

<* near Joseph Henry's, *• 1355' 

Forks at Town House, ** 1290' 

" next north, " 1310' 

Gross roads near Jesse McEntire's, ** 1340' 

Lane ne^r J. W. McEntire's, " 1310' 

Forks next east, ** 1290' 

" «« " 1290' 

Cross roads east from Stony Point, " 1270' 

Forks near Wm. Carman's, *• 1310' 

Cross roads near 8. De Arment's, " 1280' 

Cross roads due north of township line, ** 1265' 

" ♦* west of last, " 1250' 

Forks near J. MoVioker's «* 1210' 

*• " 8. H. Haller's, " 1120' 

" «* J. Shellito's, «* 1075' 

Cross roads near 8. Greenlee's, ** 1050' 

* " " D. M. Calvin's, *' ' 1255' 

" *• crossing, above Randolph's run, . " 1040' 



7. West Fallowfield in Crawford county. 

This township stretches along the west side of Crooked 
creek. A high plateau extends north and south along its 
western margin, from which the rain-fall descends into the 
creek. The northern end of the township is swampy and 
the water flows into Pymatuning creek. 

Just west from Adamsville a small stream breaks over 
the Shenango Sandstone with a perpendicular fall, and de- 
scending to Crooked creek exposes the following Fig. 39 : 

Adamsville Section. 

Shenango 8. S. massive, visible, 10' 

Blue shales and flaggy sandstone, 23' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, (1215' A. T.,) 1' 

Blue shales and flaggy sandstone, 35' 

Sharpamlle Upper sandstone, flaggy, 50' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 1' 

Sharpsville Lower sandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Orangeville ehale (a few feet) and concealed to creek, . . . 120' 

The Shenango Sandstone is quite massive and forms a 
steep bluflf and cliff around the hill. It is the same coarse 
brownish gray'iron bearing rock as elsewhere. 



150 Q*. KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The Meadmlle Upper Limestone is a mere mass of peb- 
bles of shale, and fragments of fishes^ with many shells. 
The shale pebbles are flattened as usual. 

The Sfiarpsville Upper Sandstone consists of layers of 
fine-grained light brown sandstone V to 2' thick, with some 
of them separated by thin streaks of shale. 

The Meadmlle Lower Limestone is a very hard calcar'eo- 
silicious rock, jutting out of the bank of the stream, and 
scattered in large masses, with rounded angles along its bed. 

The valley of Crooked creek is deeply buried by Drift 
so that very few exposures are seen along it, and none on 
the highlands. 

Cross roads near F. Bealer's, (above tide,) 1060^ 

" at western line of township near A. 

Weer's, •« 1300' 

Cross roads in Adamsville, *• 1040' 

Forks at Hartstown, " 1040' 

" next east of Hartstown, " 1030* 

Crossing Crooked creek, <* 1010' 



8. South Shenango^ in Crawford County. 

This township lies along the Mercer county line, and east 
bank of the Shenango river, into which it drains. 

The south part rises high enough to take in the Sharon 
coal and Sharon iron ore^ which last was once mined on 
the land of Mr. Jas. Snodgrass. 

Descending from the summit at Mr. Jas. Snodgrass' down 
a ravine past the stone quarries, the following interesting 
section is seen (Fig. 40) : 

Snodgrass'* Section. 

Debris and blue shale, 10' 

Sharon iron ore^ 2' 

Shales, containing Sharon coal (?), ? 

Concealed to top of quarry rook, on land of Wm. Snodgrass, 65' 
Sandstone, massive at top, but flaggy and concealed below, 60' 

Shenango sandstone, 15' 

Blue shales, flaggy sandstone, and concealed, 25' 

MeadviUe Upper limestone, 1' 

SharpsvUle Upper sandstone, flaggy, and shales, with some 
massive layers near the bottom, . . . -. 95' 



8. SOUTH SHEITANGO. Q*. 151 

MeadvilU Lower limestone {1065 A.. T.), 1'0' 

Sharpsville Ijower BandaCone, fin^;yi 5' 

Couoealed to level of the Erie and PittsbmKh R. R., at James- 
town, 80- 

The Sharon ore was mined here by stripping, up to the 
year 1855, and shipped to the furnaces at Greenville and 

40. 





Middlesex, in Mercer county. Mr. Snodgrass, who is re- 
sponsible for my information with regard to the ore, states 
that it came in "pots" or bowl-shaped deposits, and was 
2' thick in a single solid bed. Above it lies 6' to 12' of de- 
bris. Mr. Snodgrass states that sometimes 4' to 5' of blue 
slate occurred above the ore in the deepest places. 
A thin seam, of coal wa^s often fourtd in the shales below 



162 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

the ore^ probably the Sharon hed^ but possibly one of its 
riders. 

The extensive quarries of Mr. Wm. Snodgrass are in the 
top layers of a sandstone which is quite massive, but grad- 
ually becomes flaggy below, and contains great numbers of 
a plant very much resembling Lepidodendron Oaspianum^ 
2)., or possibly still closer, Lepidodendron Sp., ? of the 
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, Vol. II, Part II, page 829, Plate 21, 
Fig. 2. If this be the Sharon Conglomerate^ and there be 
nothing but shales in the concealed interval of 65' above it, 
then the coal under the iron ore cannot be the Sharon bed, 
but must be one of its riders. Blocks of a white sand- 
stone, however, are scattered over the surface in the interval, 
and may possibly have come from a higher portion of the 
Sharon Conglomerate. 

Whatever doubt there may be with regard to the top of 
the quarry rock, there is none whatever concerning the 
equivalency of the Shenango Sandstane and the two lime- 
stones below it. 

The Shenango Sandstone is somewhat massive, and has 
been quarried just below where the road crosses the little 
stream at the bridge. It contains, as usual, fisJt remains^ 
and its characteristic iron ore halls. 

The Upper Limestone^ hard and compact, lies 25' below 
the base of the Shenango Sandstone^ and contains many 
fish remains. 

The Sharpsmlle sandstone occupies the lower half of the 
95' interval, and some of the more massive layers near the 
bottom of the mass have been quarried. 

The Lower Limestone floors the bottom of the run, and 
is finely shown, exhibiting the glassy fracture peculiar to 
these limestones. 

The Sharpsmlle Lower Sandstone shows only 5' of itself 
along the run ; but along the public road further west, near 
the Gibson oil well, 12' of it is seen, and then the Orange- 
mile shale begins, at the top of which the Gibson well com- 
mences. 



8. SOUTH SHENANGO. Q^ 153 

Gibson Well Section {Fig. il), 

Shenan go Sandstone (as above), 15' 

Blue shales, flaggy S. S., and concealed, , 25' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, . . 1' 

Sbarpsville Upper S. 8., flaggy and shales, 95' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 1' 6" 

SharpsvUle Lower 8. 8., flaggy, 12' 

Well Record. 

•*Slaty soapstone and hard shells," 90' 

"Sandstone, blue, fine," 20' 

"Slate, blue," . 65' 

"2ond Sandstone, estimated," 25' 

"Slate, blue," 90' 

"3rd Sandstone," 18' 

"Soft slate and soapstone," 92' 

''Red rock and hard shale," 100' 

"Hard sandy slate," 60' 

''Black slate,'' 200' 

"Unknown,'' 315' 

To bottom at 1065' 

The words "27id^^ and ''3rd sand^^ occurring in this 
record have no reference to the Venango ^nd and 3rd Oil 
Sands ; for the Yenango 3rd Sand ought to come in this 
well where we read "hard, sandy slate, 60V' with its base 
about 735' below the base of the Sharon Conglomerate^ 
( Yenango Second Mountain Sand.) 

The "2d sand, estimated 25V' represents the 75' rock in 
the Sharon well, the 78' rock at New Castle, and the 124' 
rock at Beaver Falls. 

The "black slate, 200'," should not be interpreted as a 
bituminous coal slate^ but only as a dark-colored shale. 
No true black slate is found at this horizon in any of the 
numerous borings along the Shenango valley ; nor in the 
measures where they come to the surface as dark-bluish 
shales and thin sand-layers beneath the Yenango Third 
Sand^ throughout Erie county. 

About one mile north from Jamestown, a small stream 
descending from the highlands to the Shenango cuts down 
to the Shenango Sandstone^ just below where the run 
crosses the road on the land of Mr. Ma the w McElhaney, 
and there the following exposure is seen (Fig. 42) : 



154 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

McElhany Section. 

Shenango Sandstone^ 20' 

Blue shale, 20' 

Meadville Upper Limestone {1200 A. T.), |' 

Quarry, The Shenango Sandstone has been quarried 
here, and makes an excellent building stone, being easily- 
dressed, and splitting out in large massive blocks ; it is a 
coarse bufflsh-brown rock as usual, and contains fish re- 
mains and iron ore halls. 

The Limestone is here a regular fish hed, containing also 
flattened pebbles of shale and fine grit. 

On the land of Mr. P. Miller just east from the State road 
a dee J) ravine shows the following rocks : (Fig. 43. ) 

Millefs Section. 



r Sandstone, shaly, 15 

8harpsv%lle Upper <f Quarry S. in layers, 1 to 8', . . 10' 

V^ Sandstone, flaggy, 20 , 



46' 



Meadville Lower Limestone, siliceous, (1120' A. T.,) , . . 1' 6" 

Sharpsville Lower Sandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Orangeville shale, visible, 85' 

Conoealed to level of the Slienango, 105' 

Mr. Miller has quite an extensive quarry here in a rather 
fine-grained bufflsh -gray somewhat micaceous rock, in lay- 
ers V to 3' thick. 

The Orangemlle shale is of a rather dark blue color ; and 
three or four layers of sandstone are seen, one of them 3'. 

Barometric elevations in S. Shenango. 

Forksof road near J. McElhaney's, (above tide,) 1140' 

" W. Crawford's, •« 1190' 

«• Mathew McElhaney's, « 1240' 

« Soott A. Marsliall's, " 1255' 

at Marshairs corners, « 1200' 

" J. Vance»s, " 1115' 

Level of the Shenango near McLean s Comers, . . " 980' 

Cross roads near J. <fe S. G^aliagher's, " 995' 

Level of the Shenango near the last, ♦* 915' 

Cros3 roads near T. Lewis's, ** 1190' 

" •* J.N. Wade's, «* 1265' 

" " Jas. Jamison's, " 1245' 

Cross roads near J. Piolcer's, " 1195' 

Forks near A. Glenn's, " 1220' 

Cross roads near J. Austin's Cheese Factory, ... «* 1140' 



9. WEST SHENANGO. Q*. 155 

R. R. crossing, due west, (above tide), 1095' 



Forks next west, ....*.. 
Gross roads near W. Mullen's, 
Forks near A. Glenn's, . . . 
*» «* P. Fonner's, . . . 
Gross roads near T. W. Hill's, 
" "8. Coursen's, 

Forks near R. B. Dickey's, . 



10S5 
1040' 
1020' 
1020' 
1070' 

* 1210' 

* 1225' 



( 



9. West Shenango^ in Crawford county. 

This township occupies the southwest corner of the 
county ; along the Shenango river ; the northern part of 
the township being reduced to a narrow strip. 

The Conglomerate rocks are eroded away from its sur- 
face ; and the underlying measures are concealed by deep 
Drifts so that not a single section can be obtained. 

The Sharpsville Upper Sandstone has been quarried near 
the southwestern corner of the township to a considerable 
extent on the land of Mr. Floch. It is made up of thin 
layers of sandstone from 4" to 18" thick, some of which make 
very good flagging. 

This is the locality where the Berea Orit of Ohio was sup- 
posed to pass into Pennsylvania, being wrongly identified 
with the Sharpsville Sandstone ; but the true Berea Grit is 
to be found 100' lower in the series ; being probably the 20' 
sandstone struck at the depth of 90' in the Gibson well near 
Jamestown. 

Cross-roads in Tumersville, (above tide), 1C60' 

Level of the Stienango to tlie east, " 980' 

Forks at P. Yokes', " 1056' 

Forks near churoli at I. Cook's, " 1105' 

" " D. MoCorinick's, " 1040' 

R. R. crossing next north, " 1035' 

Cross-roads near H. Frenen's, " 1000' 

Level of the Shenango at road-crossing next east, ** 915' 



10. North Shenango^ in Crawford Courvty. 
This township lies next north of South Shenango town- 



146 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

run below the old mill-dam, and is quite hard, breaking 
with glassy fracture and containing ^^A remains. 

Quarries. A short distance south from Unger's run the 
Sharon Conglorrherate has been quarried on the land of Mr. 

D. P. Clennahan ; its top seamed with glacial furrows ; 
some S. 30 E.; others S. 40° E. magnetic* 

A Jiigli Jcnoh^ about one mile from Mr. Clennahan' s on th^ 
lands of T. J. and 0. K. Miller, takes in a considerable area 
of the Sharon coal, (mined to a small extent,) and rises 70' 
above the coal : (Fig. 38. ) 

Millefs Jcnob section. 

GonoeaLed from top of hill, 16' 

Connoquenessing Lower sandstone, 40' 

Shales bluish gray, ' 16' 

Sharon coal bed, (1330' A. T.,) 3' 

Concealed, 10' 

Sharon Conglomerate, massive, visible, 10' 

The Sharon coal is here 30' higher than the scratches on 
the sandstone at Clennahan' s. Mr. T. J. Miller sunk a 
shaft 20' deep to it, and found it too thin to mine. But it 
was thick enough to mine on the east side of the road, on 
the land of Mr. O. K. Miller. A great many tons of toler- 
ably fair coal were taken out of a drift for domestic use ; 
but the bed varied in thickness, 3' to nothing, often slaty, 
and otherwise impure even where of workable thickness. 

The Oonnoquenessing Lower Sandstone is seen along the 
road which passes over the hill above the coal ; a coarse 
grayish white rock ; in some portions quite micaceous ; 
weathering away very readily ; and scratched by ice, S. 35° 

E. magnetic. 

The Sharon Conglomerate makes a bold outcrop down 
in the field below Mr. O. K. Miller's, as a very coarse pebbly 
grayish white stratum, from which immense blocks have 
been detached, which now lie scattered over the ground. 

The Sharon coal also is visible, in a spring, on the land 
of Robert Eansom, one mile east from Miller's, two feet 

[* This shows that the ice moved in two different directions at two different 
times, and is one evidence against the power of ice to erode the surface ; for 
otherwise the first set of scratches would be removed by the second ice cur- 
rent.^J. P. L.] 



6. EAST FALLOWFIELD. Q*. 147 

thick ; but it has never been mined except to a small extent 
by stripping, 

QvMrry. A short distance southwest from Miller's the 
Sharon Conglomerate has been quarried for shipment on 
the A. & G. W. R. R. This is on the land of Mr. Henry, 
to the right of the road leading to Atlantic Station. It is 
a rather hard reddish-white sandstone. A curious verti- 
colly stemmed fucoid is seen in the top-most layer. It 
contains fish remains^ and some iron balls ; and is much 
cross bedded. A dip of 2° to the southeast is visible at the 
quarry. Top of rock, 180' above A. & G. W. R. R. at At- 
lantic"^ Station, =1328' A. T. 

Quarry. About three fourths of a mile west from Henry's 
quarry, and nearly one half mile east from the Atlantic 
Station, on the land of Mr. Blair, is a quarry in the She- 
nango Sandstone exactly 25' thick ; a tolerably coarse 
brown sandstone ; soft ; splitting readily into blocks of 
almost any desired size ; and containing vast quantities of 
iron balls ^ndi fish fragments in scattered layers, princi- 
pally near the top. Stone from this quarry is also shipped 
on A. & G. W. R. R. to various points for building pur- 
poses. — Top, 70' below top of Henry's quarry in the Sharon 
Conglomerate ; i. e, 1268' A. T. 

A short distance below where the road crosses McQuis- 
ton's run, one mile north from Atlantic, the bottom of the 
Orangemlle shale is seen, and 20' of the blue shales them- 
selves appear in the side of the bluflf along the run, resting 
on the top of a sandstone, at 1030' A. T. 

A knob in the southwestern corner of this township on 
the land of Mr. Jno. Shepard, rises to 1420' A. T. One of 
the Connoqiienessing sandstones forms its summit ; proba- 
bly the Upper ^ since, further west along the road, we come 
to the top of the Sharon Conglomerate at 1300' A. T. 

Quarry. Here the Sharon Conglomerate has been exten- 
sively quarried on the land of Mr. Mayo. Top (as above) 
1300' A. T. 

Glacial strice are seen here — S. 30° E. Magnetic. 

The S Iienango Sandstone is seen making a steep bluflf, 
75' lower down on the hill-side. 



148 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Where the Atlantic Road crosses Henry run, the follow- 
ing is seen in descending the steep hill slope. 

Henry run section. 

Sharpaville Upper SandstonCf flaggy, SCK 

Meadville Lower Limestone, (1115' A. T.,) 1' 

Sharpsville Lower Sandetone, tlaggy, 15' 

Orangeville shale in bed of stream, — 

The Sharpscille Upper Sandstone^ in layers i' to 2' thick, 
(one 4') very fine-grained, bluish-white ; holding a species of 
Rliynchonella ; has been quarried to some extent on the 
bank of the stream. 

Meadville Lower Limestone jnts out of the bank in large 
angular masses ; breaks with a glassy fracture and is quite 
siliceous. Here as nearly everywhere else it is wedged in 
between two masses of sandstone. 

The top of the Orangeville shale is seen in the bed of the 
stream, containing a great many Lingulce. 

In the vicinity of Stony Point, near the northern line of 
the township, the SJienango Sandstone is frequently seen. 
At the railroad station its top comes near A. & G. W. R. R. 
level, 1284' A. T. 

A Jcnob on the land of Wm. Mushrush, one mile south- 
west from Stony Point, rises to 1335' A. T., and the Sharon 
coal is reported 2' to 3' thick, 5' below the soil, 70' above 
the Shenango Sandstone seen one half mile north. 

Drift mound : — A large round hill of gravely sand and 
bowlders occurs on the land of Mr. D. M. Calvin, two miles 
south from Stony Point and just west from the A. & G. W. 
R. R., and has been largely quarried for ballast and fillings 
along the railroad. It is simply a hillock of Drifts 50' of 
which is visible in the quarry ; as much more lies higher to 
the top of the hill ; and no one know^s how much more lies 
beneath the quarry. 

Barometric elevations in East Fallowfleld : 

Forks of road at Jon. Shepard*s, (above tide,) 1400' 

Cross roads near S. Lingo's, " 1335' 

*« »* H. Blair's, *• 1135' 

" " S. & W. Eisworth's, " 1065' 

«♦ " G. Gaston's, ** 1075' 

\ Crossing of Crooked creek, west, *' 1000' 



7. WEST FALLOWFIELD. Q^ 149 



Forks of road near Joseph Duncan's, ** 1070- 

Cross roads near Jno. Kee's, *' 1310' 

" next south, " 1320' 

" near Joseph Henry's, *• 1355' 

Forks at Town House, ♦* 1290' 

" next north, " 1310' 

Cross roads near Jesse McEntire's, " 1340' 

Lane ne^r J. W. MoEntire's, " 1310' 

Forks next east, " 1290' 

*» «* «♦ 1290' 

Cross roads east from Stony Point, " 1270' 

Forks near Wm. Carman's, *• 1310' 

Cross roads near S. De Arment's, " 1280' 

Cross roads due north of township line, ** 1265' 

" ** west of last, " 1250' 

Forks near J. MoVicker's ** 1210' 

*' " S. H. Haller's, " 1120' 

" " J. Shellito's, " 1075' 

Cross roads near S. Greenlee's, " 1050' 

* " " D. M. Calvin's, " ' 1256' 

♦* " crossing, above Randolph's run, . *' 1040' 



7. West Fallowfleld in Crawford county. 

This township stretches along the west side of Crooked 
creek. A high plateau extends north and south along its 
western margin, from which the rain-fall descends into the 
creek. The northern end of the township is swampy and 
the water flows into Pymatuning creek. 

Just west from Adamsville a small stream breaks over 
the Shenango Sandstone with a perpendicular fall, and de- 
scending to Crooked creek exposes the following Fig. 39 : 

Adamsville Section, 

Shenango 8. 8, massive, visible, 10' 

Bine shales and flaggy sandstone, 23' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, (1215' A. T.,) 1' 

Blue shales and flaggy sandstone, 35' 

Sharpaville Upper sandstone, flaggy, 50' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 1' 

Sharpsville Lower sandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Orangeville shale (a few feet) and concealed to creek, . . . 120' 

The Shenango Sandstone is quite massive and forms a 
steep bluff and cliff around the hill. It is the same coarse 
brownish gray*iron bearing rock as elsewhere. 



150 Q\ REPOET OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The Meadville Upper Limestone is a mere mass of peb- 
bles of shale, and fragments of fishes^ with many shells. 
The shale pebbles are flattened as usual. 

The Sliarpsville Upper Sandstone consists of layers of 
fine-grained light brown sandstone V to 2' thick, with some 
of them separated by thin streaks of shale. 

The Meadville Lower Limestone is a very hard calcareo- 
silicious rock, jutting out of the bank of the stream, and 
scattered in large masses, with rounded angles along its bed. 

The valley of Crooked creek is deeply buried by Drift 
so that very few exposures are seen along it, and none on 
the highlands. 

Cross roads near F. Sealer's, (above tide,) 1060' 

" at western line of township near A. 

Weer's, •* 1300' 

Gross roads in Adamsville, *« 1040' 

Forks at Hartstown, " 1040' 

" next east of Hartstown, " 1030' 

Crossing Crooked creek, ** 1010' 



8. South Shenango^ in Crawford County. 

This township lies along the Mercer county line, and east 
bank of the Shenango river, into which it drains. 

The south part rises high enough to take in the Sharon 
coal and Sharon iron ore, which last was once mined on 
the land of Mr. Jas. Snodgrass. 

Descending from the summit at Mr. Jas. Snodgrass' down 
a ravine past the stone quarries, the following interesting 
section is seen (Fig. 40) : 

Snodgrass^ Section. 

Debris and blue shale, 10' 

Sharon iron ore, 2' 

Shales, containing Sharon coal (?), ? 

Concealed to top of quarry rook, on land of Wm. Snodgrass, 65' 
Sandstone, massive at top, but flaggy and concealed below, 60' 

Shenango sandstone^ 15' 

Blue shales, flaggy sandstone, and concealed, 26' 

Meadville Upper limestone, 1' 

SharpnvUle Upper sandstone, flaggy, and shales, with some 
massive layers near the bottom, . . . ^ 95' 



8. SOUTH SHENANGO. Q*. 151 

MectdoUle Loaer limeslone (10S6 A. T.y, I' 6" 

Sbarperille Lower aandstone, flnggy S' 

Concealed to level of tbe Erie and PiCCaburgh R. R., at James- 
towD 8* 

The Sharon ore was mined hera by stripping, up to tlie 
year 1855, and shipped to the furnaces at Greenville and 

40. 





Middlesex, in Mercer county. Mr. Snodgrass, who is re- 
sponsible for my information with regard to the ore, states 
tliat it came in "pots" or bowl-shaped deposits, and was 
2' thick in a single solid bed. Above it lies 6' to 12' of de- 
bris. Mr. Snodgrass states that sometimes 4' to 5' of blue 
alate occurred above the ore in the deepest places. 
A thin seam of coal was often found in the shales below 



162 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

the ore^ probably the Sharon bed^ but possibly one of its 
riders. 

The extensive quarries of Mr. Wm. Snodgrass are in the 
top layers of a sandstone which is quite massive, but grad- 
ually becomes flaggy below, and contains great numbers of 
a plant very much I'esembling Lepidodendron Oaspianum^ 
2)., or possibly still closer, Lepidodendron Sp., ? of the 
Geol. of Penn'a, 1858, Vol. IL Part II, page 829, Plate 21, 
Pig. 2. If this be the Sharon Conglomerate^ and there be 
nothing but shales in the concealed interval of 65' above it, 
then the coal under the iron ore cannot be the Sharon bed, 
but must be one of its riders. Blocks of a white sand- 
stone, however, are scattered over the surface in the interval, 
and may possibly have come from a higher portion of the 
Sharon Conglomerate. 

Whatever doubt there may be with regard to the top of 
the quarry rock, there is none whatever concerning the 
equivalency of the Shenango Sandstone and the two lime- 
stones below it. 

The Shenango Sandstone is somewhat massive, and has 
been quarried just below where the road crosses the little 
stream at the bridge. It contains, as usual, flsJt remains^ 
and its characteristic iron ore halls. 

The Upper Limestone^ hard and compact, lies 25' below 
the base of the Shenango Sandstone^ and contains many 
fish remains. 

The Sharpsville sandstone occupies the lower half of the 
95' interval, and some of the more massive layers near the 
bottom of the mass have been quarried. 

The Lower Limestone floors the bottom of the run, and 
is finely shown, exhibiting the glassy fracture peculiar to 
these limestones. 

The Sharpsville Lower Sandstone shows only 5' of itself 
along the run ; but along the public road further west, near 
the Gibson oil well, 12' of it is seen, and then the Orange- 
mile shale begins, at the top of which the Gibson well com- 
mences. 



8. SOUTH SHENANGO. Q*. 153 

Gibson Well Section {Fig. 1^.1), 

Skenan go Sandstone (as above), 15' 

Blue shales, flaggy S. S., and coDoealed, 25' 

Meadville Upper Limestone, . . 1' 

Sharpsville Upper S. 8., flaggy and shales, 95' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 1' 6" 

Sharpsville Lower 8. 8., flaggy, 12' 

Well Record. 

"Slaty soapstone and hard shells," 90' 

"Sandstone, blue, fine," 20' 

"Slate, blue," . 66' 

"2ond Sandstone, estimated," 25' 

"Slate, blue," 90' 

"8rd Sandstone," 18' 

"Soft slate and soapstone," 92' 

"i2ed roek and hard shale," 100' 

"Hard sandj' slate," 60' 

''Black slate;' 200' 

''Unknown;* 816' 



To bottom at 1065' 

The words "^nd^^ and ^'3rd sarid'^ occurring in this 
record have no reference to the Venango ^nd and 3rd Oil 
Sands ; for the Venango 3rd Sand ought to come in this 
well where we read "hard, sandy slate, 50','' with its base 
about 735' below the base of the Sliaron Conglomei'ate, 
{Venango Second Mountain Sand.) 

The "2d sand, estimated 25','' represents the 75' rock in 
the Sharon well, the 78' rock at New Castle, and the 124' 
rock at Beaver Falls. 

The "black slate, 200'," should not be interpreted as a 
httuminous coal slate^ but only as a dark-colored shale. 
No true blacTc slate is found at this horizon in any of the 
numerous borings along the Shenango valley ; nor in the 
measures where they come to the surface as dark-bluish 
shales and thin sand-layers beneath the Venango Third 
Sand., throughout Erie county. 

About one mile north from Jamestown, a small stream 
descending from the highlands to the Shenango cuts down 
to the Shenango Sandstone., just below where the run 
crosses the road on the land of Mr. Mathew McElhaney, 
and there the following exposure is seen (Fig. 42) : 



154 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

McElhany Section, 

8henango Sandstone^ 20' 

Blue shale, 20' 

Meadville Upper Limestone (1200' A. T.)» \' 

Quarry, The Shenango Sandstone has been quarried 
here, and makes an excellent building stone, being easily- 
dressed, and splitting out in large massive blocks ; it is a 
coarse buffish-brown rock as usual, and contains fish re- 
mains and iron ore balls. 

The Limestone is here a regular fish hed^ containing also 
flattened pebbles of shale and fine grit. 

On the land of Mr. P. Miller just east from the State road 
a deej) ravine shows the following rocks : (Fig. 43. ) 

Miller's Section. 



^Sandstone, shaly, ...... 15 

Sharpsville Upper ^ Quarry S. in layers, 1 to 8', . . 10' 

(^ Sandstone, flaggy, 20 , 



46' 



Meadville Lower Limestone^ siliceous, (1120' A. T.,) . . . 1' 6" 

Sharpsville Lower iiandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Orangeville ekale^ visible, 85' 

Ck)noealed to level of the Shenango, 105' 

Mr. Miller has quite an extensive quarry here in a rather 
fine-grained buffish-gray somewhat micaceous rock, in lay- 
ers V to 3' thick. 

The Orangemlle shale is of a rather dark blue color ; and 
three or four layers of sandstone are seen, one of them 3'. 

Barometric elevations in S. Shenango. 

Forksof road near J. MoElhaney's, (above tide,) 1140' 

W. Crawford's, •« 1190' 

Mathew McElhaney's, »« 1240' 

Soott A. Marsliairs, « 1255' 

at Marshal rs corners, " 1260' 

«* J. Vance's, « 1115' 

Level of the Shenango near McLean s Corners, . . " 080' 

Cross roads near J. A S. G^allagher's " 995' 

Level of the Shenango near the last, ** 915' 

Cross roads near T. Lewis's, " 1190* 

" »* J. N. Wade's, " 1265' 

«• " Jas. Jamison's, " 1245' 

Cross roads near J. Picker's, " 1195' 

Forks near A. Olenii's, " 1220' 

Cross roads near J. Austin's Cheese Factory, ... <* 1140' 



(f 


« 


t( 


« 


«c 


<( 


M 


f 


« 





9. WEST SHENANGO. Q^ 165 

R. R. Grossing, due west, (above tide), 1095' 



Forks next west, ....... 

Gross roads near W. Mullen's, 
Forks near A. Glenn's, . . . 
«* " P. Fonner's, . . . 
Cross roads near T. W. Hiirs, 
" •» 8. Coursen's, 

Forks near R. B. Dickey's, . 



10S5 
1040' 
1020' 
1020' 
lOTO* 
1210^ 
1225' 



9. West Shenango^ in Crawford county. 

This township occupies the southwest corner of the 
county ; along the Shenango river ; the northern part of 
the township being reduced to a narrow strip. 

The Conglomerate rocks are eroded away from its sur- 
face ; and the underlying measures are concealed by deep 
BrifU so that not a single section can be obtained. 

The Sharpsville Upper Sandstone has been quarried near 
the southwestern corner of the township to a considerable 
extent on the land of Mr. Floch. It is made up of thin 
layers of sandstone from 4" to 18" thick, some of which make 
very good flagging. 

This is the locality where the Berea Orit of Ohio was sup- 
posed to pass into Pennsylvania, being wrongly identified 
with the Sharpsville Sandstone ; but the true Berea Orit is 
to be found 100' lower in the series ; being probably the 20' 
sandstone struck at the depth of 90' in the Gibson well near 
Jamestown. 

Cross-roads in Tumersville, (above tide), 1C60' 

Level of the Stienango to tlie east, <* 980' 

Forks at P. Yokes', *• 1055' 

Forks near churcli at I. Cook's, <* 1105' 

" " D. McCormick's, " 1040' 

R. R. crossing next north, " 1035' 

Cross-roads near H. Frenen's, " 1000' 

Level of the Shenango at road-Ksrossing next east, ** 915' 



10. North Shenango^ in Craicford County. 

* 

This township lies next north of South Shenango town- 



156 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ship, along the Ohio State line. The Shenango river flows 
through it. 

This township, like the one south of it, is completely cov- 
ered with Drifts and has a low and almost uniform level, 
so that nothing like a section of its rocks can be obtained ; 
but the SharpsmUe Sand^stone forms most of the surface 
rock beneath the Drift along its southern line ; and the 
Orangeville Shales, with the* rocks intermediate between 
them and the Corry Sandstone, occupy its northern part. 

The only rock exposure noticed in the township is at the 
crossing of Bennett's run, near Mr. T. S. Bennett's, where 
the outcrop of a flaggy sandstone appears (at 1020' A. T.), 
and beneath it crops out a blue shale containing many 
Fucoidal impressions. 

Forks of road near A. Marcy's, (above tide), 1170' 

Cross-roads near G. SheUito's, ** 1140' 

" " A. Chapman's, " 1090' 

Forks near J. P. CoUins', . " 1060' 

" T. Freeman's, ♦* 1140' 

Level of Bennett's run, near D. A. Bennett's, . •* 1020 

Forks of road near T. S. Bennett's, *' 1035' 

" " S. S. Barrackman's, .... " 1035' 

Level of forks of road in Espyville, " 1040' 

Forks near T. McLaughlin's, " 1045' 

" G. C. Campbell's, " 1040' 

Cross-roads near J. B. Harriett's, " 1040 

Forks next west, " 1010' 

Crossing of the Shenango next west, ** 980' 

Forks near C. A. Woodard's, ** 995' 

" J. 0. Dart's, *' 1005' 



11. Pine Township, in Crawford County. 

This township lies on the north side of the Shenango 
creek. 

Pymatuning Swamp occupies its southern end; and 
as surveyed in 1868 by Col. Worrall, C. E., under instruc- 
tions from Surveyor General Campbell, its area was deter- 
mined to be about nine thousand acres. It begins at Harts- 
town, iu West Fallowfield township, and follows the course 
of the Shenango and its tributaries around to the Ohio line. 



11. PINE. Q*. 157 

in North Shenango township. It therefore covered nearly 
two thirds of Pine township ; but a considerable part of its 
area has since then been drained. Its general elevation is 
about 1025' A. T. 

Measurements hy Col. Worrall. 

From head of swamp at Linesville to out- 
let of same at B. PoUack's, 4.75 mUes; fan, 20.5' 

From head at Hartstown to Linesville 
branch of swamp, 6.25 «* " 20.9' 

From mouth of Pad ant's creek to head of 
swamp, 1.00 " " 2.3 

From outlet of swamp to Ohio State line, 3.00 *♦ " 4 .5' 

From Linesville branch to outlet of 
swamp, 2.75 " " 3.9' 

From head of swamp at Hartstown to 
Ohio State line, 12.00 " " 29.3' 

The swamp supports a dense growth of vegetation, con- 
sisting of a great variety of plants, among which the beau- 
tiful '' Side-Saddle Flower," or Saracenia purpurea is found 
in great abundance along the edges of the marsh, about 
two miles south from Linesville. 

Where the water stood in a more or less continuous sheet 
we find nothing but the Broad-leaved Flag, or TypTia lati- 
folia^ growing in dense clusters. In some places we find 
dense growths of Tamarack ; in others Swamp Willow^ 
Black Alder ^ and Witch Hazel constitute the j)rincipal flora. 
The variety of herbs and smaller undergrowth is very great. 

Quarry. — About one mile east from Linesville, on the 
land of Hendrick and Logan, a stratum of sandstone has 
been quarried to a considerable extent, and there the fol- 
lowing is seen (Fig. 44) : 

Chocolate Shales, 10' 

Corry Sandstone (1140' A. T.), 6' 

Blue Shales, . . . .5' 

The buff-colored tolerably coarse Corry Sandstone con- 
tains many conglomerated masses of iron ore balls. The 
stratum is much broken up, and the layers are seldom 
thicker than 8'^ ; nevertheless, in a region where sandstone 
is so scarce it finds a ready sale, and a large amount of it is 
quarried. 

The top of the stratum lies 1140' above tide, as carefully 



168 Q* REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

determined by two trials from the E. & P. R. R. at lines- 
ville, distant only a mile to the west. This elevation is the 
basis of its identification with the Corry Sandstone; for 
the top of the Orangeville shale near Adamsville (10 miles 
neariy due south) is 1110' A. T. The shale is nearly 80' 
thick along the Ohio line, and therefore its bottom (or the 
top of rhe Corry Sandstone) is 1110'— 80'=1030' A. T. This 
gives 1140'— 1030=110' fall in 10 miles, which agrees well 
enough with the general dip. 

The Corry Sandstone is also quarried to a small extent 
on the land of Mr. Beardsley, a short distance northwest 
from Line&ville, and is the same kind as at Hendricks' . 

General elevation of Pymatuning swamp, . . (above tide), 1025' 

Forks of road near S. Odell's, *« 1020' 

" " E. Seley's, «* 1075' 

" " L. Bundy's, " 1070' 

Cross-roads at eastern limit of Linesville, ... <> 1045' 

Forks near A. C. Rea's, " 1040' 

Level of North Branch of Shenango at Lines- 

ville, •. «< 1008' 

Forks near C. C. Dennis*, " 1000' . 

Grossing Peyton's run, " 1000' 

Forks near S. Clark's, «« 1000' 



12. Sadshury^ in Crawford county 

This township lies between the Pymatuning swamp and 
Conneaut lake, enclosing the latter, which was used as a 
feeder for the now abandoned Beaver and Erie canal. 

Conneaut lake^ however, lies partly in Summit township, 
being about four and a half miles long by one wide ; its 
depth varying from a few feet to nearly 100' in a few deep 
holes, and surrounded by low sloping banks of Glacial 
drift.— See Part I, pp. 20, 24, 35, 40, 41. 

A high hill, about two miles southwest from Evansburg, 
rising to 1300' A. T., takes in the Shenango sandstone over 
a large area. 

The rock was here, at one time, quarried very extensively 
on the land of Mr. McDowell for the locks of the old canal. 



12. SADSBUBT. 



Q*. 169 




160 Q^ BEPORT OF PROGRESS. I, C. WHITE. 

It is a coarse massive light-brown rock, containing ^^A re- 
mains and iron ore balls in great quantity. Stone has been 
hauled from here to long distances in every direction. — Base 
of quarry rock, 1275' A. T. 

The Orangeville shale outcrops just south from Evans- 
burg along the roadside, about 60' above the level of the 
lake. It consists of fine-grained blue shales, in which are 
found occasional bands of sandstone from V to 3'' thick. 

An oil well was once drilled near Evansburg, but no record 
could be obtained, even from memory, and this is especially 
to be regretted, since a good record here would throw sortie 
light on the depth of the old lake bottom now filled with 
Drift deposits of unknown thickness. 

On the eastern shore of the lake a broad level terrace is 
seen 50' above the water. 

Level of Conneaut lake, (above tide) , 1070' 

Forks of road at S. Grigg's, 

Next forks east, 

Forks near J. Shout's, 

at A. Stratton's, 

near William Mellon's, 

*• R. McDoweirs, 

" J. C. Miller's, 

" A. Henry's, 

«* W. T. Davis's, . 

Gross roads near E. Shellito's, 

" »* C. R. Stratton's, 

Grossing of run east, 

Gross roads near H. Burch's, 

« *< at Shermansville, 





1080' 




1120' 




1176' 




1110' 




1115' 




1280' 




1270' 




1166' 




1195' 




1265' 




1175' 




1150' 




1070' 




1100' 



13. Summit^ in Crawford county. 

This township lies north of Conneaut lake. Its eastern 
half drains southward into Conneaut lake and so through 
French creek into the Allegheny river; its northwestern 
quarter northward into Conneaut creek and Lake Erie ; and 
its southwest quarter westward into Pymatuning swamp 
and the Shenango. Its former more extended area is de- 
scribed ill Part 1, Chapter 3, in connection with the fresh- 



13. SUMMIT.. 



Q^ 161 



water marl beds on the land of Mr. Almon Whiting north 
of Harmonsburg. — See page 40. 

The following analysis of the marl was made for Mr. 
Whiting by the Chemist of the Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C, Mr. Thos. Antisell, and placed at my 
disposal by Mr. Whiting : 

Water and organic material, 4.00 

Carbonate of Lime 71.14 

Sulphate of Lime and Magnesia, 3.25 

Silica and traces of Alkali salt, 21.61 

The following four analyses were made by Mr. McCreath 
in the Laboratory of the Survey at Harrisburg, and were 
taken by me from a copy sent to Mr. Whiting : 

*< No. 1. Burned in a close kiln at a white heat." 

** No. 2. Same specimen when thoroughly and freshly burned." 

*• No. 3. Burned in open air at a red heat." 

"No. 4. Raw marl." (Given already on page 42.) 



Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Iron bi-sulphide, . . . 

Oxide of iron, 

Alumina, 

Potash and soda, . . . . 
Sulphuric acid, . . . . 
Phosphoric " . . . • 
Carbonic " . . . . 
Organic matter, .... 
Silica, 

Totals, 



No. 1. 


2. 


3. 


09.800 


82.679 


44.997 


1.405 


1.943 


1.163 


• • 


• • 


.071 


1.850 


1.176 


0.860 


0.810 


V 1.119 


0.808 


0.822 


0.445 


0.538 


0.841 


1.162 


0.877 


0.042 


0.058 


0.062 


13.590 


• • • 


33.890 


I.OIO 


* • • • 


3.900 


7.940 


10.978 


11.541 


99.660 


99.560 


100.047 



4. 



49 129 
839 
0.429 
0.170 
0.020 
0.116 
0.222 
0.023 

39.356 
6.510 
1.052 



100.056 



It will be perceived that Nos. 1, 2, and 3 contain much 
more silica than No. 4 which is doubtless to be accounted 
for by the fact that a very earthy variety of peat was used 
to a considerable extent in the calcination. The effect of 
this is seen in the specimen analyzed by Mr. Antisell. 

A bed of impure peat 2' to 3' thick lies immediately on the 
marl ; formed principally from the decomposition of the 
roots of several species of Qyperus. 

The peat is still in process of formation, as can readily be 
seen where it has been dug through in the marl pits, reveal- 
ing the roots and Stems of grasses and sedges still penetrat- 
11 Q^ 



162 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ing the mass from top to bottom. A small stream oozes 
over the ground, and from it has been derived, during sea- 
sons of floods, the great amount of impurities that it con- 
tains in the shape of muddy sediment. 

This impure peat is burned with the marl when intended 
as a fertilizer, the supposition of Mr. Wiiiting being that it 
very much enriches the same ; but the analyses given render 
that theory extremely doubtful, to say the least, since by 
comparing the burned (Nos. 1, 2, 3) with the unburned marl 
(No. 4) it will be perceived that while the former have gained 
only slightly in the proi)ortions of potash, soda and phos- 
phoric acid, they have at the same time been loaded with 
over 10 per cent, of insoluble products, in the shape of Silica 
and Alumina, which can of course have no beneficial action 
on the soil, more than scattering over it so much sand. 

The lime is valued for plastering purposes, and is hauled 
to a long distance into the surrounding country. 

Oil well. About two miles west from the marl beds a 
boring was made for oil in 1861 on the land of Mr. Philip 
Brown, who gave me the following record of the same : 

P. BrowvH s oil horing. 

Gravel, . . . * . 4' 

Cuanewago Sandstone^ soft ooarse yeUowiBh, .80' 

Slate and soapstODe, ' 178' 

Sandstone, ooarse white, (some gas,) 20' 

Elevation of well mouth (head waters of Conneaut creek) 
by barometer 1090' A. T. 

The Cussewago Sandstone is represented as quite soft 
and rotten, containing some pebbles. I know it to be the 
rock named because it comes to the surface at the right 
elevation (making due allowance for dip) a mile further to 
the north. 

Gas but no oil came from the lower sandstone which is no 
doubt one of the Venango Oil Sand group. Mr. Brown 
supposed it the Third Oil Sand^ but that cannot be, because 
the probable place of the First Oil Sand is at about 100' 
down in the well ; and therefore the well is not deep enough 
for the Third. 

About one and a half miles north from this near the Catho- 



13. SUMMIT. Q*. 168 

lie church, a small run puts into Conneaut creek, and de- 
scending it from the top of the hill the following section 
was made : (Fig. 46.) 

Catholic Church Section. 

Sandstone, {quarried^) 10' 

Conoealed with occasional layers of flaggy sandstone, 80' 

Ousaewago Sandatone, (base lOSO' A. T.,) 30' 

Blue Shale, ? 

The top sandstone was once quarried quite extensively 
for the locks of the old canal, which passes along Conneaut 
creek at the fo9t of the hill. It lies in layers V to 2' thick ; 
a bluish-gray rock ; possibly representing the Corry Sand- 
stone. 

The Cussewago Sandstone has that peculiar lithology so 
unlike anything else in the series as to stamp it at once. 

It is the same as the 30' rock struck near the top of the 
boring on the land of Mr. Brown. It is here a very coarse 
greenish brown sandrock, the upper part of which is com- 
pletely decomposed and makes a mere sand-bank along the 
stream. In the lower part many pebbles are seen, and the 
stratum is very rotten and incoherent throughout. See 
Part I, ch. 9, page 96. 

Immediately below the base of the Cussewago sandstone, 
some fine blue shale is seen, and then everything is con- 
cealed to the level of Conneaut creek. 

Barometric Elevations in Summit. 

Gross-roads near Jas. Boyle's (above tide), 1260' 

Forks near Adam Faust's, *< 1150' 

*• R. KeUey's, «« 1105' 

«• J. W. Greer's mUl, " 1100' 

Forks next north, •« 1105' 

Harmonsburg, " 1110' 

Level of run near cheese factory, east, *< 1105' 

Forks near Sebastian Quigley's, « 1180' 

Cross-roads next east, <* 1200' 

Forks near Henry Bright's, " 1230 

Groafr-roads near W. Warden's, *< 1165' 

" " Darius Smith's, " 1205' 

«« " Geo. Sitler's, " 1160' 

" «• Alex MoGuire's, " 1100' 

« " Jas. MoGuire's, " 1200' 



164 Q^. REPORT OF PROaRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Gross-roads near Philip Brown's, (above tide), 1120' 

*» »* O. C. Denison's, " 1205' 

" " Silas Ford's, »« 1220' 

" " Jas. Garwood's, ♦♦ 1240' 

" " Catholic oliarch, «* 1200' 

* 



14. Vernon^ in Crawford County. 

This township lies between Conneaut lake and French 
creek ; Watson' s run crosses it from north to south, and 
Van Horn's run tiows south through its eastern part, parallel 
with and into French creek, below Meadvilie. Cussewago 
creek makes the east half of its north line. 

A high broad northwest-southeast ridge occupies its cen- 
tral portion. The northeast and southwest quarters are 
low and tiat. 

Conneaut Lake creek (the south line of the township) 
flows in a vallejf more than two miles, formerly an almost 
continuous marsh ; but now to a considerable extent drained 
by the deepening of the channel of the creek by steam 
dredging. It is intended to continue this process on down 
to the mouth of the creek. 

The SJienango sandstone is found on the highest parts 
of the central ridge ; tlie Venango oil measures occupy 
French creek valley ; but Drift covers the whole township, 
and rock exposures are quite rare. 

At Meadville, opposite the Lower Iron Bridge, the hill 
rises quite abruptly, and here a ravine exhibits the follow- 
ing outcrops (Fig. 47) : 

Meadville Iron Bridge Section. 

Corry Sandstone^ somewhat massive, 8' 

Cussewago Limestone, . . 1' 

Shales and flaggy sandstones, 60' 

Cussewago Sandstone, 15' 

Shales and flaggy sandstones, 125' 

Blue shales, with thin layers of sandstone to level of French 

creek, 15' 

The Corry sandstone is partly quite massive, and large 
blocks of it are seen along the little stream ; some of the 
blocks contain small pebbles ; it is a light-yellow rock, quite 



14. VERNON. 



Q^ 165 



hard and durable, and was once quarried to some extent on 
the bluff above the old tan-house. . 

The {Cussewagd) limestone seems to come in the series 
here at the same horizon as the lower limestone along Cusse- 
wago creek. It is quite hard, compact and breaks with 
glistening surfaces. Blocks of it scattered along the stream, 
are rounded on the angles. 

The Ctcssewago sandstone is a very coarse loose rock of 
a greenish-brown color and an attempt was once made to 



45. 




A7: 



openaquarryinitjustbelowwherethe Cwtt/ was quarried ; 
but the rock proved so friable that nothing could be done 
with it. — Base, IS.'J' above the level of the R. R. at the de- 
pot in Meadville,=12U5' A. T. 

Venanr/o First oil sandi—A sandy stratum, 15' to 20' 
thick at the base of the 195' shale was excavated for a wine 
cellar opposite the Dock street bridge. It lies about 450' 
below the Sharon Conglomerate. 

Many species of Chemunff shells are seen on the slabs, 
among which are Spirifera disjuncta, Prodnctella Boydii^ 
Pterinea, SpJ Aviculopecten suborbicularis, and otliers. 

The bine shale, very argillaceous, is exposed along the 
road ueaT Shryock's miU. 



166 Q*. EEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

An oil well was bored just above the mill to a consider- 
able depth by Mr. Shryock, but no oil of any consequence 
was obtained. 

One and a half miles south from Meadville, where the 
road ascends the hill south from Van Horn's run, 2' of the 
hard grayish top of the Corry sandstone is exposed (1215' 
A. T.) 

Orangenille shale^ very argillaceous, and having thin lay- 
ers of sandy material interstatified at every 3 to 5 feet, is 
seen overlying it. 

Meadville limestone, -r-On the right bank of Van Horn's 
run, near the McMichael's school house, the outcrop of a 
quite silicious limestone V thick is seen at 1325' A. T. 

Shenango saTidstone blocks are scattered over the surface 
along the ridge to the west, near J. Keller's, at 1400' A. T. 
The mother rock is not seen and is probably eroded from 
the hilltop, and may have had a considerable higher eleva- 
tion. 

Barometric elevations * 

Elevation of Van Horn's run where pike crosses 

it south from Meadville, (above tide,) 1095' 

Forks of road near J. Kennedy's, « 1266' 

" ♦* D. Rejrmore's, " 1370' 

" " P. Brown's, «« 1870' 

«♦ " D. Keep's, " 1300' 

Forks next south of " «* 1190' 

«* •* west from last, «* 1140' 

" near Trace's School House, •« 1090' 

Crossing of Watson's run just south, " 1080' 

ForJts near Andrew's Church, ........ «« 1110' 

" north from A. Brown's, ........ " 1116' 

" next northwest, «* 1120' 

" near J. F. Brown's, «« 1115' 

« " J. I. Brown's, " 1116' 

»« west from I». Trace's, " 1146' 

" near J.L.. Beatty's, " 1235' 

»* next east, " 1200' 

Cross roads near J. J. Beatty's, ** 1256' 

" next east, " 1235' 

Forks near G. Kollabaugh '8, " 1335' 

«» P. Ouspaugh's, " 1335' 

«• E. Sohmallenberger's» " 1316' 

•* G.Wallace's, " 1375' 



* Very closely checked. 



15. MEAD. Q\ 167 

Crofls roads near H.Smith's, (above tide) , 1810' 

Forks near J. Keller's, " 1376' 

«* J.Curry's, . . . " 1300' 

" Jacob Work's, " 1150' 

" Mrs. Keeber's, " • 1190' 

" J. B. Palmer's, " 1220' 

Gross roads near A. Gibson's, « 1200' 



15. Meadj in Crawford county. 

This large township lies east of French creek and incloses 
the borough of Meadville, the county seat. 

A table land occupies its middle, (north and south lying) 
belt, draining west into French creek, south and west into 
Little Sugar creek and north into Woodcock creek. 

Another table land carries the east township line. 

Between the two table lands lies the (north-south) buried 
valley of Little Sugar creek, described in Part I, p. 36. 
• French creek flows in a buried valley, now filled up to a 
depth of at least 300' ; for, on Smith's land near the south- 
ern line of. the township, iron pipes were driven through 
quicksands and bowlders 285', without touching rock bot- 
tom. This pipe started about 20' above the level of French 
creek, making the depth of the old valley beneath the pres- 
ent level of French creek at least 275'. 

The section of the rocks in this township extends from a 
few feet above the Sharon coal down to the Venango First 
oil sand horizon. 

The Sharon Conglomerate caps the ridge northeast of 
Meadville with very massive ledges, and a small stream de- ' 
scending from these highlands through the Grreendale Ceme- 
tery to Mill run exposes a very good section as seen in the 
following : (Fig. 48. ) 

Meadville Section. 

Sharon Conglomerate, \ ^^^^"7 «an<lstone ^'{45' 

f Pebble rock, 10' ) 

Concealed but containing the massive Shenango Sandstone 

just above its base 70' 

Upper Shales, blue, somewhat sandy, 15' 

Meadville { Upper Limestone, 1' 

Lower Shales and flaggy sandstone, 35' 



168 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Sharpsville Upper Sandstone, flaggy, 60' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, 2' 

Sharpsville Lower Sandstone, flaggy, visible 10' 

Concealed, but showing some exposures of the Orangeville 

Shale, near the base, 60' 

Concealed to level of A. &. G. W. B. B. at the Meadville de. 

pot, (1080' A. T.,) 170' 

Concealedtolevelof French creek, (1062' A. T.,) 18' 

The Sharon Oonglomeraie has been extensively quarried 
for a long time on the land of Dr. Carroll and others, north 
from Allegheny College on what is termed the College Hills. 
Only about 30' has been quarried, the lower portion being 
somewhat pebbly, and the lowest 10' a mere mass of quartz 
pebbles. 

The upper, or quarry portion, is a dull gray sandstone ; 
often tinged red, and sometimes buff ; tolerably coarse ; 
and some of the courses often containing a few pebbles. 
Some parts of the ledge show a great tendency to false-bed- 
ding. 

The rock is quite durable, except when containing many 
pebbles, and then it is so coarse that the weather soon breaks 
it up and the rock crumbles away. This is shown in the 
coping stones of the M. E. Church which have already begun 
to decay. 

The base of this deposit is a perfect mass of quartz peb- 
bles, varying in size from a pea to a walnut, and even a 
hen's egg. Around the base of the hill, below the quarry, 
may be seen a regular bed of loose pebbles derived from the 
decay of the rock ; the matrix holding the pebbles being a 
coarse bluish-gray (sometimes greenish-gray) sand. The 
rock crops out in a ledge along the stone road which leads 
up to the Carroll quarries. 

The Shenango sandstone lowest layers are exposed along 
the run ; and large blocks of it lie higher up on a steep bluff 
around the hill. In the lowest layers may be noticed some 
flat pebbles of quartz. 

The Meadville Upper Limestone^ named from this lo- 
cality, is a hard silicious stratum, containing probably 60 
per cent, of carbonate of lime ; very f ossilif erous ; especially 
rich SxifisTi remains ; and holding many shells of moUusks 
and pebbles of shale and of dark fine-grained sandstone. 



15. MEAD. Q*. 169 

The Sharpsville Upper Sandstone is here, as nearly al- 
ways elsewhere, a darkish gray rock, in layers of 6" to 2' ; 
quite hard, and often sepai*ated by thin layers of shale. 

The Meadville Lower Limestone^ finely exposed in the bed 
of the stream, makes a cascade. Large, angular blocks 
(with the edges rounded oflf ) lie scattered along the bed of 
the stream for a considerable distance near the hydraulic 
ram which supplies the cemetery with water. The lime- 
stone rock is quite hard, and breaks with the peculiar glassy 
fracture so common to the calcareo-silicious deposits under 
the Conglomerate. 

The base of the STiarpsvllle Lower Sandstone was not 
seen, but the topography along the stream would indicate 
that its thickness is probably not 10', but 20'. 

The Orangexille Shale is only exposed in two or three 
places, and that only for a few feet ; but its characteristic 
structure and fossils readily isolate it from any other rock 
in our column at a single glance. 

Barometric Heights. 

Top of Sharon Conglomerate^ (above tide) 1648' 

Top of Upper Meadville Limestone, " 1418' 

Top of Lower Meadville Limestone, ** 1322' 

RaUroad grade at MeadvUle depot " 1080' 

Almost one mile east from Meadville, the following suc- 
cession is seen in descending a small tributary of Mill run, 
on the land of Mr. S. E. Ellis (Fig. 49) : 

Ellis' Mill Run Section, 

1. Shenango Sandstone, 20' 

2. Shales, 30' 

8. Meadville Upper Limestone, 1' 

4. Shales and flaggy sandstone, 50' 

5. Limestone, [Meadville Middle Limestone?'^, 0' 6'' 

6. Sandstone, 25' 

7. Meadville Lower Limestone, 2' 

8. Sharpsville Lower Sandstone, 30' 

9. Orangeville Shale, seen, 40' 

10. Concealed to level of R. R. at MeadviUe D6pot (1080' 

A. T., 163' 

The Shenango Sandstone has here a very good develop- 
ment, and large blocks of it have tumbled from the cliffs 



170 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

into the bed of the stream. It is a dark grayish-brown 
rock, and should be quarried for building purposes instead 
of the Sharon Conglomerate^ which is worked so exten- 
sively at the Carroll quarries, one and a half miles to the 
northeast. It would make a much more durable structure 
than the latter, and is softer and more easily worked. It 
would certainly pay to open a quarry at this locality. 

The underlying blue shale, generally quite soft, contains 
some thin siliceous layers. 

The Meadmlle Upper Limestone contains an abundance 
of Jish remains here, as well as many shells. 

The interval between the Upper and Lower Meadmlle 
Limestone is here much smaller than usual, but the decrease 
in this is almost exactly counterbalanced by the increase 
in the thickness of the Sharpsmlle Lower Sandstone^ so that 
the interval from the Upper Meadville Limestone to the top 
of the Orangeoille Shale remains about as usual — 107'. 

The Sharpsmlle Lower Sandstone is more massive than 
common, some of the layers being 3' or more thick. 

The Orangemlle Shale^ dark-blue, and very argillaceous, 
is filled with Lingwl(B and DiscincB, Its base is concealed ; 
therefore its exact thickness is unknown, but probably not 
far from 60'. 

The elevation here of the top of the Lower Meadville 
Limestone (1315' A. T.) is almost exactly the same as in the 
preceding section near the cemetery. 

Meadmlle oil well, — Further down Mill run, and within 
the borough limits of Meadville, an oil well was once drilled 
by the Meadville Oil and Gas Company, commencing only 
5' or 6' above the bed of the run (70' above French creek). 
No record was preserved, and all that can now be learned 
of it is what is imperfectly remembered by two or three 
parties who assisted in the drilling, or were connected with 
the company. These accounts vary so much that but little 
confidence can b'fe placed in any of them ; but all agree in 
the fact that a large flow of gas^ with some oil^ was ob- 
tained. 

The depth at which this gas and oil was struck, however, 
is variously reported from 455' to 700'. This disagreement 



15. MEAD. Q* 171 

in the traditions shows that the true depth is not remem- 
bered by any one, and may have been much less even than 
455', which is quite probable on the supposition that the 
gas and oil came from the Venango Third Oil Sand or Le- 
Boeuf Conglomerate. For the proper place of this rock in 
this bore-hole is somewhere between 370' and 400'.* 

The oil is reported to have been dark green in color, and 
of rather heavy gravity. 

Along the bed of Mill run, jusfc opposite to where the oil 
well was bored, the thin flaggy rocks are filled with fossils, 
among which were seen Aviculopecten sub-orb icvZar is ^ 
Spirifera disjuncta^ Productella Boydii,, and many en- 
crinal stems and fragments. Mr. Carll obtained some fine 
specimens here, and he first called my attention to the 
locality. 

As we pass up Mill run its bed gradually rises to about 
1230' A. T., where it heads in a marsh, from which flows 
southward Little Sugar creek. This buried valley was de- 
scribed in Part I, Chapter 3. 

Near the head of Mill run a strongly-smelling sulphur 
spring occurs at the roadside, on the land of Mr. Custead, 
at 1210' A. T. 

Near the southern line of this township, on the land of 
Mr. Smith, the following section was obtained in descend- 
ing a steep ravine to French creek (Fig. 50 : 

» SmitKs Section. 

Shale, sandstone, and oonoealed, 75' 

[Meadville Middle ?'\ Limeatonet Yery ^lioooMB, 1' 

Flaggy sandstone (one limestone band), 25' 

Meadville Lower Limestone {V^^' Jl.T,)^ 2' 

Sharpavtlle Lower Sandstone, flaggy, 15' 

Orangeville Shale, ... 70' 

Corry Sandstone, coarse, greenish-brown, 10' 

Couoealed to level of French creek, 100' 

There seems to be an unusual amount of calcareous mat- 
ter in the Upper Sharpsville Sandstone at this locality, since 
it contains two bands of limestone^ very silicious, however, 
and non-fossiliferous, 

* Such is the result of a calculation based upon the fact that the Sharon 
Conglomerate lies 380' above the mouth of the weU. 



• 



172 Q*. REPORT OF FROQRSSS, I. C. WHITE. 

The Meadville Lower Limestone ia more calcareous than 
those above it. 
The Orangemlle Shale is dark bluish-gray, quite soft, and 

48. 



abounding in LingvlfE, as well aa DlscincB. It contains a 
few bands of thin sandstone. 
The Carry Sandstone is represented in the section by a 



15. MEAD. Q^ 173 

very coarse-grained, incoherent sandstone, of a greenish- 
brown color, — top 1150' A. T. 

Bore-holes in Drift. — On the bank of French creek, near 
where this section ends, on the land of J. Smith's heirs, 
two oil wells were attempted. First, an iron pipe was driven 
to a depth of 200', where it got bent and had to be drawn. 
Another trial was made near the first hole, 20' above the 
level of French creek; and there the loose Drift in the 
buried valley was penetrated to a depth of 285', where the 
undertaking was abandoned. A great deal of quicksand 
is said to have been encountered, and the driving was very 
slow and difficult. 

Almost three miles due east from Meadville, the surface 
rises to an elevation of 1580' A. T. 

The Sharon coal, on the land of Mr. A. AVright, seems 
to have a small patch left, judging onlj'- by the fact that in 
digging a well, after passing through 28' of Drifts Mr. 
Wright came upon a loose bed of coal, broken and scattered 
through the material of the Drift as at Byhm's in E. Fair- 
field township ; see p. 131 above. Here the water came, but 
Mr. Wright judged from the broken character of the bed, 
that it was about 2 feet thick. The coal burned very well, 
and a small piece of it which he showed me exhibited the 
hlocJc structure. 

Shenango Sandstone, — About one-half mile east from 
Wright's and just north from Mead Corner's, a ledge of 
massive sandstone is seen extending around the hill. The 
base of the ledge is 160' lower than Wright's coal. The 
rock is coarse, grayish-brown, and contains many streaks 
of pebbles. Large blocks of it lie scattered over the ground. 
The layers without pebbles, making an excellent building 
stone, have been quarried here. 

One mile north from Mead Corner's on the land of Mr. 
G. McNamara a ravine coming down from the highlands 
west, exposes the following (Fig. 51) : 

McNamara^ s section. 

Sharon Conglomerate, 40' 

Concealed, 50' 



174 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Shenango Sandstone^ very massive, 25' 

Concealed, . . . : 26' 

Shales, 5' 

Meadviile Upper Limestone^ (1442' A. T.,) \* 

Shales, 30' 

Limeatone in three layers^ (\AV2! X,T.,,) 2' 

Shales and concealed to level of road at 1330' above tide, ... 80' 

The Sharon Conglomerate is seen along the Meadviile 
road west from McNamara's near W. S. Chase's, forming 
a line of cliffs along the hillside ; a grayish-white coarse 
sandstone, containing some pebbles. 

The Shenango Sandstone making a perpendicular fall of 
20', very massive, and forming a line of cliffs around the 
head of the gorge, is a coarse bufiish-brown rock, contain- 
ing numerous balls of iron ore. The rock is visible for 26', 
and is probably 35' thick. 

The Meadviile Upper Limestone is here a mere mass of 
fisJt and shell remains. In fact, the matrix can scarcely 
be seen on account of the innumerable scales which cover 
th,e surface of the stratum.* 

The Meadviile {Middle ?] Limestone^ also filled with fish 
and shell remains^ simulates in every respect the Upper 
Limestone. It comes in three layers, and contains many flat 
pebbles of shale. 

The Sharon Conglomerate underlies all the country be- 
tween McNamara's and Meadvillle, thus forming an elevated 
plateau, with the top of the rock only a few feet below the 
surface, where it is frequently struck by the farmers in dig- 
ging their wells. 

About one mile north from McNamara's a very deep ra- 
vine is cut down parallel with the road on the land of Mr. 
Chase, and in it the following succession is seen : (Fig. 52.) 

Chase!' s section. 

Bluish, sandy shales, 80' 

Meadviile Lower Limr8ionet\ Yery hBx6.i (\SQb A. T.,) . . . . 1' 
Shales and flaggy sandstone, 20' 

♦Here 1442' A. T. and at Meadviile 3 miles west, 1418' A. T Rate of rise 

eastward about 8' to the mile, 

1 1 suppose this to be the Lower Meadviile Limestone (1395' A. T.,) because 
at McNamara's, only one mile south, the Upper M. L. is 1442' A. T. 



15. MEAD. 

Oil well.— About five miles sontheast from 
Meadville, on tlie land of Mr. A. J. Preston 
a well was once bored for oil to a depth of 
900', commencing (1375') 140' below where 
the Sharon coal was found in a well at Mr. 
Boyle's honse i of a mile away. 

A excellent sand (15' to 20') was struck 
at 625' in which, I am told, a splendid oil 
show was obtained, but owing to some 
trouble with the contractor the well was 
never pumped. I saw some of the sand 
drilUng. The pebbles were large, and the 
cementing matrix very soft and coarse. 
There were many fragments of jasper, and 
smoky quartz. 

This region deserves thorough testing, for 
the indications point to a productive oil field 
of small extent. 

A small vein of coal was found in digging 
a well on the land of Mr. Boyle's J m. north- 
west from Preston's. Surface elevation 
1530' A. T. Coal in the well 1512' A. T. 
Coal said to be 18" thick and to bum well. 

Barometric elevations in Mead.* 

Forks of road nt northeast oor- 

ner Huldekoper Pk (above tide,) IISS' 

Forks near Unitarian CoUege, . " 1280' 

Level of MiU run near W. H. 

MoGaw'a, " 1180' 

Forks sontheast from J. A. Mil- 



r Sulphur Springs o 



Q*. 175 

52. 



Fork near S. Bolls's, 

" " J, MoNamara's, 

" nojct southeast, 

Where road crosBes mn ashort distance south E., 



1210' 
. , (above tide), 1270' 

. . " U15' 



1520' 
1525' 

1310' 



* Most of them csrefullj' checked two or three times, so that they ma^ bo 
nlied on as close approxlmatious. 



n 



176 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Forks near Mr. Cole's, (above tide), 1310' 

** next southeast near Cemetery, ..... 

♦* near S. Riser's, 

•* " Mrs. Finney's, 

lievel of Little Sugar oreek, east, 

Forks near F. Brown's, 

" « J. Duciet's, 

Forks near J. Brawley's, 

*' ** Frenohtown, 

*• next east, 

" west from Frenohtown, 

" near A. Galmish's, 

** next west where road turns north, . . . 
Crossing of Little Sugar oreek near P. Deviller's, 
Forks north from !N. Brawley's, 

•* near R. K. Ewing's, 

*« *♦ H. Brawley's, 

" next northwest, 

" near Mrs. Kightlinger's, 

Cross roads at Town-House, 

Forks near S. Lamlo's School-House, 

" ** J. Morrisey's, 

" " G.Smith's, 

** «* G. W. Custead's, 

«* " 3. S. Thurston's, 

Cross roads at J. Lawson's, 

" ** J. Lane's, 

Forlui near Rufus Smith's, 

" «« D. S. Ellis's, . 

** next east at School House, 

Summit near E. B. R. Sackett's, 

Cross roads near J . Burns's, 

Summit near A. Wright's, 

Mead Corner's, 

Forks next east, 

Level of left Br. of Little Sugar creek, next 

east, " 1226' 

Level of right Br. of Little Sugar creek, next 

easii, ••■ ■•••*.•••• 

Cross roads near S. Richard's, 

Forks near L* Deremer's, 

Level of Little Sugar creek, near L. S. Doane's, 
Forks next west, 

" near E. D. Mead's, 

" ** G. McNamara's, 

" «« H. Marker's, 

Cross roads near Lorin Stein's, 

Forks near H. A. Hatch's, 

Forks near W. Clark's, 

Valley between Marker's and Stein '.?, 

Cross roads near J. F. Breed's, 

Forks near A. William's, 



(( 


1500' 


t( 


1360' 


(( 


1270' 


(( 


1200' 


<( 


1300' 


ti 


1335' 


u 


1400' 


(I 


1375' 


(i 


1385' 


(C 


1350' 


(( 


1265' 


ti 


1220' 


(( 


1215 


(( 


1250' 


l( 


1260' 


(( 


1450' 


(1 


1345' 


<i 


1320' 


It 


1450' 


u 


1480' 


ti 


1490' 


ti 


1465' 


n 


1305' 


(i 


1370' 


(( 


1390' 


(( 


1320' 


<( 


1130' 


tt 


1230' 


(1 


1410' 


(t 


1580' 


(i 


1510' 


(( 


1580' 


(( 


1320' 


(( 


1265' 



it 


1225' 


it 


1265' 


(( 


1285' 


t( 


1235' 


(( 


1260' 


(i 


1270' 


(( 


1330' 


(( 


1325' 


(( 


1420' 


t( 


1470' 


« 


1440' 


t( 


1290' 


(( 


1320' 


(( 


1520' 



16. EAT^DOLPH. Q*. 177 



Cross road near G. Reeves's, (above tide) , 1535' 

J. Douglass, " Fine Points," «* 1520' 

Forks near A. Oak's, . " 1500' 

Cross roads near C. Callum's, .....*. " 1515' 

** next northwest, ", 1520' 

Forks near T. Willson's, " 1450' 

" " H. Yocum's, «* 1380' 



16. Randolph^ in Crawford county. 

This township lies directly east from Mead, and extends 
its southeast corner nearly to the Venango county line. 

A large part of the southern and eastern portions of this 
area is covered with a wilderness of almost unbroken for- 
est ; and the land is partly swampy and partly elevated 
land of the Conglomerate series. 

The west line ranges along the north-south plateau west 
of the buried valley in which Woodcock creek and Sugar 
creek west branch head together near Guy's Mills ; as de- 
scribed in Part I. 

East of this valley another north and south range of hills 
spread out between the two forks of Sugar creek. 

The central valley is filled with a deep deposit of Drift 
and the rocks outcropping on the hills are everywhere 
scored by ice. The flat divide in the middle of the valley 
is about 1330' A. T., and the hills to the east and west of 
the valley rise about 200' above the level of the divide. 

YoisoTi! s quarry. — In the southwestern corner of the town- 
ship a massive white sandstone is seen capping a summit 
(1560' A. T.,) where it has been quarried on the land of Mr. 
Voison, a bluflf 30' high around the hill. The rock is a hard 
tolerably coarse-grained sandstone with very few pebbles 
and may possibly represent one of the Connoquenessing 
rocks ^ being too high for the Sharon Conglomerate^ and 
too low for the Homewood Sandstone, A large spring of 
water issues from beneath the exposure, and Mr. Voison 
reports that when the pit was sunk into which the spring 
pours many lumps of coal were found. There may be a 
coal bed here ; but the lumps of coal may belong to the 
Drift, 

12 Q^ 



178 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

About two miles northeast from tlii«», and west from Sugar 
Lake P. O. a line of sandstone bowlders is seen along the 
road at 1325' A. T. They must come from a very massive 
stratum, and have the appearance of the Shenango Sand- 
stone^ the place of which, here, ought to come at about 
1350' A. T. 

At Randolph P. O., near the northern line of the town- 
ship, some very high knobs occur, and one of these on the 
land of Mr. McCartney, 1650' A. T. is capped with a stratum 
of massive coarse white sandstone, probably the same as 
Voison's rock, but 90' higher, and about 5 miles further 
north. This would give a south dip of say 18' per mile. 
The top of the rock here is scarred with glacial strice (S. 
36° E. Magnetic) some of them nearly an inch in depth. 

liadsV s Oil boring, — One mile east from Randolph P. 
O., near the northern line of the township, a well was once 
drilled by Mr. Radel, commencing near the level of Wood- 
cock creek, (1300' A. T.) with a drivti-pipe of 63' before 
striking rock bottom. 

" At 200' a sand (15') was passed through," probably the 
Venango First Oil Sand. 

''At 565' a splendid looking oil saTid was struck ; very 
loose and coarse ; which furnished considerable gas and 
light green oil, notwithstanding the fact that the hole was 
drilled wet. This oil rock was 45' thick, all good sand ex- 
cept the lower 10' to 15' which was rather fine and close ;" 
probably the Venango Third Oil Sand ; since the base of 
Sharon Conglomerate about 175' above well+565'=740'. 

Ellison oil boring, — On the land of Mr. Ellison near this, 
another was drilled at the same level to a depth of 900', but 
the 3rd sand was only about 20' thick in this. It is possible 
that a small area of productive oil territory may exist in 
this region, if it were properly developed, but of course 
nothing could be determined from these wet holes. 

Gilberfs oil boring. — About two miles east from Guy's 
Mills a well was once drilled on the land of Mr. M. W. Gil- 
bert, commencing at 1510' A. T. No systematic record was 
preserved, but Mr. Gilbert remembers very confidently that 
"the drive pipe was 87' through clay, sand, bowlders, &c.. 



16. KANDOLPH. Q*. 179 

mostly clay. — At 300' a nice white sand (12' to 15') was 
struck. — At about 750' or 800' a sand (8' to 10') was struck, 
in which some gas and oil was obtained. — Well 950^. — 
Stopped in a soft red slate?'^ 

The sand at 800' ought to be the Venango Third ; be- 
cause the base of the Sharon Conglomerate is about 50' 
down the well : 800'±— 50'=750'=t:. 

Further east from this is a high ridge covered with blocks 
of white sandstone ; 1600' A. T. 

Near Hatch's School House in the southeastern corner of 
this township the base of the Sharon Conglomerate is seen 
(1445' A. T.) exposed along a small stream which here starts 
eastward toward Sugar creek east branch. The hills rise 
to a height of 100' above the base of the rock, but no coal 
has ever been found in this Sharon coal bed horizon. The 
side-hills are covered with large blocks of massive pehhly 
sandstone^ derived mostly from the Sharon Conglomerate. 

Barometric Elevations in Randolph* 

Forks of road near township line at J. Pardee's, (above tide, ) 1400' 

Cross roads near H. T. Brawiey's, 

Grossing of Sugar Lake oreek, east, 

Forks next east, 

" near A. Bentley's, 

" at Sugar Lake P. O., 

Level of road near S. H. Adam's Soliool House, 

• Cross roads at F. Jeanney's, 

Forks near W.M. Manning's, 

" " H. Johnson's, 

P. Bogardies', 

T. Bogardies', 

W. Oak's, 

Hatch's School House, 

C. A. Bogardies', 

J. Brandon's, 

Cross roads near W. Banister's, 

Road at Monroe's School House, 

Forks near P. Monroe's, 

" »* L. C. Mattison's, 

" •* C. Rodger's, 

" " C. Barne's, 

Cross roads near Vance's School House, . . . . 
" " R. McMullen's, . <. 

* These may be reUed upon as correct within a limit of 25 feet. 



ii 
(t 
It 
II 
(I 





1380' 




1300' 




1316' 




1320' 




1300' 




1545' 




1470 




1485' 




1525' 




1540' 




1540' 




1480' 




1510' 




1440* 




1505' 




1500' 




1500' 




1435' 




1375' 




1420' 




1466' 




1500' 




1490' 



180 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Elbow bend in road, east, (above tide), 1550' 

Forks near Owen's School House, " 1525' 

Cross roads near V. C. Richard's, " 1500' 

Forks near J. L. Barlow's, «* 1520' 

" just north, «* 1530' 

" near N. Seamon's, " 1440' 

" " G. W. Cutshall's, " 1330' 

Levelof Woodcock creek just west, " 1305' 

Forks near School House, Sherman's, " 1370' 

Forks near S. S. Sikes's, " 1385* 

Level of Woodcock near the east, " 1355' 

Forks near W. A. Hyde's, • . " 1340' 

" " Dr. Ashley's, at Guy's Mills, ... " 1350' 

Cross roads near H. Terrell's, " 1450' 

" next west, " 1385' 

" next west ** 1440^ 

Forks near G. Marts', " 1420' 

" " S. Jackletts', " 1440' 

" " J. A. McLaughlin's, " 1500' 

" " J. Mccarty's, *' 1550' 

Cross roads at Randolph P. O., " 1590' 



17. Troy^ in Crawford county. 

This township surrounds the head branches of Sugar 
creek and extends eastward to Oil creek and aloQg the Ve- 
nango county line. 

Armstrong^ s oil well, — Near the southern line of Troy, 
on Sugar creek, a well was once bored on the land of Mr. 
Jno. Armstrong, commencing about 5' above the level of 
the creek ; 1260' A. T. 

The Drift is here 130' deep, to rock bottom. 

At 340' a sand was struck and some dark lubricating 
oil obtained. 

At 550' another sand yielded some gas and a green oil in 
small quantity. Oil still flows from the well and is col- 
lected for lubricating purposes. 

The Sharon Conglomerate horizon is about 200' above the 
well ; so the two sands found probably represent the Ve- 
nango Second and Third sands. 

About one mile north from this, on the land of Mr. 
Faunce the Sharon Conglomerate is seen making a line of 
cliflfs around the hill on the right bank of Sugar creek ; a 



17. TROY. Q^ 181 

very massive white rock ; and the hill-side covered with 
its great blocks ; 1430' A. T. 

The hill rises to a considerable elevation above these cliflfs ; 
and its top is strewn with many blocks of a buffish-brown 
sandstone, of a rather loose texture, and pitted with hun- 
dreds of dark spots, or holes, in such a manner as to give 
it a honey-combed appearance. 

Thej^ have evidently come from a stratum like that quar- 
ried high up in the hills at Franklin, showing the same 
physical peculiarities. It may be either Connoquenessiiig 
or even Homewood. 

I do not know its elevation at Franklin and have only 
seen the pitted stones in the R. R. ballast. 

Proper^ s oil boring, — Just across the creek from this on 
the land of Mr. A. G. Proper, a well was drilled in 1877, 
commencing at 1345' A. T. 

Mr. Proper gave me the following information concern- 
ing it: "The conductor hole was 9' deep when a bluish 
slate rock was found. 

" Oil was struck at 660' in a rather close-grained pebbly 
sandstone 45' thick. Tlie hole filled up 300' with oil, and 
three barrels were dipped out with the sand-pump ; the oil 
dark-green, and pronounced of excellent quality. Some 
trouble arose wnth the contractors, who removed their en- 
gine, and the well was never pumped." 

Just north from the mouth of the well a bold cliflf of the 
Shenango Sandstone (30' thick) extends around the hill ; 
and large blocks are scattered over the surface ; Top of 
rock, 40' above well mouth ; or, 1385' A. T. 

The base of the SJiaron Conglomerate should come about 
50' above the top of this cliflf-sandstone, so that tlie 45' oil 
sand^ struck at the bottom of this well, must represent the 
Venango Tliird Oil Sand^ being 750' below the Sharon 
Conglomerate, 

Winter" s deep oil well. — About 20 rods east from the 
Proper well, another was commenced 20' lower and sunk 
1700'. This was known as Winter's well. Depth of Drift 
to rock floor, 60'. 



182 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

At 640' some oil and gas was obtained in a sand which 
had a total thickness of 62'. 

At 1000' another sand, 30' thick, also ga^e some show of 
oil and gas. 

Just west from Troy Center the Shenango Sandstone 
forms a conspicuous bluff ; and immense blocks lie scattered 
over the hill. The rock has a buffish-white color, and con- 
tains a great many iron nodules ; base 1410' A. T. 

Passing east from Troy Center the hill rises 130' above 
the horizon of the Shenango Sandstone and takes in the 
Sharon Conglomerate^ but no one has ever seen or heard of 
any Sharon coal above it. 

From this point east to Oil creek, the surface has a gen- 
eral elevation of nearly 1600' A. T., and consequently often 
rises above the level of the Sharon Conglomerate but no 
Sharon coal has ever been found in any wells or other ex- 
posures at the proper horizon. 

Near the northeastern corner of the township, a steep hill 
rises abruptly on the western bank of Oil creek, and de- 
scending it along the road the following is seen : (Pig. 53.) 

Shenango Sandstone, 25' 

Concealed and shales, 180' 

Chrry Sandstone, (base 1325' A. T.,) 10' 

Shales and oonoealed to level of Oil creek, 85' 

The SJienango Sandstone quite massive, makes a steep 
bluff around the hill (the strata of ten.seen) fronxwhich huge 
masses have separated and slid down ; reddish-brown in 
color, and contains iron nodules in great numbers. 

The Corry Sandstone^ well exposed along the road, is also 
seen in a cliff on the steep hillside. It has here the same 
peculiar aspect and buffish-white color which nearly always 
distinguish it from every other rock in the series. A large 
spring issues from beneath it, just below the road. 

Orangeville Shale^ blue and argillaceous as usual, out- 
crops 40' above the cliffs. 

The ash-gray shales below the sandstone are quite argil- 
laceous, with occasional thin layers of sandstone. 

Shriner^s oil well,—3\x^t west from the line of this sec- 
tion an oil well was bored, in 1878, by Mr. Shriner, at 1520' 



17. TROY. Q*. 183 

A. T. , to a depth of 550' ; at 500' a tolerably good sand^ 
40' thick, but no oil. 

Emery & TateJiam^s well. — ^Near this, another weir was 
finished in May, 1879, on the land of Messrs. Emery & Tate- 
ham ; 1525' A. T. ; oil at 500'=1025' A. T. The well yielded 
40 barrels in the first 24' hours ; then water came in suddenly 
and drove the oil away ; oil sand is 47' thick ; probably Ve- 
nango Second Sand^ since the well commences near the top 
of the SJienango Sandstone, 

-4bout one mile west from Shriner's, the outcrop of the 
SJienango Sandstone is seen at 1480' A. T. 

Above it, near the hilltop, on the land of Mr. Prather, is 
a steep bluff made by the Sharon Conglomerate^ and peb- 
bly masses are scattered about. 

As we go further west along the northern line of this 
township, the surface gradually rises until just west from 
the cross-roads at Moorheads, it attains an elevation of 1750' 
A. T., nearly the horizon of the Home wood Sandstone. 

Many small bowlders of the peculiarly pitted sandstone 
lie still higher on the surface at Faunce's and at Franklin. 

Barometrit Elevations in Troy, 

Forks of road near J. E.Reynold's (S.W. corner 

township,) (above tide,) 1280' 

Forks of road near P. Arnold's, " 1255' 

" " " J. McClelland's, " 1285' 

" *« " Faunoe's heirs " 1300' 

♦* " " Eagle Pet. Comp. property, «* 1295' 

Cross-roads near W. P. Morse's, " 1320 

Forks next north, . . ** 1320' 

Forks near Hayes' A Proper's mill " 1320' 

Cross-roads in Troy Center, «« . 1370' 

Forks near J. Mercley's, •• 1520' 

Cross-roads near J. H. Hawthorn's, " 1525' 

Level of run east, " 1445' 

Forks at D. J. Sterin's, " 1570' 

Surface at J. Reynold's, " 1610' 

Level of first run east ** 1530' 

Cross-roads near R. Reeser's, «* 1570' 

«* " A. Hancock's, " 1590' 

Level of 0i> creek at road-crossing in northeastern 

part of township, «« 1240' 

Cross-roads near F. Shriner's, " 1570' . 

Forks at school-house next west, " 1520- 



184 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS I. C. WHITE. 

Cro8»-road near T. Prather's, (above tide), HSC 

Forks near F. Smith's, " 1685' 

Cross-roads at Moorhead's, " 1730' 

Summit just west, «* 1750' 

Forks near J. Attenburg*s, " 1686' 



18. Oil Creek^ in Crawford County, 

This township occupies the southeast corner of Crawford 
county, on the Warren and Venango lines. Its southwest 
quarter is traversed by Oil creek, flowing southeast ; Little 
Oil creek from the north, and Thompson's creek from the 
northeast, unite and flow into Oil creek at Hydetown. In 
the southeast corner, Pine creek comes west from Warren 
county into Oil creek at Titusville. 

The remarkable history of oil production in Pennsylvania 
was here opened in 1859. 

The old Drake well is just across the county line ; but 
the first development spread northward from it to and 
around Titusville. 

The Third Oil Sand lies here about 400' below the sur- 
face. 

The Watson well, the deepest (except one) ever bored in 
this country, was put down by Mr. Jonathan Watson, on 
the " Flats " of Pine, near the Warren county line, to 3600', 
stopping, according to report, in the block shales of the 
Hamilton (Lower Devonian) formation. It will ever be a 
great source of regret to geologists that no reliable register 
was kept of the strata passed through in this well. 

The rock strata, exposed in the township, include the 
Sharon Conglomerate above and the Corry Sandstone {Srd 
Mt.) Sandstone below. 

Quarry. — About one mile below Titusville D^pot, and 
near the Venango line, the Shenango Sandstone has been 
quarried to a considerable extent ; thickness, 25' ; base, 230' 
above Oil creek, or 1395' A. T. The rock is a buffish-brown, 
tolerably coarse-grained sandstone, splits readily and looks 
as though it would stand the weather quite well. 

Derricks, — Along the valley above this, and in the vicin- 



18. OIL CREEK. Q*. 185 

ity of Titusville, a great many old derricks are standing as 
monuments of the former activity which prevailed here in 
the oil business. The wells have all ceased to yield in pay- 
ing quantities, however, and have long been abandoned for 
new territory. It is possible, however, that the time may 
come when all this once productive territory may be worked 
over again, and produce oil in paying quantities. 

Drift oil. — East from Titusville about two miles, on what 
is known as Watson's Flats, in April, 1877, a common spring 
suddenly began to flow oil at the rate of several barrels 
daily. A great many shallow wells were dug in the valley 
Drift, coupled together and pumped, and yielded at a rough 
calculation 10,000 or 12,000 barrels of oil, all told, before 
October, when the pool was exhausted. A complete ac- 
count of this curious episode in the History of Petroleum 
will be found in Report of Progress I.I.T, Oil Regions. 
Carll, 1880, pages 422-429. It is unnecessary to repeat in 
this report the descriptions of the oil wells, &c., around 
Titusville, which fill Mr. CarlFs Reports I, I.I, and I.I.I, 
on the Oil Region of Pennsylvania. The atlas to Report 
I.I.I contains carefully constructed sections from many 
well records 

A knob about 2^ miles northeast from Titusville, rising 
to 1600' A. T., is topped by a bed of massive, pebbly sand- 
stone (probably Sharon Conglomerate)^ which shows in 
place above the road on the land of Mr. Henderson ; large 
blocks also strew the surface. 

About H miles further southwest the Sharon Conglom- 
erate outcrops at 1526' A. T. 

Blocks of coarse reddish- brown sandstone, filled with 
fish remains {Shenango Sandstone\ strew the surface 60' 
lower=1465' A. T. 

Along the road which leads directly north from Titusville 
the outcrop of the Shenango Sandstone is seen on the land 
of Mr. Watson:— foj9, 1505' A. T. 

A hand of iron ore^ 6" thick, containing many fossil shells 
in a very imperfect condition, lies 4' above the top of the 
sandstone ; or, 1509' A. T. 



186 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Just north from this the road passes over the Summit 
(1555'), but no traces of the Sharon Conglomerate appear. 

Passing further north and descending the hill to Kerr's 

mills, on Thompson's run, the following succession in seen 

(Fig. 54) : 

Kerf 8 Mills Section. 

Shenango /Sandstone (f m. 8. of the Mill), ? 

Concealed, with occasional outcrop of flaggy sandstone, . . . 150' 

Or on^cviWe <8AaZ« (on road), blue, clayey, 15' 

Flaggy sandstone and concealed, 80' 

Corry Sandstone^ massive {base 1300' A. T.), 15' 

Shales to level of run below miU-dam, 10' 

The Corry Sandstone forms a cliff at the mill, just below 
and opposite the dam ; a close, fine-grained, quite hard, 
light-yellowish-brown rock. 

The interval between the base of Corry SS, and the base 
of Shenango SS. here is about 210' ; because, north from 
Thompson's run, the base of the Shenango is seen at 1520' ; 
so, 1520'— 1300' (base of Corry)z=220\ Allow 10' for rise 
northward, interval=210'. 

North from this, the summit surface near the northern 
line of the township, reaches the proper horizon for at least 
the basal portion of the Sharon Conglomerate^ viz : 1600' 
A. T. 

In the western portion of the township the following 
rocks are seen in descending the steep hill from M. J. 
Loomy's to Hydetown (Oil Creek village), (Fig. 55) \ 

Hydetown Section. 

Sharon Conglomerate {base^ 1550' A. T.), ? 

Concealed, 55' 

Shenango Sandstone {base^ 1465' A. T.), 80' 

Concealed to level of Oil creek, 285' 

Many blocks of the Sharon Conglomerate^ a coarse, peb- 
bly, white sandstone, are seen scattered over the surface. 

The Slienango Sandstone forms a steep bluff along the 
hill, and is seen outcropping in cliffs in many places. It is 
a coarse brown rock, and contains few pebbles. 

At Hydetown several oil wells have been put down, and 
some heavy oil found in all of them, at 355' below the level 



18. OIL CREEK. 



Q*. 187 



of Oil creek, or (see preceding section) 675' below the Sharon 
Conglomerate i^and Mountain Sand ). The oil must come 
from the Venango Second Oil Sand; for, 750' is the proper 
interval for the Third. 
McSamara'a. 



Kerr' a Mill Sect. 




The Midgeway well^ near and 5' above the level of Oil 
creek; drive-pipe 20'. Heavy lubricating oil is still got 
from 360' ; but the well never paid. 

A boring was started at 6' above Oil creek level, on the 
Reed estate, just above Hydetown, and abandoned when 
190' of pipe was driven without finding bottom rock. This 
shows the great depth of the old buried channel. Oil creek 
does not follow its old ponrse exactly, for at Mr. Ridgway's, 
only one mile below Reed's, bottom rock is struck at 20'. 



188 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Maily accurately leveled elevations have been given in 
this township in the Reports of Mr. Carll to which the reader 
is referred. 



19. Rome^ in Crawford county. 

This township lies between Oil creek and the Warren 
county line. The two branches of Oil creek unite at Cen- 
terville. Lrttle OU creek and Thomson's run head in this 
township and flow south. 

Broad reaches of low land border both sides of the east 
and west branches of Oil creek, because they flow over 
planes of Drifts flUing up deeply buried ancient valleys. 

The eastern portion of the township is an elevated bar- 
ren region ; often swampy ; some of the highest parts catch- 
ing small patches of the Sharon Conglomerate ; the She- 
nango Sandstone underlying a large area. 

Half a mile north of the southern line, Mr. Matteson, in 
digging a well, passed 24' into the Shenango Sandstone, 
The well commences at 1560' A. T. which must be near the 
top of the stratum. The hill rises, west from this, 60' higher 
without a trace of the Sharon Conglomerate^ probably there- 
fore eroded. 

West of McLaughlin's run a high tongue of land catches 
a considerable area of the S henango Sandstone, Descend- 
ing toward Centreville, the base of the Corry Sandstone is 
seen near Mr. C. Barber s (a large spring issuing beneath it) 
at 1420' A. T. 

At Centerville the level of Oil creek opposite the R. R. 
station is 1275' A. T. 

The base of the Corry Sandstone here is 150' higher,= 
1425' A. T. 

The horizon of the Yenango First Oil Sand here should 
be just below creek level. 

Kinney borings, — One mile above Centerville some oil 
wells were drilled on the land of Mr. Kinney, but no oil ob- 
tained in paying quantity. One drive pipe, 90' ; another, 
near it, 100'; mouth of flrst well 10' above creek level. 



19. ROME. Q^ 189 

A boring was commenced half a mile above Centerville, 
and abandoned 15' above Oil creek, when 100' of pipe had 
been driven without bottom. 

Centreville boring. — Messrs. Nobles and Linsey drilled a 
well to a depth of 200' within the borough of Centerville, 
but no oil was obtained. The amount of drier-pipe used in 
this well could not be learned, though one of the operators 
thought it between 40' and 50'. 

Barometric elevations in Rome. 

Five points forks at Putman's store, (above tide,) 1625' 

Forks at W. Wright's, " 1620' 

Gross roads near A. Matterson's, " 1630' 

Forks near R. P. Randall's, " 1615' 

Summit near C. Hilliker's, " 1700' 

Forks near A. Rick's, " 1600' 

Forks near E. Laflferty's, «* 1645' 

Level of OU creek at Centerville, ** 1275' 



20. Steuben^ in Crawford county. 

This lies west of Oil creek and Rome township, and north 
of Troy. Oil creek passes through its eastern part, drain- 
ing its central area. Muddy creek heads in its western 
part and flows north and then west into French creek. 
Sugar creek heads at Townville in the southwest corner and 
flows southward. 

There is scarcely any perceptible divide between Muddy 
creek and Sugar creek, the lowest point at Townville being 
1445' A. T. Hills 200' high border on each side this buried 
valley, by which Mr. Carll carries the pre-glacial Sugar 
creek into the ancient bed of French creek. 

About one mile east from Tryonville the Shenango Sand- 
stone is caught in the hill near the eastern line of the town- 
ship on the land of the Jeremiah Tryon ; it is there quite 
massive and large blocks of the rock lie strewn over the sur- 
face. Its base lies 310' above the level of Oil creek at Try- 
onville, or 1570' A. T. 

East of this the surface rises 60' higher, but no fragments 
of the Sharon Conglomerate are seen. 



190 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

A horing just below the bridge at Try onville 10' above the 
level of the creek, had a drive pipe to rock, 160'. Well 
mouth 1270' A. T. 

Another boring^ near the old Hotel, 50' higher than this 
last well (1320' A. T.) drove about as far through the Drift 
(160'.) Depth of well 900'; no oil of any consequence. 

Another well^ one mile above Tryonville, on the land of 
Mr. Atcheson, 60 rods east from the creek, 600' deep, yielded 
a small quantity of oil. 

Another horing^ about two miles below Tryonville, on the 
Preston farm, 10' above the creek, had 200' of drive pipe 
before bed rock was struck. 

Another horing was made by Mr. Gray just west of the 
last who reported rock bottom reached at 160', but the well 
was abandoned then. 

In the Limestone well^ near the hill, and a considerable 
distance from the center of the valley, rock bottom was 
struck at only 14'. Oil at 160'; and in very small quantity 
at some greater depth. 

Another well^ a short (^istance below the Limestone well, 
was drilled to a depth of 1000', by the N. Y. Petroleum Com- 
pany, and some oil obtained ; but no one knows at what 
depth. This well still flows oil in small quantities, though 
it never was a " producing " well. 

About 2i miles west from Tryonville and i mile east from 
the cross roads the Shenango Sandstone comes into the 
hilltop, and is seen along the road ; many blocks of sand- 
stone are scattered over the hilltop ; base, 1600' A. T. 

Corry Sandstone. — Descending the hill east from this, we 
come down to the outcrop of a tolerably massive yellowish 
white sandstone, 200' below where the base of the She- 
nango Sandstone was last seen. 

One mile and a half north from the cross roads at Cor- 
nell's, a yellowish white sandstone is seen (at 1390' A. T.) 
which is also the Corry Sandstone. 

Orangemlle Shale, quite blue and soft, is exposed for 36', 
and concealed for 20', on top of the Corry sandstone ; top 
1446' A. T. 

West from this one half mile, at the forks of the road 



21. ATHENS. Q*. 191 

near Mr. A. Wheelock's, the Orangemlle Shale is exposed 
for some distance along the road, at 1440' A. T. 

A flaggy sandstone (probably Sharpsville) is exposed at 
1485' A. T. 

An oilhoring^ just southwest from Townville, on the land 
of Mrs. Phillips', went down 1200', but no sands of any 
importance were found, except one fine-grained and gray 
at 700', and it yielded nothing but gas. 

About half a mile east f ronft'ownville, and near the south- 
ern line of the township, the Shenango Sandstone is finely 
exposed in the cliffs of a ravine below the road ; very mass- 
ive ; containing ^5^ remains and fragments of a plant much 
resembling Lepidodendron Oaspianum in great quantity ; 
30' thick ; base, 1570' A. T. 

South of this thie hills rise more than 200' above the She- 
nango Sandstone^ and should catch the Conglomerate coals. 

Fragments of the pitted sandstone are here seen scat- 
tered about the surface. 

Barometric Elevations in Steuben, 

Five Forks, one mile east from TryooviUe, . . (above tide,) 1625' 

Level of Oil creek at Tryonvllle «* 1260' 

Forksjust westat M. Bougher's, " 1360' 

«* atClapvUle, " 1310' 

" near John Waid's, «« 1500' 

Cross-roads near Jas. Comeirs, " 1616' 

Forks next north (1^ miles), »• 1410' 

" »* southwest {{ mile), " 1425' 

II II . II 11 1440' 

Cros»-roads near O. Phillip's, " 1390' 

Level of Muddy oreek, opposite, ** 1376' 

Level of road at cemetery, north from Townville, " 1400' 

Level of Muddy creek, just west from cemetery, " 1435' 

Cross-roads at upper end of Townsville, .... " 1520' 

Main cross-roads in Townville, ** 1445' 



21. Athens^ in Crawford County. 

This township lies between Oil creek and Muddy creek, 
and is almost wholly drained westward. Its surface is quite 
varied ; rising to 1600' A. T. along the central and northern 



192 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

portions ; and falling off to 1200' A. T. in the broad low 
valley of Muddy creek. 

One mile west from Centerville the outcrop of the Corry 
Sandstone is seen along the road near Mr. Warren Saun- 
ders'. Its base, visible at the spring near the watering- 
trough, is 1425' A. T. 

One mile west from this, at the forks of road near Wm. 
Saunders', we come to the summit of a broad flat ridge, 
capped with the Shenango ^ndstone ; base, 1625' A. T. 

As we go south from this along the ridge road, a great 
many blocks of the Slienxingo sand are seen ; and at the 
cross-roads, near Mr. Palm's, a conspicuous bluff has its 
top at 1630', and its base at 1600' A. T. 

Descending the hill west from this toward the valley of 
Muddy creek, we come to the outcrop of a massive sand- 
stone {Corry\ huffish- white, and tolerably fine-grained; 
1400' A. T. 

Drift, — The valley of Muddy creek, in the vicinity of 
Little Cooly is filled with detritus to an unknown depth, 
and quicksand, is found in all the wells, making it quite 
troublesome to dig them. 

Near the northern line of the township, and just east 
from the school-house at J. D. Minnis', an outcrop of the 
Orangemlle shale is seen along the road ; it contains many 
LingulcB.— 1520' A. T. 

Red shale (5') is exposed below this at 1510' A. T. 

Yellowish-white {Corry) sandstone makes a bluff around 
the hill, at 1485' A. T., just east from this. 

A limestone {Meadmlle Lower ?) V thick, with flaggy 
sandstone above it, and the Orangeville shale below it, is 
seen at the roadside, at 1525' A. T. 

East from this the surface rises to 1600' at the forks of 
the road near Mr. Clark's, and descending from there, east, 
to Riceville, at the northern edge of the township, the fol- 
lowing section is seen (Fig. 56) : 

Riceville Section. 

Sandy shales and sandstone, 40' 

(Meadville Lower f) ^tme^^one, siliceous, 1' 

Sandy shales and concealed {Sharpsville), 45' 



21. ATHENS. Q*. 193 

IjimesUme bed (with many JAngula tnelia), (y S" 

Sandstone, flaggy, visible, 10* 

Ccmoealed {OrangeviUe)^ 35' 

Cbrry sandHanCj maasiye, lO' 

Sandstone, flaggy, Sty 

Shales, . IC 

Sandstone, flaggy, exposed, 25' 

As this section begins at 1600' A. T., and as about 3i 
miles due south from here the SItenango sandstone (base) 
is at leOO' A. T., a northward rise of 2(y per mile would put 
it at Riceville at 1670' A. T., or llO' abore our limestone, 
which is about right for the MeadviUe Louder Limestone. 
Moreover, the Carry sandstone (top), 3J miles south, is at 
1400' A. T., and at RiceviUe 1468' A. T. ; giving just about 
the required rate of dip. 

The Carry sandstone is seen outcropping in the road 
near Mr. Rice's ; and just around in the field to the north, 
very large blocks of it lie scattered over the ground. It is 
toleiably fine-grained, but some parts of it contain a few 
small pebbles. It is a buffish-gray rock, with blotches of 
red from iron stains. 

Cartful Barometric Levels in Atliens. 

Forks at W. Winter's (west from Centerville), (above tide), 1385' 

•« near Warren Sannders*, ** 1410' 

«• »• Wm. Sannders', " 1620' 

Cross-roads near S. Palm's, *• IdSO' 

" " E. Hairs, " laTV 

Level of branch of Muddy creek, jnst west, . . •* 1S15' 

•• Potash creek next west, " 1285* 

Forks north from B. PenneU's, «< 1300* 

Qrom roads at seiiool-hoase, near Jos. Drake's, . *' 1555' 

Forks near J. Free*8, . . ' •• 1480' 

Level of Maddy creek at cmesing, \ mile ab3ve 

LittieCoolev, " 1200* 

Forks just opposite *' 1220' 

Level of liotel in LiUle (Jooley, «• 1220* 

«' Muddy creek, opposite Little Cooley, . «« 1190' 

Forksof road near M. Smith's, *« 1250' 

•* *' " D. Osbnm's, «« 1270' 

«« •• " C. Bancroft's, «« 1500' 

" " " E. Stratton's, " 1605' 

CrosB roads near Powers' Sdiool-Honse, .... ** 1580' 

F(»^ks near A. Clark's, «• 1600' 

** ** M. Mendiant's, ^ 1505^ 

13 0*. 



194 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



22. Richmond^ in Cravjford courdy. 

This nearly square township lies between Muddy creek, 
flowing northwest across its northeast corner, and Wood- 
cock creek bending west through its southwest comer. Its 
surface is quite irregular ; a high broad dividing ridge ex- 
tending from its northwest to its southeast corner ; covered 
in many places with massive layers of the Conglomerate 
series^ and toward its more northern extension with the 
Shenango sandstone. 

A high Jcnob on this divide, rising near the southern line 
of the township and about 2 miles west from its eastern line, 
is capped with a beautiful white building stone^ which has 
been quarried at Southwick's to some extent. Thirty feet 
of it is exposed in a cliff just below the top of the ridge ; 
top of exposure 1650' A. T. 

I am disposed (with some doubt however) to identify it 
with the Upper Connoquenessing sandstone of Voison's 
quarry in Randolph township at 1560' A. T. (which see 
above) as its top is 200' above the top of the Shenango 
sandstone at Mr. Washington Shorts', half a mile west. 

The Shenango sandstone has been quamed in a ravine 
on the land of Mr. Shorts, (200' below the top of the white 
sandstone at Southwick's.) It splits and dresses well, 
making a good building stone ; and contains iron nodules 
as well Sisf^sh remains. 

Sharon Conglomerate? — Mr. Shorts states that about 
midway between his {Shenango SS .) quarry and South- 
wick' s white rock quarry there is a conglomerate with peb- 
bles from the size of a pea up to a walnut. 

In the hollow just west from Mr. Shorts' the outcrop of 
.the Meadville Upper Limestone is seen (260' below the top 
of the white sandstone at Southwick's) at 1390' A. T. 

An old oil well^ in Woodcock valley just welst from this 
on the land of Mr. Sanderson commenced at 1300' A. T. and 
went down 900' (to 400' A. T. ;) some oil and a considerable 
quantity of gas were obtained, but nothing definite could 
be learned of the depth from which they came. 



22. RICHMOND. Q^ 195 

Northwest from this along the elevated ridge previously 
mentioned, Hrge blocks of white pebbly sandstone are fre- 
quently seen. 

Near the northwestern comer of the township the 8he- 
imngo sandstone forms the surface rock ; and caps the sum- 
mits, in a long ledge of cliflfs, on the lands of Mr. Biter and 
others ; thickness, 26'; top, 1645' A. T. 

The surface here is strewn with large masses of the rock 
which have broken away from the principal bed, which has 
been quarried to a small extent and makes a good building 
stone. Mr. Biter's wells passed through 12' of the rock. 
Numerous iron nodules are seen enclosed in the coarse 
brown sand of which the rock is composed. 

Meadville hlue shales are exposed in a ravine, 3(y under 
the cliflE rock. 

Orangeville shale is exposed a short distance north from 
Mr. Biter' s at the roadside ; it is quite blue (weathers to a 
rusty red) and about 10' of it is seen, at 1475' A. T. 

In descending from Mr. Biter's past the cross-roads at 
Mr. G. Hutchinson's the following exposures are seen : 
(Fig. 67.) 

Biter^s section, 

Shenango Sandstone, 25' 

Flaggy sandstone and cx)noealed, 155' 

Orangeville Shale, exposed for 50' 

( Carry) Sandstone somewhat massive at top and flaggy below, 75' 

The soft bluish Orangeville shale contains much dissemi- 
nated iron and consequently weathers to a rusty red. 
Many Lingular and DiscincB are seen in it. Part of the 
concealed interval (say 26') above is also probably occupied 
by this shale. 

The massive portion of the Gorry sandstone is only 5' or 
6' thick ; but shows its characteristic huffish white color and 
peculiar texture. 

Barometric elevations in Richmond, 

Forksof road near S. Marsh's, (above tide,) 1800' 

" " " G. A. Bougher's, " 1240' 

" " " M. Cole's, " 1260' 

" •* ** S. Sybrant's, «* 1450' 



196 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



Cross roads Dear.E. Jiniiey*8| 

•* at New Richmond, .... 
Forks near C. Smith's, 

»« " M. Hmit's, 

Gross roads at Lyon's Hollow P. O., . 
Forks near Mrs. M. Willey's, 

" " T.J. Short's, 

" next east, 

Gross roads near Wm. Gray's, .... 

•* *♦ Riley Garpenter's, . . 

Forks near Gharles Winston's, .... 

Gross roads at E. Kingsley's, 

" " F. Sayer's, 

Forks near E. J. Ghild's, 

" " J. MoFadden's, .... 

«* « I. Deland's, 

Gross roads near H. Kelley's, .... 
Level of Muddy creek near G. Smithes, 

" , " " J. Sweet's, 
Forks neAr J. Gray's, . . ... 
Cross roads near T. H. Miles's, .... 
Forks near S. W. Osgood's, 

" " Lyman Clark's, 

«* " R. A. Hume's, 

" at D. S. Mackey's, 

•* near J. Wilkinson's, 

Cross roads near G. Hutcninson's, . . . 
" «« Buel Pinney's, . . . 

Forks near Jos. Buel's, 

Cross roads near H. Swift's, 



(above Ude), 1570' 
1370' 
1450' 
1420' 
1280' 
1300' 
1410' 
1480' 
1570' 
1545' 
1480- 
1500' 
1480' 
1410' 
1410' 
1410' 
1220' 
1180' 
1160' 
1200' 
1220' 
1240' 
1820' 
1870' 
1435' 
1580' 
1640' 
1880' 
1435' 
1555' 



23. Woodcock^ in Crawford county. 

This township lies east of French creek above Meadville ; 
and Woodcock creek flows through it. 

Its rock section extends from the middle of the Cuyahoga 
shale on the hills down to the Yenango Group seen only 
along French creek. The hills aire all comparatively low ; 
none of them rising higher than 1450' A. T., except in the 
northwest comer. 

In a ravine just east from Saegertown are exposed 70' of 
rocks (base 1165' A. T.) the lower layers (10') being of a rot- 
ten, reddish-brown sandstone in which are many Crinoidal 
fragments^ as well as shells of Chemung type. Above 
these layers are flaggy sandstones ; and at the top is a 



23. WOODCOCK. 



Q*. 197 



coarse black, friable sandstone (possibly the Gussewago 
saiidstoTie, jadging by its texture) of which 2' only is ex- 
posed along the road, at 1230' A. T. 

West from this at Ryan's cross-roads near the center of 
the township, K/ of the Orangenille shale very argillaceous 
and weathering reddish is seen at 1395' (top) A. T. 




Near Mr. John Clark's, li miles north from Ryan's, 20 
of the Orangemlle shale is seen along the road. How much 
more of this shale may be present cannot be known, since 
the measures both above and below are entirely concealed by 
debris ; but the bottom of the exposed 20' must be nearly 
the base of the Orangeville shale' because, just east from 
this, on the land of Mr. Humes, and only 10' lower down 
the Corry sandstone is quarried, to a considerable extent. 



198 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

as a tolerably massive buffish- white sandstone. The upper- 
most layers only are taken out. The top of the stratum 
has an elevation of 1375'. 

The bottom of the shale exposure is at 1385' A. T. 

The top of the Gorry sandstone is at 1375' A. T. 

A bore hole near Woodcock Center, went down 600' or 
700' ; but nothing reliable could be learned concerning it, 
except that a slight show of oil was obtained at a depth of 
somewhere between 200' and 300'. 

About two miles above Sagertown a deep cutting occurs 
along the A. & G. W. R. R. and passing along it north 
from the bridge across French creek, the following succes- 
sion is seen in the descending order : (Pig. 58. ) 

Railroad Section. 

Sandstone, somewhat massive, . . . {Venango First Sand,) 25' 
Shales, olive, interstratified with reddish sandy layers 4' to 6" 

. thick, 20' 

Shale, olive, very fine grained, 25' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Concealed to level of Frenoh oreek« 25' 

The Sandstone at the top of the cut forms a cliff along the 
creek, in layers 2' to 3' thick, containing many C hemung 
fossils.— Bsise 1180' A. T. 

This is the same stratum the base of which is seen at the 
level of the A. & G. W. Railroad opposite Meadville. It is 
well exposed in a ravine at the upper end of the cut ; and 
here I found in it Productus Boydii, Spirifera disjuncta^ 
Streptorhynchus Ohemungensis and other Chemung forms 
which I could not identify. 

The upper olive shale, which contains, at intervals of 2' 
to 3', thin layers of dark brownish red sandstone, is in that 
respect quite unlike the lower shale, which is very fine- 
grained and destitute of sandy layers. 

Near the southern line of the township, where the Mead- 
ville road crosses a small stream on the land of Mr. Peifler, 
the following exposure is seen : (Fig. 59. ) 

Pfe^ef s Section. 

Sharpaville Sandstone (flags, 6" to l")i 20' 

Orangeville Shale, 60' 

Corry Sandstone, 20' 



23. WOODCOCK. Q^ 199 

The blue, fine-grained Saga are only the bottom part of 
the SharpsHlle saiidstone. 

The Orangecille Shale is well exposed along the roadside 
as fine blue shales, with very little sandy material ; the 
whole weathering to a reddish -brown on exposure ; and con- 
taiolDg many lAngulm and DiscincB. 

*8- 59. 



The GoTty Sandstone here has its usual peculiar bufflsh 
hne ; is somewhat massive, in layers 1' to 2' thick ; and its 
top Ues 1290' A. T. 

Barometric Elevations in Woodcock. 

Crosi-roBds In Blooming Yallej, (atwve tide), 1290' 

Forks of road flist northeast, " ISSC 

CroHs-roads northwest ftora Blooming Valley, 

near James Smith's, .... " 1230' 

LevelofWoodooGkoreek, near Elizabeth Deney'a, " 1210' 

Forks near Mary Kiser'B, " ISW 

" R. S. Waid's, " ISSO' 

" E. Wootring's, " 1270' 

Forks next southweat " ISOO' 

Level of run Just south " 1270' 

" Woodcock creek, near A. Carringer's, . " 1150' 

Fork near X. Carpenter's, " llSOi 

" Wm. Long's, " 1130' 

" Fonntain Honse Hotel ■■ 1120' 

" Crawford County Home, " 1115' 

Cross-roads near P. B. Detrlok's, " 14t0' 

Forks near Preston Cole's, " ISSO" 

Cross-roads near D. G. Cole's, at School-House, . " 1280' 

Forks near W. Stewart's, at Town-House, ... " 1385' 

H. BoBBsrd's, " ISW 

Cross-roads near W. 8. Ryan's, " 1895' 

Forks near Henry Norrls', " 1445" 

" Wm. Wyooff'B " 1835' 

" Nancy Swift's, " 1365' 

J. D. Hume's, '■ 1886' 

" T. A. Hume's, •' IVXf 

J. Coats', " 1315' 



200 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Forks next south, (above tide), 1305' 

Level of run just east, " 1280' 

Fork near Legrand Smith's, " 1670' 

** D. O. Sausor's, " 1360' 

«* Elizabeth Lang's, " 1380' 

" J.W.Lang's, " 1300' 

" J. C. Wales', " 1280' 

Woodcock Village, «* 1200' 

Level of road at Mill, near mouth of Gravel run, " 1120' 

" Gravel run, at same point, " 1110' 

" French creek here, " 1105' 

Forks at William George's, " 1180' 



24. Hayfield^ in Crawford county. 

This township lies on the west side of French creek above 
Meadville, and is cut into two unequal portions by Cusse- 
wago creek, flowing southward into French creek at Mead- 
ville. 

There is a broad highland between French creek and 
Cussewago creek with abrupt slopes descending to each. 

On the west side of the Cussewago valley the hillsides 
rise quite abruptly and some fine sections are exposed ; the 
creek itself meandering from side to side, along a Drift plain, 
over a deeply buried ancient channel, with no perceptable 
fall, through dismal swamps and a wilderness of vegetation. 

But the hills, although abrupt, are not high, and conse- 
quently the highest rock of the series in this township is 
the Sharpsmlle sandstone. 

Near the southern line a small stream puts into the right 
bank of French creek, cutting out a deep ravine aldng which 
the following section is exposed : (Fig. 60.) 

Canal Freeder dam section. 

Orangeville shale, (concealed,) 40' 

Corry sandstone, Corry, (top 1270' A. T.), 6' 

Shales, soft sandy, bluish, 25' 

Sandstone, flaggy, 20' 

Cussewago sandstone, massive, .27' 

Flags, flne-grained, ... 12' 

Shale, blue, ^Axi&y, fossiliferous, 1' 

Concealed, 6' 

Shiles, blue, 5' 



24. IIAYFIELD. Q^ 201 

Ck>noealed, 6' 

Sandstone, dark bluish, flaggy, 5' 

Concealed, 12' 

Sandstone interstratifled with blue shale, 25' 

Shales, bine, ... . 5' 

Concealed to level of French creek below the Canal Freeder 
dam, 63' 

The shales at the top of the section are exposed in only- 
one or two places ; but these exposures and the smooth 
slopes, show that they are soft rocks belonging to the lower 
portion of the Orangeville group. 

Orangeville group. — The Corry sandstone here shows 
rather massive layers of a buffish-white color, and rather 
fine-grained texture. 

The Cussewago sandstone (named from these exposures) 
is a very coarse, dark, grayish-brown rock, the grains of 
which cohere loosely, and rapidly crumble apart on ex- 
posure. Just opposite our line of section where it has a 
very massive look, a quarry has been attempted and aban- 
doned, as the stone proved useless for building, soon be- 
coming a mere heap of loose sand. 

In the f ossilif erous blue shale I saw hundreds of specimens 
of Productus BoydAU and Spirifera disjuncta^ besides a 
small Orthoceras. But all the rocks of this section aref os- 
silif erous to a greater or less extent, witJi one exception 
the Cussewago sandstone, in which I could discover only 
some fragments of plants. 

The 25' sandstone interstratifled with blue shale represents 
the Venango First Sand, and is the rock the bottom of 
which is nearly at railway grade at Meadville. 

On Wolf run, near the northern line where the road crosses, 
near Mr. Bower's, the outcrop of the Cussewago sandstone 
is seen in the bed of the run ; quite massive looking, but 
coarse and soft as usual ; at 1220' A. T. 

About one mile below the village pf Hayfield, or Little' s 
Corners, a small stream plunges down over the steep hill- 
side, and cutting out a deep ravine exposes the following 
section: (Fig. 61.) 

Section below JSdyfield. 

Concealed, 20' 



202 Q*. REPOET OF PB0GBE8S. I. 0. WHITE. 

Sharpaville Upper Sandatonef flaggy, 25' 

Meadville Lower Limestone, (1375' A. T.)f 2' 

Sharpsville Lower Sandstone, flaggy, 10' 

Limestone, 0' 6" 

/ Orangeville blue shales, 76' 

} Sandstone, flaggy, 3' 

^ Blue shales (fxiil of Lingulae), W 

Concealed, 13' 

(Cbrry /Sis'.) oonoealed and flaggy sandstone, 70' 

Concealed to level of Cussewago oreek, 100' 

The Meadville Lower Limestone (rather flinty and with 
glassy fracture) is finely exposed and its peculiar round 
blocks are scattered along the ravine from its head to its 
mouth. 

The Sharpsmlle Sandstones^ upper and lower, are more 
massive here than usual ; bluish- white, tine-grained, layers 
V to 2' thick, with very little interstratified shale. 

The Orangeville shale as a mass is thicker here than usual 
along French creek. It is filled from top to bottom with 
Lingular and Disdnas ; but I saw no other shells. The 
shales have a dark bluish color throughout, and are quite 
soft. 

The Gorry Sandstone is concealed, unless some exposed 
flags represent it. 

At Hayfield village a small run descends from the high- 
lands to Cussewago and along it the following section is seen : 
(Fig. 62.) 

Hayfield section, 

OrnmgeviUe shales, 20' 

Corry sandstone, <1276' A. T.), 6' 

Shales, 40' 

Cussewago Sandstone, visible, 15' 

Conoealed to level of Cussewago, 130' 

The Corry Sandstone has been quarried to a consider- 
able extent at this locality, and the stones used for build- 
ing the abutments of the bridge across Cussewago creek 
near Hayfield, and other purposes. It is a bufflsh- white 
rock and tolerably fine-grained. The stratum quarried is 
only about 3' thick ; top 1275' A. T. 

The Cussewago Sandstone is a very coarse, soft greenish- 
brown rock, and decomposing very readijy. Black Oxide 



24. nAYFiELD. Q*. 203 

of Manganese ( WaS^ occars in small qaantities in the seams 
and cavities, and hence several trial entries made ia search 
of coal! The rock .lies about 400' lower \\xxa. any coal bed 



in Western Pennsylvania. 

A bUuminous shale, however, 2' or 3' thick, and looking 
a good deal like cannel, lies (as Mr. Little tells me) about 
20' below the base of the Cussewago Sandstone of this 
quarry. He showed me the horizon where it was once ex- 
posed, now covered up ; and said that pieces placed on a 
fire burned with a feeble flame, leaving a quantity of ashes. 

To geologists this thin and practically worthless black 
slate layer is of great interest, as feebly representing (proba- 
bly) a large formation in Ohio : the Qleoehmd Shale of Dr. 
Newberry. 

About one mile northwest from Hayfield on a small run, 
the following is seen where the road crosses the stream on 
the land of Mr. Bartholomew : (Fig. 63.) 



204 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. 1. 0. WHITE. 

BartJiolomeiD^ s Section. 

Corry Sandstone^ (Top, 1280' A. T.,) 10 

Shales, 3' 

CuBsewago LimestonCf 2' 

Shales, 80 

Ous8ewago Sandstone, (Top, 1235' A. T.,) visible 10' 

The Corry sandstone has been quarried here for buildings 
in the surrounding country ; in layers &' to 18'' thick, toler- 
ably fine-grained, grayish- white, with a tinge of yellow. 

The Cussewago lirriestone^ often found immediately below 
the Corry sandstone along Cussewago creek, is quite flinty, 
very much like the Lower Meadville limestone as exposed 
2 miles further south, and 140' (vertically) beneath it. 

The Cussewago sandstone makes the bed of the stream ; 
its top is quite hard for two feet ; but below that the sand 
becomes coarse and coheres so loosely that one can remove 
it almost as easily as from a heap of silt-sand along any 
stream. The color is a greenish-brown but occasionally 
hlack. 

Fragments of woody plarits occur, carbonized and unde- 
terminable, even generically 

About one mile and a half south from Hayfield village, 
and half a mile below where section Fig. 6 was obtained, we 
get the following succession by descending a deep ravine to- 
ward Cussewago creek : (Fig. 64.) 

Linens section. 

Meadmlle Lower Limestone, (1370' A. T.) 2' 

Sharpaville Lower sandstone, 10' 

Orangeville shale, . 115' 

Oorry sandstone, 16' 

Cussewago Limestone, 1' 6" 

Flaggy sandstone and concealed, 30' 

{Cussewago sandstone,) place, — 

Concealed to level of the Cussewago creek, 115' 

The M. L, limestone outcrop follows the top of the hill 
across Mr. Line's farm. Some blocks of it built into the 
foundation of a barn turned black in a few years, became 
soft, and crumbled away, the rain water dripping from the 
eaves having leached out their lime and left the sand grains 
uncemented. 



24. HATFIELD. 



Q*. 205 



-The effect of the un- 63. 

usual thickness here of the Orangeville shale 
(115') ia remarkable. It reverses the dip of 
the underlying Tneasuresfrom southward 
to northward ; from towards to away from 
Meadville, distant 5 miles.* (See Pig. 48.) 

AtLinet, AtMeadvitlo 

The if. L. Limestone Ues, . . . 1370' 1322' 

Interval (with Orangevilte 116 ,) 140' 42" 

OMteieago Lime«time iSSff 1280* 

Interval, Sff 60' 

Oueseteago Sandstone, (top,) . . HOV 1220* 

Jntervftl, 115' — 

Cnnew^o oreek, 1086' — 

Railroad grade, at Meadville, — lOW 

Freuoh oreek at MeadviUe, . — 1062' 

The Carry Sandstone consists of flaggy 
layers 6" to 12" thick, not quarried here. 

The Cussewago Limestone is well exposed 
along the stream, and can with difficulty 
be distinguished from the M. L. Limestone 
140' above it, having the same glassy frac- 
ture and outward aspect. 

The Cussewago Sandstone does not ap- 
pear in its proper place 30' beneath the limes- 
tone (See Fig. 63 ;) but Mr. Line tells me that 
he once dug into the hill at this horizon and 
found a loose coarse sandstone, which may 
represent it. 

West from Mr. Kelley's where the road 
crosses the Hayiield run, the Meadville 
Lower Limestone is seen, (1385' A. T.) 110' 
above where the Carry Sandstone was once 
quarried along the same stream, further 
east, and 160' above the top of the Cussewago 
Sandstone. 

Ten feet below it is seen the thin limestone noted in the 
section, one mile below Hayfield just at the base of the 
Sharpsville Lower Sandstone. 

[*ThBt la, If the Identlfioation of the Outsewago LimeaUme aad Sandstone 
at the two places be oorreoU— J. P. L. j 



206 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Barometric Elecations in Hayfield made with care and 

most of them checked closely : 

Forks of road near Denny Bro.'s property, . . (above tide,) 1140' 

Gross roads at School-Hoose, next north, ... •< 1145' 

Forks near E. Gant's, n X466' 

" " Stephen Morse's, «« 1420' 

** next north, «« 141()r 

Cross road near D. H. Le Fevre's, «« 1415' 

Forks near G. Moorhouse*s, « issq/ 

Cross roads at Norrisvllle, « 1370' 

Forks near Wm. Watson's, «« 1350' 

•♦ ** Edwin Kimple's, " 1340' 

Ha3rfieid village, «* 1165' 

Forks near Jas. MoMlUen's, «• 1180 

•* ^* A. J. Hollenbeck's, " 1165' 

" •< Truman RandolPs, «< 1155' 

" " Henry Lilley's, «« 1250' 

" " T. Lenkhart's, " 1220' 

" •< Geo. Kaler's, <« 1250' 

" " Coon's Corners, « 1275' 

Forks next west, «« 1115' 

Level of Cussewago opposite Hayfield, .... " 1005' 
" ** at Grossing near Southern line 

of township at A. Smith's, . . " 1075' 

Forks near Roderick Frader's, " 1270' 

*« " H. De Ross's, « 1255' 

Cross roads near W. L. Stockton's, «• 1370' 

Forks near Edward Roger's, " 1310' 

** " A. H. Cole's, «« 12»5' 

Cross roads near Geo. Lewis's, « 1260' 

" " Jaoob Brookhouser's, .... «* 1210' 

Forks near Fred. Hiokernell's, <• 1115' 

" " Isaac W. AUee's, ' «« 1255' 

" next north, «♦ 1300' 

" near H. C. Hite's, " 1320' 

«* «« G. Bower's, *« 1220' 

" «* J. Hower»s, " 1275' f 

«« next east, " 1250' 

** near Jno. Peter's, " 1810' 

Level of French creek near Peter Smith's, . . « 1105' 



26. Summer Hill^ in Cravford county. 

This township lies on Conneaut creek north of Snmmit. 
Most of its rain fall reaches Lake Erie. Its eastern border 
drains east into the Cussewago. Its sontheastem comer 
drains south into Conneaut lake. 



25. SUMMER HILL. Q*. 207 

The highest rock in the township is the STiarpstille sand- 
stone^ covering elevated land near the eastern border. The 
lowest rocks along Conneaut creek belong to the Yenango 
Oil Sand group. 

All along Conneant creek, is a broad flat valley deeply- 
filled with Drift 

On the land of J. R. Montgomery, two miles sputheast 
from Conneautville, is a quarry in the Carry sandstone^ 
from which a considerable amount of building stone has been 
taken. Top of quarry rock 1260' A. T. ; thickness, 8' ; 
upper 5' only quarried. The rock has its characteristic fine- 
grained and bufllsh- white color ; and the layers vary from 
&' to 12", occasionally thickening up to 3'. 

Along the road where a cutting was made, just south from 
this, and 60' higher, 20' of blue Orangeville shale is seen, 
filled with Lingulce. 

About three miles south from Montgomery's, there is 
another quarry in the Carry sandstone^ on the land of Mr. 
D. V. Miller. 'Top of rock 1200' A. T. ; thickness 10' to 12' ; 
aspect much the same as at Montgomery's, except that there 
is more interstratitied shale. This quarry was largely worked 
for building the old canal locks. 

Orangeville shale is exposed along the road, just east and 
above it ; and identifies it. 

Hammonds coal taring. — One half mile east from Miller's 
a boring was made for coal on the land of Mr. Hammon to 
a depth of 60', and was abandoned, of course. It was ab- 
surd to expect coal 300' (geologically) beneath the Sharon 
conglomerate. 

Long's oil boring. — About one mile northwest from Dick- 
sonburg an oil well was drilled on the land of Mrs. Long. 
One of the drillers gave me the following points from 
memory : (Fig. 66. ) 

Long' s boring. 

"Conductor hole, through gravel," . . . . 40' 

«• Blue slate," 40' 

"Gray slate," 20' 

"White sand, gas," 10' 

" Cbai," 6' toft' 



208 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

"Well drilled either to 618' or to 680' ; does not remem- 
ber which ; but is confident it was one of these numbers." 

"At 110' a dark substance was passed through which they 
took to he a thin bed of coal^'^^ probably bituminous shale. 

Mouth of weU 1145' A. T. 

Barometric elevations in Summer Hill. 

Forks of road in Dioksonburg, . (above tide, 1000' 

Level of Conneaut creek there, " 990' 

. . . Forks near A. J. Lane's, *« 1080' 

Cross-roads near D. V. Miller's, " 1190' 

♦♦ «* Orin Wood's, « 1290' 

" " Jonathan Close's, «* 1265' 

Forks near A. L. Stevens', " 1820' 

" . J. Kelsey's, " 1340' 

Cross-roads near Wm. Dearborn's, " 1300' 

Forks near D. Doge's, « 1280' 

Cross-roads near A. Vaughn's, " 1300' 

Forks near H. H. Davenport's, «* 1176' 

Cross-roads just west, " 1145' 

Cross-roads next west, near Conneaut oreek, . . << 1000' 

Forks west from Dioksonburg one mile, ** 1175' 

Cross-roads near M. Shaw's, at W. Line, '< 1155' . 

Level of oreek at Conneautville, " 930' 

Cross-roads north from N. Houghtelling's, ... " 1215' 

Forks near M. T. Carr's, " 1255' 

Cross-roads near P. Ford's, «* 1280' 

«* " J..R. Montgomery's, " 1280' 

<« *♦ Jno. Steel's, " 1275' 

" north from Jno. Cooper's, " 1280' 

Forks next east, " 1280' 



26. Conneaut^ in Crawford County. 

This township lies along the Ohio State line, around the 
head- waters of Peyton run, or north branch of Shenango 
river, draining south. The northern township line runs 
along the great divide ; and brooks in the northeast corner 
flow east into Conneaut creek and Lake Erie. 

A large portion of the township has a nearly uniform 
level of about 1100' A. T. A good deal of low and swampy 
land is in the township. There are no deep valleys, and 
the whole surface is covered with a thick coating of Drifts 
so that very few rock exposures can be found. 



26. CONNEAUT. Q^ 209 

The highest rock is the Oorry Sandstone^ quarried to a 
small extent along its southern line. 

Just south from Summit Station the Cassewago Sand- 
stone is seen along the road which passes north and south 
parallel to the E. and P. Railroad. It possesses the same 
loose incoherent texture here as so often elsewhere ; at first 
sight I mistook its outcrop for a heap of Drift sand; for 
marks of the spa'de were left where it had been shoveled for 
making lime mortar. On closer examination shales and 
harder layers of sandstone, regularly stratified, were found 
on top of it. The sand has a greenish hue, and contains a 
considerable quantity of smoothly worn pebbles of quartz, 
mostly flat in shape. 

Only & to 8' of the top of this curious deposit could be 
seen ; its top was accurately determined by leveling from 
Summit Station on the E. and P. Railroad, near by, to be 
1160' A. T. 

About one and a half miles south from Summit Station 
the Corry Sandstone has been quarried to a small extent 
on the land of Mr. Daniel Spaulding ; in irregular buflf-col- 
ored flags 3'' to 6" thick ; 1180' A. T. 

About one mile west from this and on the opposite side 
of North Shenango creek the top of the Cussewago Sand- 
stone is seen exposed along the roadside, with the same 
character as near Summit Station, except that near its top 
are seen many pebbles of shale ; exposure, 10' ; top, 1120'. 

About one fourth of a mile north from this the same de- 
posit is seen along a ravine which crosses the road. 

Barometer elevations in Gonneaut, 

Cross roads east from Summit station, (above tide,) 1155' 

Forks next east, " 1175' 

Gross roads near D. E. Fanner's, ! . . ** 1180' 

" " J. Wyatt*s " 1160' 

" " H. D. Ix)wing's, " 1160' 

" at Gonneaut Center, " 1156' 

" near Wm. Graham's, « 1060* 

•* at Steamburg P. 0., •« 1090* 

Forks near Alex. Fenner's, ♦* 1100' 

Cross roads near A. Stevens' at eastern line of 

township, " 1156' 

14 Cy. 



210 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



27. Beater i in CraitfoTd county. 

This township occupies the northwest corner of the county, 
and five parallel streams flow through it northward into the 
west branch of Conneaut creek. They rise on the southern 
slope of the great divide and flow north about one mile 
apart, in remarkably straight courses, and with a rapid fall. 

The rocks exposed belong entirely to the Venango Oil 
Sand group^ and near the northern line of the township the 
Third sand horizon lies within a few feet of the surface. 

Oil borings^ to the number of twelve or fifteen have been 
drilled in this township, and the Survey is indebted to Ben- 
jamin Stimpson of Conneautville for the following inter- 
esting account of them, sent to Mr. Carll, and communicated 
by him to me : 

^^ Sometime between the years 1795 and 1800 a well was 
drilled for salt in the southwest comer of Beaver township 
by Col. Shryock. As near as I can ascertain, the well was 
300' deep. It was tubed Vith wooden tubing 2^ inches in 
diameter, with the bore hole li inches. The joints were 6' 
long, connected by wooden screws and banded with copper. 
Salt was manufactured for a time, but on going deeper oil 
was found in such a quantity as to cause the abandonment 
of the salt business. 

"The show of oil in the old salt well induced me to go 
there and drill the first well that I have put down in this 
township. Before I commenced drilling in Beaver, eight 
wells had been sunk, ranging in depth all the way from 80' 
to 1624'. I can give you no accurate report of these wells. 

'' I have found some oil in every well that I have drilled, 
and it has in all cases been of a dark green color, and very 
fine lubricating oil, ranging from 19 to 23 gravity. 

" I enclose to you with this, records of the different wells 
drilled by me with such information, so far as I can give it, 
which seemed to be required by your letter. 

^ ' You will observe that these wells have all been drilled 
north from the Summit, and while I have found some oil in 



27. BEAVEB. 



Q*. 211 



each well I am of opinion that it will not be found in pay- 
ing quantities on the nortlierii slope. 

"When we go south of the Summit in Conneaut town- 
ship for some miles, we find the bed rock from 3' to 48' in 
depth beiow the surface. 

" In all my drillings on the north slope, I have never met 
with any black shale or black slate." 

65.. 66. 



212 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Record of Well No. L {Fig. 66.) 

"In April, 1874, I drilled a well at a place called Reed's 
Corners, seven miles west from Conneautville, and at an 
elevation of about 200' above that place."* 

The well was sunk to a depth of 500'. Struck bed-rock 
at 29'. Drilled through rock for 145', which was principally 
slate, with an occasional sandy shale. At that depth struck 
a Berea formaiion.^ In that I struck a heavy gas vein and 
some slight show of oil after drilling 18'. This Berea rock 
was 145' in thickness. At 196' from the surface I struck 
another very heavy gas vein. At 285' I struck a formation 
of sand and white pebble 20" (inches) thick. :{: 

"After this I had soaps tone, slate, and occasionally a shell 
to the depth of 380'. Then I struck a Berea formation 
20' thick, and the rest of the drilling was through soft slate 
rock. 

"Cased the well to depth of 128' ; shut oflf the water and 
pumped it for four days with no result, when it was aban- 
doned." 

Rec(yrd of Well No. %.% {Fig. 67.) 

"In the spring of 1875 I drilled a well at Beaver Center, 
about 7 miles N. W. from Conneautville, and 3 miles north 
from the Summit. Struck bed-rock 3' from surface. Drilled 
60' through slate, soaps tone, and an occasional shell. At 

(* This would make it 1140' above tide ; but I determined the elevation of 
Reed's Corners by barometer to be 1110 .—I. 0. W.) 

t With reference to a term frequently used by Mr. Stimpson in these records 
there may be some misapprehension, viz: the phrase **Berea formation.^^ I 
did not understand what was meant by it myself at first, but Mr. Schofield, 
of Conneautville, who is intimately acquainted with Mr. Stimpson, and who 
in drilling wells has used the same phraseology, Informed me that by ^^ Berea 
formation " Mr. Stimpson intended to describe a tolerably finegrained, 
bluiAh^white eandrock, or succession of them, which he fancied resembled 
the famous stone at Berea, Ohio, and which he believed to be identical with it. 
This, of course, it cannot be, since in all the wells except the first his ^^Berea 
formation^* is identical with the Venango Third Oil Sand horizon, lying 
(geologically) more than 300' below the horizon of the true ** Berea forma- 
tion'^ of Berea, Ohio. 

X Third Oil Sand.—I. C. W. 

§ Commenced at an elevation of 1000' above tide, as I determined by Baro- 
meter — I. C. W. 



I 

I 



27. BEAVEB. Q*. 213 

that depth I struck the Berea formation^ which was 45' 
thick. Three feet below its top I struck gas and consider- 
able oil. At 72' from the surface struck another gas vein. 
This well I drilled to the depth of 200', and the rest of it 
was through soft slate. 

''I cased down to a depth of 50', where I shut oflf the 
water and pumped for six days, during which time I ob- 
tained four to six gallons of oil of the same quality as that 
in well No. 1." 

Record of Well No, 3. {Fig. 68.) 

''This I drilled in the spring of 1876, on the Bentley farm, 
about 9 miles northwest from Conneautville, and 5^ miles 
north from the Summit. 

"Depth of well, 145'. 

"Struck bed-rock at 17', and the Berea format ion at 36' 
from the surface. The Berea rock was 26' thick. At 52' 
from surface struck a gas vein with slight show of oil. The 
balance of the depth drilled showed very soft slate. 

"Cased to depth of 26 feet to shut off water, and then 
pumped it live days with no show of oil. ' ' 

Record of Well No. 4, {Fig. 69.) 

" In the Spring of 1877 I drilled a well for M. W. Clay & 
Co. on what is known as the Cornell farm, 9^ miles north- 
west from Conneautville, and 6 miles north from the Sum- 
mit. 

The well was 122' deep. Struck bed-rock 4' below sur- 
face. At 26' struck the Berea formation ; and at 33' from 
surface I struck a vein of oil and gas. The Berea forma- 
tion was 20' thick. At 116' struck a fine gray sand 3' thick, 
with a small vein of oil just beneath. The rest of the drill- 
ing was through soft slate. 

"I cased this well to 28' and tubed it down to 120'. 
Pumped it three months. My impression is that it pro- 
duced from four to six gallons of oil per day. 

After pumping three weeks we put on a double acting 
gas pump to see if we could not increase the production, 
but it had no appreciable effect." 



214 Q*. KEPOET OF PBOGEE8S. I. C. WHITE. 

On discussing Mr. Stimpson^ s data^ it appears 

1. That the Venango Third Sand is represented by the 
3' pebble rock, 286' down Well No. 1, = 825' A. T. 

Proof : — Base of Corry 88. (as calculated by rate of dip, 
from nearest outcrop to the south, 5 miles) about 1275' A. 
T. — Difference, 1275' — 825'=450'. — Compare same difference 
on Oil creek. 

2. That the V. Third 8. is represented by the ''Berea 
formation" (base) 108' down Well No. 2=892' A. T. 

Proof 1: — Base of V. Third 8. in bluff of Conneaut 
creek, at Spring P. O., 5 miles due east, 885' A. T. 

Proof 2 /—Rise of base of V. T. 8. from Well 1 to Well 
2, distance 3 miles, direction due north, 892' — 822'=70'; 
rate of rise 23' per mile. 

3. That the V. T 8. is represented in Wells Nos. 3 and 
4, by Mr. Stimpson's ''Berea formation"; for although the 
mouths of those wells were not leveled, yet the topographi- 
cal tracing is easy. 

Near the southeast corner of this township, a quarry has 
been worked to some extent on the land of Mr. Petit, in a 
bluish-gray stratum, containing many Fucoids between the 
layers ; it comes at the horizon of the Venango First Oil 
sand, 1105' A. T. 

Barometric elevations in Beaver. 

Cross roads in Beaver Center, (above tide,) 1010' 

" near Alex. Hamilton's " 1040' 

*» " Jas. McClure's, " 1110' 

" «* E. J. Carey's, " 1090' 

" " M. Irish's, «• 1140' 

«* *« S. Sherwood's, " 1125' 

" " Nash and Coxan's, . . . . ' " 1055' 

Forks of roads near C. Lamed's, " 1040' 

Cross roads near Mrs. Greenlee's, " 1010' 

** east at township line, " 1020' 



28. Spring^ in Crawford county. 

This township lies between Conneaut creek and Cussewago 
creek along the Erie county line. The western, central, and 
northern portions drain through Conneaut creek into Lake 



28. SPBiKG. Q*. 315 

Erie; the eastern portion drains soutii through the Cnsse- 
wago and French creek into ttie Allegheny river. 

The middle highland lying north and south through the 
center of the township is about 1250' A. T. 

The Corry sandstone is the highest rock and is caught in 



knobs along the southern line. The lowest rock cut into by 
Conneaut creek where it leaves the county is about lOO* 
below the Venango Third Sand. 

This latter stratum is seen outcropping on the banks of 
the Conneaut creek at Spring P. O., in the following sec- 
tion: (Fig. 70.) 



f Conaeaut creek, . . IG' 

The sandstone is flaggy above and rather massive below ; 
of a peculiar bluish-gray color, and tolerably fine-grained. 
Base of the mass, 885' A. T. 

The shale is very blue, soft, and fine grained, and holds 
some nodules of iron, multitudes of Fiwoids, but no otlier 
fossil foiTus. 

On the opposite side of the creek, just east from Spring 
village, the outcrop of a tolerably massive sandstone is seen 
in a ravine which runs parallel with the road, at 1055 A. T, 

At Spring village, Conneaut creek flows over rock ; but 



216 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

as it runs along the western side of the valley, there may 
be a buried valley east of it, near the village. 

Oil well, — About two miles south of Spring village, and 
one mile below Conneautville, on the land of Mr. Powers, 
one rod east from Conneaut creek, 5 feet above its level, and 
near the center line of the valley, a well was drilled by Mr. 
Schofield, of Conneautville, who gave me the following 
record (Fig. 71) : 

Schofield'^ s Boring. 

"Drive-pipe," 112' to 112' 

"Soapstone (here large gas vein ''), 4^' to 116|' 

"Soapstone," '25^' to 142' 

"Quicksand," 45' to 187' 

"Slate," 3' to 190' 

"Berea formation," ? to ? 

? to bottom of well at ? to 750' 

At 322' a good show of green oil was got. At 510' a gas 
vein and very strong salt water was struck. At 750' a very 
large gas vein was struck — "enough at first to light Conne- 
autville." 

QtcicJcsand. — A very singular thing in this well was the 
striking of a bed of " quicksand" after the drill had pene- 
trated to a depth of 142', and had apparently passed through 
30' of bed rock. Drive-pipe was first put down to a depth 
of 112', where the drill appeared to strike bed-rock, but 
when it had passed through "the soaps tone" the tools 
dropped several feet, and the "quicksand" boiled up to 
the top of the hole "like mush," as Mr. Schofield expressed 
it, so that the drive-pipe had to be continued down through 
the "quicksand" to genuine bed-rock, "slate," before the 
drilling could be proceeded with. 

The presence of a regular bedded rock at the horizon of 
Nos. 2 and 3 may be accounted for by the sliding down of 
a large mass of rock from the steep cliflfs which probably 
bounded the walls of the ancient valley that now lies buried 
so deeply under 187 feet of detritus, so that it was a mere 
bowlder resting on the quicksand, or it may have been a 
projecting ledge of slate from an over-hanging cliflf of the 
rocky wall which bounded the ancient narrow valley. 



28. SPRING. Q*. 217 

The well commences .at 925' A, T. and the bottom of the 
old filled np valley waa here 925'— 187'=^r38' A. T. 

Mr. Schotield reports that at the depth of 110' a small bed 
of [^Dri/t] pebbles was encountered mostly water-worn, and 
among them was a crystal of qnartz. 

Burn's well. — About one mile north from this, on the 
Bum's farm, another well was drilled near one side of the 

to. M. 



valley and soon struck rock. Nothing could be learned 
about it except an abundant flow of salt water. 

Dunnes well.~~Oae and a half miles from the eastern line 
of the township, an oil well was bored on the land of Mr. 
N, W. Dunn. No oil was obtained, but at a depth of 400', 
a large gas vein was struck which blew the tools out of the 
well and made a very large blaze when burning. No pebbly 



218 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

rocks of any importance were encojintered in the drilling. 
Top, 1215' A. T.— Depth, 512'. 

Barometric elevations in Spring, 

Gross roads in Spring village, (above tide,) 895' 

Level of Oonneautoreek, just opposite, ... <* 870' 

Forks of road near N. Spencer's, " 920* 

Cross roads at township line west from Spring 

station, *« 1020' 

« at Clark Eighmy's, «* 1190' 

" at S. W. Sheldon's, " IISO' 

Forks near G. W. Prussia's, " 1200' 

Cross roads near Mrs. Water's, " 1166' 

" " Dennis Hardsell's, " 1260' 

" " J. Sperry's, «• 1200' 

Fork of road at cheese factory, near southeast 

corner of township, ** 1185' 

Forks near M. Roger's, " 1235' 

" A. S. Smith's, •« 1330' 



• 



29. Cussewago^ in Crawford county. 

This township on the Erie county line lies between the 
Cussewago creek and the brooks that flow east into French 
creek. 

Cussewago creek rises near the county line and flows with 
very sluggish movement south through its western quarter. 

The southern portion of the middle highland reaches 1500' 
A. T. capped by the Sharpsville sandstone. 

In a deep gulch near Hotchkiss's school-house, the top of 
the blue Orangeville shale is 1445' A. T., and above it lies 
the bluish gray Sharpsville sandstone. 

The shale shows itself at several points along this ridge 
in the roads, and occasionally also the sandstone above it. 

Along the Cussewago valley every thing is deeply buried 
under northern Drifts and no rocks are visible. 

Barometric elevations in Cussewago. 

Cross roads in Mosiertown, . (above tide,) 1235' 

Forks at John Miller's, " 1215' 

" near Alfred Eaton's, ** 1235' 

" " J. S. Morris's, " 1245' 

" " Jason Davis's, ' . " 1290' 



30. VENANGO. 



Q*. 219 



" " A. B. Heard's (above 

Cross roads near Geo. Josiin's, 

Forks next east, 

Cross roads near H. D. Freeman's, 

*< near Henry Hotohkiss's, 

Forks near G^eo. W. Muokinhaupt*s 

Cross roads near Jas. Hamilton's, 

" " H. J. Lake's, 

" next north, 

Forks near D. Loney's, 

<< Thos. McLaughlin's, 

OroBsingville (at cross roads), 

Level of Gussewago, here, 

Forks near A. M. Sherred's, 



tide), 



1286' 
1276' 
1340' 
1415' 
1465* 
1508' 
1435' 
1480' 
1390' 
1380' 
1250' 
1125' 
1116' 
1120' 



30. Venango^ in Crawford county. 

This small township on the Erie coun- 
ty line, stretches north and south along the 
western bank of French and Conneautee 
creeks ; and its surface, which at its west- 
ern border is quite elevated, (more than 
1400' A. T.) slopes rapidly down east to- 
wards French creek, the bed of which is 
about 1120' A. T. 

Along the western border the outcrop of 

the Orangeville shale is often seen in the 

roads, and at some points the hills are high 

enough to catch the Sharpsville Sand- 

stone^ or its lower portion. 

About one mile west from Venango Vil- 
lage, in a deep gulch just south from the 

forks of the road at Mr. J. Morris's, the 

following section is seen : (Fig. 72.) 



Morris Section. 




I^linmm K^ 



CussewaqoJ*, 




err 



490 




J^>eneA Cr. 



Orangeville Shale, visible, 20' 

Corry Sandstone, 15' 

Concealed, 6' 

Cusnewago Limestone^ (1315' A. T.,) 2' 

Concealed to level of French creek at Venango, 230' 

The fine blue Orangeville Shale contains Lingulce and 



220 Q*. REPOPT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

DiscincB ; where exposed in the road many of the layers 
are coated with a film of iron rust. 

The Corry Sandstone has been quarried^ to some extent, 
just below the road, the top quite massive and furnishing 
some excellent building material, of characteristic yellow- 
ish-white tint. The lower portion, rather shaly, has not 
been quarried. 

The Cussewago Limestone is here an unusually massive 
layer of hard rock, huge blocks of which & to 8' square, and 
2' thick, lie along the little stream, as they have been torn 
from its bed. Possessing more lime than usud.1 in its com- 
position, it has been burned with some success by Mr. Nor- 
ris, into good white lime. The rock is very compact and 
breaks with a sharp angular fracture, and the characteristic 
glistening surface so often alluded to in this report. 

The Venango Third Sand horizon cannot be much more 
than 200' below water-level at Venango village, as will be 
seen by the following thickness of rock which intervenes 
between the creek at this locality and the horizon of the 
Sharon Conglomerate. 

Sharon Conglomerate, down to Cussewago Limestone, . . . 336' 

Cussewago Limestone to level of French oreek, 230' 

Add 200' 

765' 

- Adopted normal depth of the Venango Third O. 8. beneath 
the /Sharon Conglomerate, 750'. 

On the right bank of Stewart's run, near Mr. Skel ton's, 
the outcrop of a sandstone is seen, and some massive blocks 
are scattered over the surface, of a grayish-brown color and 
tolerably coarse texture (but no pebbles), at 1245' A. T. 
This is the right height for the Venango First Sand. 

Barometric elevations in Venango. 

Level of French creek at Venango village, . . (above tide,) 1115' 



Forks of road one mile west at A. Miller's, . . 

** near J. Norris', 

«* " Levi Colter's, 

Cross-roads near J. B. Holman's, 

Forks near Andrew Sherred's, 

Cross-roads north from Andrew Hagelbarger's, 
Forks next north, 



1265' 
1380' 
1190' 
1190' 
1220' 
1240' 
1230' 



31. CAMBRIDGE. Q^ 221 

Level of Stewart's run, just north of last, * . . (above tide), IITC 

Forks of road near W. Blystone's, •* 1200' 

Cross-roads near J. W. Rubner*s, ....... " 1285' 

" " James Torry*s, . «* 1200' 

•* next east, " IISO' 



31. Cambridge^ in Crawford county. 

This lies directly east from Venango, having French and 
Conneaut creeks for its western boundary, Erie county on 
the north, and Rockdale township on the east. It has about 
the same area as Venango, and almost the same shape. 
French creek which flows across its center from east to west, 
and then south along its western borders, carries off all its 
drainage. 

The surface north of French creek is almost a level plain, 
from 1150' to 1200' A. T. 

Along the southern line the surface rises to the Orange- 
ville shale, and most of the Sharpsville sandstone ; 1450' 
to 1500' A. T. 

At Venango station on the A.G.W.R.R. the following 
succession is seen descending the steep bluff: (Fig. 73.) 

Venango Station section. 

1. Flaggy sandstone to R. R. level (1163' A. T. ),....... 10' 

2. Shales reddish, lO' 

3. Flaggy sandstone, 8' 

4. Shales, red, chocolate, dtc, 12' 

5. Shales, blue, to level of Frenoh creek 23' 

No. 1 is seen in a cutting just above the station, and some 
of its layers are quite massive ; it may represent one of the 
Venango sands ; but since (by calculation) the Venango 
Third sand should here lie 200' beneath the creek, these 
flags are too high for the Second and too low for the First. 

No. 6 is a very flne blue shale inters tratified at every few 
feet with thin sandy layers, and occasionally some chocolate 
shale. 

Barometric elevations in Cambridge. 

Level of French creek at Cambridge, (above tide,) 1130' 

Forks near G. A. Mansfield's, south of Cam- 
bridge, " 1340' 



222 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Cross roads near Mrs. J^armon's, (above tide), 1350' 

Forks near J. K. Hawthorn's, « 1430' 

*« Daniel Root's, •« 1425' 

Cross roads near M. Kelly's, " 1450' 

Forks at brickyard, north from Cambridge, . . <* 114C' 

Cross roads near H. Goodwin's, " 1190' 

Level of Conneaut creek at Drake's Mills, . . ** 1140' 



32. Rockdale^ in Crawford county. 

This township surrounds the junction of Muddy creek 
with French creek. Muddy creek comes in from the south- 
east with a scarcely perceptible flow. 

The eastern line of the township follows a divide between 
the waters of French creek and Oil creek, some of the hills 
attaining to 1660' A. T. 

SmitKs quarry. — About one mile west from Brown's Hill 
P. O., a sandstone stratum has been quarried to some extent 
on the land of Mr. Smith ; a bufflsh-white rock, rather hard 
and tolerably fine-grained ; the base somewhat coarse with 
some pebbles. The rock resembles and is here at the proper 
altitude for the Gorry sandsto'ae^ viz : (top) 1520' A. T. 

A yellowish white {Shai'psville ?) sandstone appears on a 
hill, a mile south of Smith's quarry, and 100' higher level. 
The bottom layers of the mass are exposed (1650' A. T.) 

In the southeast corner of the township, near J. Faus- 
burg's, the outcrop of a buffish-white sandstone is seen (at 
1510' A. T.), which very much resembles the Smith's quarry 
rock, one mile north, which I supposed to be the Corry 
sandstone. 

Descending the hill westward toward Muddy creek, we 
come to the outcrop of a dark flaggy sandstone, 170' below 
the Corry sandstone^ apparently about 10' thick, and quar- 
ried here and there on the land of Mr. Parker. It lies at 
about the right horizon below the Corry sandstone for the 
Venango First sand 200' above Muddy creek. 

About three miles west from this, near Bunce's cross- 
roads, flaggy sandstone was quarried a little, in a ravine on 
the land of Mr. Bunce ; layers, 1' to 2' ; rock, dark-gray, 



32. ROCKDALE. Q*. 223 

rather fine-grained ; whole mass only 10' ; elevation, 1226' 
A. T. 

Just east from B. Wheeler's, at the western line of the 
township, an outcrop very much resembling the Cussewago 
sandstone occurs at about the right horizon here : 1425'. 

About three fourths of a mile west from Miller's station, 
on the A. & Gr. W. R. R., a bed of blue flagstone has been 
quarried by Mr. Wilcox ; the surface of the flags covered 
with Fucoids ; a great many shells seen ; among them Spir- 
ifera disjuncta; elevation, 1200' A. T. 

Passing north from this, up the hill, we come to the base 
of a tolerably massive sandstone — making a steep bluff, and 
just beneath it a Spirifer hand,, flUed with shells at 1315' 
A. T. 

Still further north, at Saeger's cross-roads, the ground is 
covered with many bowlders of a yellowish-white' sand- 
stone (probably Gorry\ at 1475' A. T. 

BaroTnetric elevations in Rockdale. 

Level of French creek, opposite MiUer's Sta- 
tion, (above tide), 1135' 

Forks west from MiUer's at D. I. Wilcox's, . . ** 1165' 

Cross-roads near John Saeger's, " 1476' 

Forks near B. R. Bumb's, <• 1325' 

«♦ " Amos Anderson's, . «* 1346' 

Cross-roads west from Gere's School House, . *•*• 1260' 
Forks east from Miller's Station, near O. Wil- 
son's, " IITC 

Next southeast, «« 1160' 

Forks near Woodside's mill, " 1170' 

" " G. Field's. " 1200' 

" " G. D. Ferris', «« 1180' 

«* next southeast, •« 1195' 

«« near U. Kelley's, «« 1176' 

Level of Muddy creek, near Shingle Mill, . . " 1140' 

Forks near John Willis', «* 1150' 

Croes-roads near C. F. Bunce's, « 1226' 

Forks near G. May's, " 1220' 

Crossing of Mohawk run due west, *• 1220' 

Cross-roads near Cheese Factory next west, . . " 1250' 

" " M. Kelley's, " 1450' 

Forks of road at Brown's Hill P. O., , . . . . " 1460* 

Summit, \ mUe east, " 1570' 

Cross-roads at township line, next east, ..... " 1485' 

•« " «« next south, . . . " 1566' 



224 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Summit, | mile west from last, (above tide), 1650' 

Cross-roads near J. Fausburg's, ** 1490' 

Forks near N. Alexander's, «« 1185' 

" next west at School-House, " 1176' 



33. Bloomfield^ in Crawford county. 

This township surrounds Oil Creek lake. It is drained 
by Oil creek west branch southeastward. 

Oil Creek lake^ the highest of the Crawford county lakes, 
(1389' A. T.) is surrounded by hummocks of Drift, 

The western line hills reach a height of 1600' A. T., and 
those along the northern or county line, 1700' A. T. 

The highest strata in these summits belong to the Orange- 
mile shale^ but in two or three places patches of the Sharps- 
mile sandstone remain. 

In the vicinity of Oil Creek lake, several oil wells have 
been drilled, and the following record was given me by Mr. 
T. L. Dobbins, of a well drilled by him in 1878, at Oil Creek 
station (Lakeville), 9' above R. R. grade (1412') : 

Dobbins'' oil well. 

Mouth of well, 0' 1420' A. T. 

"Conductor hole," ' 14' to 14' 1406' 

"Very hard sandstone," 30' to 44' 1376' 

"Slate (red rook at 209' from top)," 331' to 376' 1045' 

"Sand, good, pebbly, some oil," {Third oil 

«and.— I. O. W.), 9' to 384' 

"Slate," 146' to 630' 

" Sand shells, fragments in this interval, one con- 
taining pebbles at 594'," 120' to 660' 

"Soft slate," 262' to 912' 

"Sand shells, very hard," 20' to 932' 

" Soft slate, to bottom of hole," 68' to 1000' 

Rightly to understand this record, it is necessary to con- 
nect it with an outcrop of the Corry sandstone in the ravine 
next west of the hole ; the base of the rock lying 85' above 
R. R. grade, or 1496' A. T. 

Corry 88. {base) 1496' — top of pebbly sand in well, 1045' 
=451'=about the depth of Third Oil sand beneath Third 
mountain sand in Venango county. 

Mr. Carll has himself identified the Corry sandstone in 



33. BLOOMFIELD. Q*. 226 

the ravine at Lakeville with the Third Trwuntain sand of 
Lower Oil creek.* 

The two following records of wells drilled near Oil Creek 
lake by Mr. Dobbins, are re-published from Mr. Carll's 
report 1. 1., pp. 273-4. 

Oil Cr. Lake Lumber and Mining Co.^s Well, No. 1. 

Near the saw-mill. 

WeU mouth, abovt oeeaUf in feet, about 1400' A. T., . 0' 

Drive-pipe, . . . . ^ 13' to 18' 

Slate or shale, 100' to 118' 

Rock, hard blue, water yein, 1' to 114' 

Sandstone crust, 1' to 115' 

Slate and shale, 48' to 168' 

Slate, blue, 100' to 268' 

Rock, hard 52' to 815' 

Slate and gray sand, 50' to 865' 

Sandstone, white (Thibd). oil show, 2' to 867' 

Soapstone and soft blue slate, with hard streak, ... 68' to 480' 

Slate, gray, with white sand-shells, 87' to 467' 

Slate, blue, 38' to 500' 

Slate, blue, with flint and white sand, 86' to 586' 

Shale and gritty sand shells, 14 to 550' 

Slate 55' to 605' 

Slate, with threads of gray sandstone, 870' to 075' 

Wet hole. Never tubed nor pumped. Show of oil at 
180', 367', and 506'. Some gas at 542'. 

Well No. 2. {Near Oil Creek Lake and R. R. Water -tank.) 

Well mouth, above ocean, in feet, about 1405' A. T., . 0' 

Drive-pipe, through coarse gravel and blue day, ... 30' to 80' 
Soapstone, light-blue, and slate, with hard streaks, . 103' to 183 

Blue slate and sand shells, 15' to 148' 

Slate, blue, with hard streaks of sand, 80' to 228' 

Slate, blue, 50' to 278' 

Slate, red, 16' to 298' 

Slate, blue, 80' to 378' 

Sandstone, white (Third), show of oil 2' to 375' 

Slate, blue 6' to 881' 

* A comparison of this record with those obtained at Sharon, Mercer county, 
and Beaver Falls, Beaver county, will show that interval No. 8 of this well, 
corresponds to the 305' shale at Sharon, and to the 866' of soft rock between 
base of 124' sandstone and 30' rock at Beaver Falls. Hence the 75' rock at 
Sharon, and the 124' rock at Beaver Falls must be the equivalent of the Corry 
sandstone (3d mountain), and the rest of the interval down to base of No. e 
in the Lakeville well, including the Cussewago sandstone, and probably some 
other measures below it. 

15 Q^ 



226 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

S.S. and pebble, very hard, estimated, 5' ta 886' 

Slate, soft, with hard streaks, 114' to f 00' 

Slate, blue and rather hard, 88' to 58o' 

Rock, very hard, 2' to SQC 

Wet hole. Never pumped. 

At about 100' oil-soot, and show of oil (same as other well 
at sam^ depth). At 135' hard streaks and better show of 
oil. 

One foot crevice and water at 142'. Fair show of oil at 
383'. Gas at 542'. 

One Micemlle well was drilled on the east bank of Oil 
creek, in the triangular space at the junction of Negus run 
with the creek ; operator, Mr. Kerr, of Titusville ; well 
mouth, 1330' A. t. ; depth, 1000'; 15' of drive-pipe; some 
oil at 60' ; none below that. 

This oil horizon comes 200' below the top of an outcrop 
of the Carry Sandstone^ seen half a mile west of the drill- 
hole. A bed of greenish-blue shale is visible in the bottom 
of the creek at Riceville. 

Ariother Riceville oil well was put down on the west bank 
of the creek, and some oil obtained at 60' ; but none below 
that. 

About one and a half miles east from the northern end 
of Oil Creek lake, and a short distance west from the cross- 
roads at J. B. Paige' s, is seen a 15' exposure of Gorry Sand- 
stone^ the lower portion quite coarse, and containing small 
pebbles. Top, 1540' A. T. 

Barometric elevations in Bloomfleld, 

Level of Oil creek at Kiceville, (above tide), 1325- 

Cross-roads east ftom Riceville " 1445' 

Forks of road near Mrs. S. Welden's, " 1636' 

" next west, " 1605' 

Gross-roads next west, ** 1535' 

" near J. fi. Paige's, " 1676' 

Forliis near Southeast end of Oil Creek Lake, . . ** 1405' 

Cross-roads near Mrs. Nicholson's, *< 1485' 

" " I. Miller's store, " 1610' 

Crossing of Mosey run, next west, " 1460' 

Cross-roads near Thos. Lee's, " 1610' 

" " Jacob King's, " leZO* 

" at township line west, *' 1660' 



34. SPARTA. Q^ 227 



34, Spcaia^ in Crawford county. 

This township occupies the northeast comer of the county, 
against the Warren county line, and encloses Mill Pond and 
the numerous heads of Oil creek east branch. One branch 
of Spring creek heads in the eastern part of the township 
and flows east. 

The highest land in Crawford county is found in this town- 
ship ; many summits rising to 1800' A. T. and upwards, and 
holding outliers of the Shenango sandstone ; as, for ex- 
ample, at Mr. Bates', on the State road, one and a half miles 
east from Spartansburg, where a well (1760' A. T.) was sunk 
several feet in this coarse brownish iron stained rock, con- 
taining here some small flat pebbles. 

About one mile farther east, along the State road, the 
Shenango sandstone causes the bluff slope around the hills, 
and its outcrop is exposed in the road, and in a neighboring 
field ; quite coarse and massive ; base, 1755' A. T. 

Near the Warren county line, a very large spring issues 
from beneath a yellowish-white sandstone at (1600' A. T.) 
The Corry horizon of springs has already been noted. 

CrossmarC 8 well, — Just on the line where the Pittsburgh, 
Titusville and Buffalo R. R. passes out of the county, a 
well was drilled for oil, on the land of Mr. Grossman, in the 
summer of 1878, to a depth of 1200' ; mouth 1575' A. T. ; 
drive pipe 150' ;* vein of heavy green oil and much gas at 
400'. 

The Shenango sandstone is found in the hills west from 
this (base) at 1850' A. T. so that this oil horizon probably 
represents the Venango Third sand.f 

Mr. Grossman tells me that the oil obtained at 400' was 
as heavy as the Mecca oil of Ohio ; but that it only comes 
up in small quantities, and no oil was obtained below 400'. 

* The great depth of Drift indioates an important pre-glacial valley cutting 
through the high divide, towards Corry, along the line of the Pittsburgh, 
Titusville and Buffiilo K. R., the summit grade of whioh is only 1646' A. T., 
while the hills on each side rise more than 200' above the ix>ad. The well is 
within half a mile of the summit, and on the line of the thorough cut. 

1 1850'— 1576'-f400'=676' ; add 76'=760' the proper height of the Sharon 
Conglomerate above Third sand. 



228 Ql REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Just east from the cross roads at Mr. Webb's near the 
western line of this township the outcrop of the Corry 
sandstoTie is seen along a small stream ; is 10' thick ; yel- 
lowish-white ; quite massive and many large blocks scat- 
tered around. A line of springs issues from its base at 
1560' A. T. Top of the rock 1570' A. T. 

About two miles south from this, and just west from the 
cross-roads at D. E. Win ton's, the outcrop of the Corry 
Sandstone is seen at 1540' A. T. 

Barometric elevations in Sparta, 

ForkB near A. ^ates^s on State road, (above tide,) 1670' 

Summit east from that at Eastman's, (OarU,) . '< 1798' 
Crossing of stream at eastern line of county on 

State road, ... ... •* 16d5' 

Cross roads at Webb's near western line of 

town'p, ' •* 1680' 

Level of run near C. Messent^r's, " 1416' 

Forks of road near J. Fralioh's, «* 1390' 

Iievel of creek there, •* 1380' 

Cross roads near D. B. Winton's, « 1376' 

Level of creek east, " 1300' 

Forks near E. Day's, " 1665' 



36. Concord^ in Erie County. 

This township occupies the southeast comer of Erie, and 
its drainage all finds its way eventually into the Allegheny 
river, by three routes. 

Prom the very high east and west dividing ridge the rain- 
fall flows into the south branch of French creek, and so 
westward. The southern slope drains directly into Oil creek 
through Crawford county. The eastern slope drains into the 
Brokenstraw, and reaches the Allegheny river at Irvineton. 

There is scarcely any perceptible divide between the waters 
of the south branch of French creek at the western end of 
Corry and those of the Brokenstraw at the eastern limit 
of the borough ; and the whole topography looks as though 
the Brokenstraw may once have emptied through this low 
divide into the French creek valley. 

The most elevated land in Erie county is on the high ridge 



35. CONCOKD, Q*. 229 



230 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

> 

south of Corry ; much of it 1800' A. T., and many knobs 
reaching I860' A. T. 

East of the center of the township there is a low passage- 
way through this ridge, 300' below its general level, through 
which the Pittsburgh, Titusville and Buffalo R. R. passes ; 
the railroad summit grade being 1646' A. T. 

This buried valley has been described in Part II, p. 36. 

Drift fills the valley of South French creek one or two 
miles broad, and in the neighborhood of Corry are wide 
level reaches of Drift deposits. 

Corry Sandstone quarries. — About one mile south from 
Corry are two extensive quarries in the summit of the hill 
just west from the Methodist church ; one east from the 
Corry road owned by Mr. Colegrove, the other west from it 
and owned by Mr. Heath. Eight feet of the rock is found on 
the summit, and it has probably suffered some from erosion, 
as the upper half is so badly shattered that it cannot be 
used except for riprap or other purposes requiring nothing 
but rough fragments ; the lower half comes in lay era 2" or 
3" up to 12" thick. The whole bed has a yellowish or buflSsh- 
white tinge, is quite hard and tolerably fine-grained. Prom 
this locality I have named it the Corry Sandstone^ and it 
is identical with the 3rd ML Sand of Mr. Carll. Few fos- 
sils occur in it, but in the lower portion were seen a species 
of Allorisma^ and Orthis and a broad-winged. Spirifer. 
Fucoids are abundant in the shaleg above and below the 
Sandstone. 

Th^ base of the Corry Sandstone has here an elevation 
(as closely determined by two rapid drives to and from the 
D^pot at Corry, one mile away) 1740' A. T. This would 
give the horizon of the 3rd oil sand an elevation here of 
about 1300' A. T. 

At Union City, 8 miles west, the elevation of the 3rd oil 
sand in borings is 1235' A. T. 

Oil wells. — In the vicinity of Corry several deep wells 
have been drilled for oil without success. Nothing in the 
shape of records could be obtained. 

Oibson & Sterreif s oil welly on their property, in Corry 
(1545' deep), commences about 1435' A. T. — Conductor hole 



36. CONCORD. Q*. 831 

7S. 



232 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

29' deep ; some oil at about 700'. — At Corry the 3rd Oil 
Sand of Venango ought to be passed through at a depth of 
150'. 

Corry and Shenango Sandstones. — About one tod a half 
miles south from Colegrove's quarry, in the Corry Sand- 
stone^ the surface rises to 1845' A. T., on the land of Mr. 
Watson, and the summit is strewn with blocks of the She- 
nango Sandstone^ which, however, belong to a somewhat 
higher bed plane, probably at about 1900' A. T., since the 
hills are not high enough to catch the stratum. 

As we pass west from Mr. Olmstead' s along the road lead- 
ing to the valley of South French creek, a large stretch of 
land is seen covered with bowlders of the Corry Sandstone 
at 1700' A. T. ; a few small pebbles occur in it, and the 
blocks are mostly of small size. 

Crossing the south branch of French creek, and ascending 
the hill southward, we come up to the outcrop of the Corry 
Sandstone at 1685' A. T. ; and above it are occasional ex- 
posures of rock ; the Sharpsville Sandstone is seen on the 
summit at Blatchley's at 1800' A. T., all above being con- 
cealed by Drift. 

About one half mile south from Blatchley's, on the land 
of Mr. Fralich, a knob rises to I860' A. T., and has its sum- 
mit covered with blocks of the Shenango Sandstone; but 
the horizon of the bed rock is not then reached, since it 
would probably here come in at about 1900' A. T. Many 
bowlders of granite are seen lying over the ground in the 
vicinity of Blatchley's, at 1700' to 1800' A. T. None of 
these knobs seem to be too high for the Drift. 

Heath^s oil well. — Just south from the cross roads at 
School House No. 5, a well was dug on the land of Mr. 
Heath, and a considerable amount of dark and quite heavy 
oil was found in the crevices of the blue flaggy sandstone 
through which the well was sunk. 

Matter son^ s quarry. — A short distance north from School 
House No. 5 we come down to the top of the Corry Sand- 
stone at 1700' A. T. The hard, fine-grained, yellowish white 
rock is quite massive, in layers 1' to 2' thick. It was once 
quarried here on the land of Mr. Matterson, and enough of 



35. CONCORD. Q*. 233 

it taken to build a culvert on the P. and E. R. R. near Con- 
cord Station. The rock makes a very durable building 
stone, the only objection being its extreme hardness, render- 
ing it so difficult to dress. 

The Cussewago Limestone is seen finely exposed along 
the bed of the little stream just below the Corry Sandstone. 
It is very compact, grayish white, and richer in lime here 
than I. have seen it elsewhere. It breaks with a sharp clear 
fracture and could be burned into excellent lime. The 
stratum, 1^' thick, lies 25' below the top of the Oorry Sand- 
stone ; or 1675' A. T. 

Near Mr. Darrow's, one mile west from School House No. 
5, the surface is covered with yellow Corry Sandstone 
bowlders. The mother rock should be found at this hori- 
zon ; 1675' A. T. 

Oray* s oil xoell. — One and a half miles northwest from 
Cooke's P. O. on a branch of Lilley's run, commencing at 
1460' A. T. was 184' deep, with 50 feet of drive pipe. Several 
barrels of heavy oil were obtained, and the well abandoned. 
It still continues to throw out gas and some oil which col- 
lects in the. pool around the casing and is dipped up for lu- 
bricating purposes by the neighbors. 

No one could tell me at what depth the oil comes in. 
Long before any borings were made, the oil flowed out at a 
spring near the drill hole, and was collected for medicinal 
purposes. 

A short distance west from this the following section is 
seen in descending a ravine (Fig. 78)": 

Gray^s Run Section. 

1. Corry Sandstone (at base 1630' above tide), 15' 

2. Sandstone, flaggy, and concealed, 80' 

3. Sandstone, very silioeous, base only seen, 1' 

4. Sandstone, flaggy, 20' 

6. Concealed to level of run, 75' 

The Corry Sandstone No. 1 forms a bluff along the crown 
of the hill and is quite massive, numerous blocks of it be- 
ing scattered over the surface. 

No. 3 very probably represents the base of the Cussewago 



234 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Sandstone^ the inaiii body being concealed in the interval 
above. 

Faye^s quarry, — ^About one and a half miles west from 
Gray's oil well, and near the western line of the township, 
we come to some elevated land near Faye's School House, 
and there on the farm of Mr. Joel Faye the Corry Sand- 
stone has been quarried. The bed-rock is not seen, but the 
surface is covered with blocks of the yellowish- white sand- 
stone, and they cease at 1630' A. T. A long line of them 
extends around the hill for more than a mile, and there can 
be no doubt that the parent bed lies just beneath them. In 
many places these bowjders completely hide the surface. 
The mother rock is seen on the land of Mr. Brooks, north 
from Faye' s, and near its base is a very pebbly layer con- 
taining flat pebbles of quartz, some of which are dark, 
others are green, and of various colors. 

Lilly oil well, — About one and a half miles north from 
Faye's School House, and one mile south from Concord 
station, on the A. and G. W. R. R., an oil well was once 
drilled on the Lilley farm by Mr. Price, who gave me the 
following record of the drilling (Fig. 79) : 

Lilly well record. 

1. *• Drive-pipe," through Drift, 110' to 119' 

2. «* Black slate (Big water vein at 1*23')," 16' to 135' 

3. "Blue sandrook, very hard,'* 20' to 155' 

4. "Bedrock, blood red," 18' to 173' v 

5. "Slate, gritty, soft,'* ;. 20' to 193' 

6. "Sharp grit and pebble rock, pebbles thin and 

flat, some red, dark, and white, pebbly at top, 
blue grit below," some oil; (3rd oil sand— I. 
C. W.), 25' to 218' 

7. " Loadstone rock ; magnetized the drill ; soft like 

rubber" (!), 90' to 308' 

8. "Red rock," 40' to 348' 

9. " Sand, white, very hard, and filled with pebbles," 80 to 378' 

10. "Shells,** 80' to 408' 

11. "Fine slate,** . 100- to 508' 

12. "Shells,** 35' to 543' 

13. "Sand, white, very hard, some pebbles, big gas 

vein near center, 25' to 568' 

14. "Gritty slate,** ^' to 628' 

15. " Red rock,** 5' to 633' 

16. "Shells,** 67' to 700' 

17. "Slate, with no grit,*' 90' to 790' 

18. "Shells, very hard to bottom of hole,*' 55' to 845 



35. CONCOBD. 



fnir/ir . tu'u 



Q*. : 
rs. 



236 Qf*. BEPOBT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

' ' In No. 6 some oil was obtained, dark-green in color and 
rather heavy." 

' ' In No. 13 a great gas vein was struck ; threw water over 
top of derrick." 

The well commences 3' above level of Lilley's run, and 
closely determined by checking twice at Concord Station, 
one mile north, at 1375' A. T. 

No. 6 would represent the Srd oil sand^ since Mr. Price's 
description of it answers very closely to the structure of 
this rock at many localities in Erie county ; and it comes at 
about the right depth below the Corry Sandstone. The 
base of the Corry Sandstone, li miles further south, is found 
at 1610^ A. T. Therefore, estimating the northward rise at 
about 20' per mile, at 1640' A. T. or (1640'— 1375'=) 265' 
above the mouth of the well ; therefore (265'+193'=) 458' 
is the interval between the base of Corry Sandstone and No. 
6 of the well ; the average interval between the Corry (3rd 
Mt. ) Sandstone and the Srd oil sand being say 450'. 

The great depth of Drift here is the more remarkable, 
seeing that within 3 rods of the ^rill hole the bed-rock crops 
out on the west bank of the run. This place is one mile 
from French creek ; and immense heaps of Drift are seen 
on both sides of that stream for a long distance back, usu- 
ally one to two miles. 

Barometric Uvels in Concord. 

Forks at Faye's School House, (above tide,) 1640' 

" near H. Cooke's, «« 1480' 

Level of Lilley's run at saw mill, *« 1372' 

Forks near H. Parson's, «« 1395' 

«* ** E. A. Hammond's, " 1465' 

Gross roads near D. Lewis's, «• 1580' 

*« " R. Darrow's, * « 1710' 

" " School House No. 6, " 1745' 

Forks at south line of town'p near C. H. Web- 
ber's, « 1705' 

«* near Mrs. Higgin's, " 1595' 

Crossing R. R. near J. Bell's, " 1610' 

Forks near S. Blatchley's, " 1800' 

" " J. H. Mofl&it's, " 1500' 

" " B. Davis, " 1725' 

" " School House No. 7 " 1710' 

" «• H. Corry's, " 1726' 



36. UNION. Q*. 237 

Forks near W. W. CJoveirs, (above tide), 1535' 



R. R. Crossing West, * 

Forks near Soiiool House No. 8, ' 

" «* Mrs. Blakeslee's, • 

" ** Town House, * 

Cross roads at LovelPs Station, * 



1485' 
1685' 
1660' 
1630' 
1375' 



36. Union^ in Erie county. 

This lies directly west from Concord, and also adjoins the 
Crawford county line. 

It is drained by the South Branch of French creek which 
flows west nearly through its center, receiving many small 
tributaries from both north and south. It thus forms a 
kind of basin, with a divide on its northern border separat- 
ing its drainage from the waters of Le Boeuf creek, and one 
on the south between Oil creek and French creek proper. 

There is a very wide valley along South French creek, 
everywhere filled with Drift. 

The aspect of this valley would lead one to believe that 
it possessed a very deeply buried rock bed, but so far as 
the borings of numerous oil wells have determined the mat- 
ter no deep valley has been found, but bed-rock is invari- 
ably obtained a few feet below the level of French creek. 

At Union City several wells have been bored for oil. 

One Union well was bored just south of the A. G. W. 
R. R. d^pot and at the same elevation (1301' A. T.) It 
struck a pebble rock at a depth of 70' which yielded some 
oil. The pebbly portion was 5' thick, and this represents 
the 3d oil sand^ since its top would come at 1301' — 70'=1231' 
above tide, and the top of the 3d oil sanxl at the Carroll 
quarries, 3 miles due west is found at 1220' above tide, thus 
proving that the two are identical, since there is not much 
change in level of the rocks in going east or west, in this 
region. The well was drilled to a depth of 200' but no oil 
was found below the 70' horizon. 

Another Union well^ on the opposite side of French creek, 
and a short distance above the P. and Erie R. R. d^pot, 
was bored, commencing at 1265' A. T. 



238 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

No record was preserved, but one of the drillers gave me 
the following items concerning it from memory : 

''Conductor hole 16' in depth." 

"Well drilled to 1600." 

" At 800' struck a sand and such a quantity of .gas as to 
drive the men away from the derrick." 

"No oil show of any consequence. Most of drilling 
through soft slate, with occasional hard shells." 

At Union the bed rock is seen along French creek, and it 
consists of a blue shale alternating with thin sandy layers. 

South from Union City one mile, the base of a somewhat 
massive sandstone is seen at 1500' above tide and it con- ' 
tinues in flaggy layers 1' — 2' thick up to the top of the hill 
40' above. This comes at the horizon of ihe 1st Oil Sand 
of Venango^ and it is doubtless the representative of that 
stratum, since it comes about 1500' — 1230' = 270' above 
3rd Oil Sand struck in the boring one mile north at Union 
City. 

The Drift covers up everything so effectually in this town- 
ship that its rock structure is nowhere extensively shown. 
The Corry Sandstone is however about the highest stratum 
found along its southern border, while at its western limit 
French creek cut» down to the 3rd Oil Sand thus giving a 
vertical range of 450' in the strata above water-level. 

Banrmetric elevations in Union. 

Forks of road near School House No. 4, . . . . (above tide,) 1545' 

" " " W. Shepard's, ♦♦ 1625' 

•* " •* W. Carter's, «• 1470' 

" « " J. Sill's, " 1460' 

*« *» " E. Matteson's, " 1510' 

•« " *» B. E. Reynold's, " 1460' 

" " " J. Devereaux's, •* 1460' 

Levelof Pine run near A. White's, " 1885' 

Forks of road near A. B. Stanton's, " 1465' 

«* " northeast from J. J. Lyon's, . . . " 1470' 

" " near A. Clark's, " 1510' 

Summit near D. Hubbell's, ** 1570' 

Forks of road near J. E. Fenno's, ....... " 1366' 

" " " J. Meehan's, " I486' 

Cross roads near S. Bemas's, *' 1520' 

Forks near N. Rookwood's, <* 1695' 



37. LE B(EUF. Q*. 239 



37. LeBwuf^ in Erie^ County. 

Mb 

This lies west from Union, having Waterford township on 
the north, and Crawford county for its southern boundary. 

The drainage is carried oflf by French creek and its tribu- 
taries. The north and south branches of French creek 
unite near the northeastern corner of the township, and 
flowing west with many windings both north and south, it 
receives LeBoBuf creek near the western line, and there 
turning abruptly south continues in that direction until it 
passes out of this county into Crawford. 

A very wide Drift-filled valley is found all along French 
creek, but no evidence of a deeply buried valley was ob- 
tained simply from lack of borings or explorations. It is 
not probable that a deeply buried valley will be found along 
French creek, in this township, before the mouth of LeBgeuf 
creek is reached, since above this the bed-rock is often seen 
in the stream, and then the borings that have been made 
along the valley disclose no buried channel of any consid- 
erable depth. 

This township is most interesting in its geology, since 
within its borders we get the first peep at the 3rd oil sand 
of Venango^ that famous depository of petroleum^ the con- 
tinued northward rise of the strata having at last brought 
this rock above water level along French creek. 

The 3rd oil sand has long been quarried on the left bank 
of French creek, one mile southwest from LeBoeuf Station. 
The locality is known as the Carroll quarries. 

The following succession is seen in descending from the 
quarry across the A. &. G. W. R. R. to French creek (Fig. 
80): 

Carroll quarry. 

1. Sbales, . 6' 

2. Spirifer Band, 1' 

8. Shales, 8' 

4. SrdoilaandA^' Pebblyrook, r Kg, 

f 2. Blue sandstone, 8M 

5. Blue shale to level of French creek, 15' 



240 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

No. 2 is a mere mass of shells, all of Chemung type, and 
the predominant species is Rhynchonella cordracta^ Hall, 
in very fine state of preservation. Atrypa hystrix is also 
quite abundant, as well as broad-winged Spirifers of the 
type 8. disjuncta. A large Discina- shaped shell was also 
seen. 

The upper portion of the 3rd oil sand^ No. 4, is a mere 
mass of pebbles, among which occur jasper, white, green, 
and smoky quartz. The pebbles are all worn smooth, and 
are very thin and Jlat^ some being 2'' long by 1^'^ wide and 
half an inch thick in the middle while tapering to almost a 
knife-edge at the margin. 

The pebbly portion is saturated with oil in many places, 
and often in quarrying the workmen tell me that they find 
plenty of oil in the crevices of the rock between the joints ; 
occasionally as much as two or three gallons of very heavy 
oil has been collected, where some of the bottom layers of 
the rock were taken up. Every portion of the rock, both 
the pebble and the quarry stonej has a distinct smell of 
petroleum. The upper or pebbly half of the stratum is of 
course worthless, and its removal largely increases the cost 
of mining ; it passes without any distinct dividing horizon 
into the quarry sandstone below, which is quite homogene- 
ous and free from pebbles. The pebbly portion has not 
always the same thickness however, but runs up and down 
in a very irregular way and at the expense of the sandstone 
below. 

The lower half of No. 4, or the quarry portion is a toler- 
ably fine-grained bluish-gray sandstone found in layers V to 
2' thick. It splits readily, dresses easily and when not con- 
taining too much oil, makes a valuable building stone. It 
has long been shipped to Erie from Le Boeuf Station on the 
Phil, and Erie R. R. where it is extensively used for door 
siils, stepping stones &c. The bottom layer of the stratum, 
where exposed along the French creek bluflf, a short dis- 
tance below the quarry, is covered on its under-side with 
the furrowed stems of Crinoids ; and in one of the quarry 
layers was seen a small vertically -stemmed Fucoid. Many 



37. LE BOEUF. Q*. 241 

shells and also fragments of wood are found in both the 
pebbly and quarry portions' of the stratum. 

The blue shale, No. 6, under the oil sand is very soft and 
fine ; it contains no remains except Fucoids so far as seen. 

The top of the 3rd oil sand is here at 1220' A. T. 

Should it be asked why I am so confident that this Car- 
roll quarry rock represents the 3rd oil sand of Venango^ 
I have to say that the whole section has been carried bodily 
northward from the southern line of Crawford county ; and 
a sandstone with an underlying limestone (Corry and Cusse- 
wago) have been traced continuously into Erie county, and 
certainly identified. Now this Corry sandstone (3rd Mt. 
when carried here on the observed dips both from the east 
at Corry, and from the south where it is last seen near the 
northern line of Crawford would have at the Carroll quar- 
ries an elevation of about 1660', making an interval of 1660' 
— 1220'=440' between the Corry SS. (3rd Mt.) and the Car- 
roll quarry rock, which is of course sufficient evidence that 
the latter comes at the horizon of the 3rd oil sand of Ve- 
nango, 

Canty^s quarry. — Half a mile above the Carroll quarry, 
Bailey' s run puts into French creek. Where the public road 
crosses the south branch of the same, the 3rd oil sand is 
finely exposed in a cliflf over which the water makes a fall 
of 10 feet. The stratum shows very much the same struc- 
ture here as it does at the Carroll quarry^ and has also been 
quarried by Mr. Canty. The upper half is very pebbly, and 
is filled with vegetable remains, in fact it is a regular buried 
forest of ancient vegetation, consisting of trunks and 
branches of trees, the carbonaceous part of which has ap- 
parently been converted into oil since the rock is saturated 
with it, and the cavities containing the original woody matter 
are now filled with a soft mushy residuum from the evapor- 
ated petroleum^ and remnants of cellular tissue just like 
rotten wood, smelling strongly of oil and frequently satur- 
ated with it. Occasionally a film of coal is seen on the outer 
surface of a fragment of wood. Petroleum is continually 
seen floating over the water at the base of the sandstone. 

Singer* s boring. —Just west from this quarry, and 20' lower 
16 Q^ 



242 Q*. BEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

than its top, an oil well was bored on the land of Mr. Singer 
to a depth of 780'. No record could be obtained, but a man 
who worked at the well told me it was soft drilling all the 
way and that a big gas vein was struck at a depth of 500 
feet. 

About one and a half miles northeast from this last local- 
ity, in the angle between the north and south branches of 
French creek, the 3rd oil sand is seen in a bluflf along the 
hillside, its base having there an altitude of 1240' above tide. 
H^e at a spring which issues from beneath the 3rd oil sand 
oil has been collected for a long time, and its presence in- 
duced a company to bore for oil just above it, on the land 
of Mr. Moore. 

Moore^ s borings, — Two wells were put down, one starting 
immediately on top of the 3rd oil sand at 1252' above tide, 
and the other further up the hill at 1290'. No oil of any 
consequence was found in either though in the last one a 
considerable ' ' show of oil ' ' was obtained at a depth of 45' 
where the 3rd oil sand was struck. Mr. Moore says, that 
a sandrock was also struck 60' below the 3rd oil sand and 
considerable gas was obtained in it, and alsb a slight show 
of oil. 

The 3rd oil sand gOes under French creek about one and 
a half miles below Carroll' s quarry, and is seen no more to 
the south along that stream. 

West from French creek, the surface rises along the west- 
em boundary of the township to an elevation of 1550' above 
tide, and frequently catches outcrops of the 1st oil sand^ 
as well as higher members of the Barren group above. 

Near Mr. Estel' s the outcrop of a flaggy and sometimes 
massive sandstone is seen at 1525' above tide ; some of the 
layers have been quarried, and they make excellent flagging 
when not too thick. 

The following list of Barometric elevations was made in 
Le Boeuf : 

MiU Village Cross roads, (above tide,) 1215' 

ForkflofroadnearP. H.Colt's, " 1256' 

" «* " School House No. 6, . . . . " 1660' 

<« *« «« Mrs. Frisbee's, " 1496' 

Cross roads east from Eden vine P. O., .... " 1670' 



38. WASHINGTON. Q*. 243 

Cross roads near Mrg. Bice's, (above tide), 1280' 

Forkflofroadnorth from. A. S. Colt's,' .... " 1240' 

Level of French creek at Carroll's quarry, . . " 1190' 

Forks east from LeBoeuf Station, " 1240' 

♦• near Stranahan's, " 1220' 

Cross roads near H. Port's, " 1195' 

Level of Le Boeuf creek next west, '* 1185' 

Forks near A. Lebentaler's, " 1375' 

" " J. W. Hunter's, " 1215' 

" " A. Bishop's, " 1610' 

«* «« E. Estel's, " 1530' 

" " H. Mourass's, " 1195' 

Level of French creek at bridge west from Mill 

Village, " 1165' 

Forks near J. Asher's, " 1226' 

" next south, " 1290' 

«* near J. Walker's, «* 1476' 

" ** M. Babbett's (at Town'p Ihie,) . . " 1375'. 

" " J. Dun's, " 1175' 

CrosB roads near G. Berger's, ** 1175' 



38. WasMngton^ in Erie County, 

This lies directly west from LeBoeuf, having Crawford 
county for it3 southern boundary, and McKean township 
for its northern. 

Its drainage all passes southward except a small area 
along the northern border, which sends its water northward 
into Lake Erie. 

The two principal drainage streams are Conneautee and 
Little Conneautee creeks, which empty into French creek 
very close to each other in Crawford county. Both flow 
through old Drift-filled valleys with a very sluggish motion. 

A little south from the central line of the township Con- 
neautee creek expands into a broad sheet of water called 
Conneautee LaJce^ which, in summer time, is covered with 
a dense growth of water lilies [Nymphaea odorata). The 
surface is almost completely covered up with Drift, so that 
but few rock exposures are to be seen ; nevertheless, it is 
certain from what is known of the geology in contiguous 
areas that the Oil Sand Oroup forms the underlying rock 
above drainage all over the township, the streams not cut- 
ting down quite to the 3rd Oil Sand at any locality. 



244 Q*. EEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WniTE. 

At the eastern line of the township, near Mr. D. Goer- 
ing' s, the following is seen in descending along the road 
(Pig. 81) : 

Ooer lug's section, 

1. Sandstone, seen, 10' 

2. Shales, sandy, 45' 

8. Flaggy sandstone, 10' 

4. SpiiH/er Band (elevation 1345' above tide), 1' 

No. 1 is rather massive and white, with a j&ne-grained 
texture ; probably one of the Upper Oil Sands. 

No. 3 is a chocolate color, and has been quarried along 
the road. 

Immediately below it is seen a Spirifer Band^ wholly 
made up of shell remains, among which Spirifers predom- 
inate; at the outcrop of the rock all the lime has been 
leached out by atmospheric agencies, leaving nothing but 
the porous, soft, insoluble impurities. This residuum has 
a darkish-brown color, and retains the casts of shells very 
distinctly ; these fragments are frequently found commin- 
gled with the Drift as far south as those deposits extend. 
A few inches in from the surface of the stratum, however, 
it is very hard and limy. 

Comer's quarry, — On a branch of Little Conneautee, 
which puts into that stream at Roach's Steam Mill, a sand- 
stone has been quarried oh the land of Mr. Harry Comer. 

The stratum is 12' thick, and its base is found at an ele- 
vation of 1335' above tide. The rock is of a grayish-white 
color, tolerably hard, and smells strongly of oil. It passes 
into shelly layers above, and below it come blue shales. 
This comes at about the right horizon for the 2nd oil sand^ 
and it most probably represents that stratum. 

Anderson^ s quarry. — About one mile west from Edin- 
boro', near Hotchkiss' cross-roads, a sandstone has been 
quarried on the land of Mr. Anderson ; its base is 1425' A. 
T., and about 5' of the rock is taken out. It smells of petro- 
leum^ and is a perfect mass of Fucoids^ especially between 
the layers. The rock is of a bluish- white color, very hard, 
and makes a rather inferior building stone, since the layers 
are only 4" to 6" thick. Near its base is seen a coarse, 



38. WASHINGTON. Q*, 245 

81. 



246 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

pebbly layer, which rapidly disintegrates on exposure into 
a heap of loose sand. This quarry rock most probabjy rep- 
resents the 1st oil saiid^ since it comes at the right eleva- 
tion for that horizon. 

Barometric elevations in WasJtington. 

Forks of road near D. Goering*s, (above tide,) 1360' 

" ♦• *• E. Ryan's, " 1250' 

♦* " ♦« R. Stilwell's, " 1300' 

Level of Little Con neau tee, just west, " 1205' 

Cross-roads next west, " 1220' 

Forks of road near T. G. Stafford's, " 1220' 

Cross-roads near W. McClelland *s, " 1220' 

" «* A. Culbertson's, " 1225' 

Level of Little Conneautee just west, <* 1180' 

Cross-roads at School House No. 14, " 1190' 

" near H. McClelland's, " 1466' 

ForJss near H. Herbert's, " 1226' 

Cross-roads near M. S. Hawkin's, " 1205' 

«« " Fulling MiU, «* 1200' 

<* one mile west from Edinboro*, ... " 1455' 

Forks near N. Shields', " 1450' 

Cross-roads near School House No. 12, ** ISSO* 

*» «* " No. 11, «« 1470' 

«« « L Logue's, ««' 1350' 

Forks near G.MoGahan's(N.E. from Edinboro'), " 1460' 

Cross-roads near Roach's Mill, " 1270' 

Forks near W. Ash's, '« I860' i 

Cross-roads near School House No. 9, *' 1566' i 



39. FranJclin^ in Erie county. 

This lies directly northwest from Washington and adjoins 
it on the east and sonth. 

The township lies on the divide between Lake Erie, and 
the southward flowing waters, so that most of its drainage 
goes northward by small streams which cut down often 200' 
to the mile, before they enter Elk creek which flows just 
north from this area. In this way very satisfactory sections 
of the strata below the 3rd oil sand are exposed. 

Howard'^ s quarry. — In the northeast of the township, 
within 8 miles of I^ke Erie, a bed of sandstone has been 
mined for a long time at what is known as Howard's quarry, 
or the village of Stone Quarry. This important horizon was 



39. FRANKLIN. Q'. 247 

certainly and distinctly identified with the qnarry rock near 
Le BoBuf, and thns with the 3rd oil sand. The identifica- 
tion was made both by carrying the stratum along with the 
stratigraphy, and also by a peculiar assemblage of fossils 
8?. 89. 



fonnd at every quarry on this stratum in Erie county, and 
in DO other rock either above or below it. The lithology of 
the rock also serves to identify it, since it differs decidedly 
from all others in the series. 

Falls ran flows northward past Howard's quarry, and cat- 
ting down very rapidly through the soft measures underly- 
ing the 3rd oil sand, exposes the following excellent section 
before it joins Elk creek two miles to the north : (Pig. 82.) 



248 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

FalVs run section. 






Srd oil sand, 37' 



1. Hard Fuooidal SS 6M 

2. Shales and flaggy SS 10' 

3. Sandstone, quany rock, A! 

4. Shales, 10' 

6. Hard Fuooidal SS 8' 

6. Blue shales with tliin sandy layers, 25' 

7. 8pirifer handy 1' 

8. Somewhat massive sandstone, 16' 

9. Shales, 16' 

10. Flaggy sandstone, 16' 

11. Sandstone and spirifer beds, 12' 

12. Blue shales, 20' 

13. apirifer hand, 1' 

14. Flaggy sandstone, 15' 

15. Blue fossiliferous shale, 50' 

16. Flaggy sandstone, 15' 

17. Blue shale, 3' 

18. Flaggy sandstone, massive at base, 15' 

19. Blue shales, with fossils, 10' 

20. Flaggy sandstone, 10' 

21. Shales and flaggy sandstone, 65' 

22. Limestone, V 

23. Blue shales with no sandy layers to level of Elk creek, . 100' 

I have included in the 3rd oil sand Nos. 1 to 6, though in 
reality No. 3 is the characteristic portion of the stratum 
both in lithology and fossils, and is the rock that has here 
been quarried so extensively. It is bluish-gray in color, 
and of tolerably fine texture, coming in layers i' to 1^' thick ; 
splits easily, dresses well and makes a very fair building 
stone. It has been hauled to a long distance into the sur- 
rounding country for this purpose. The rock smells strongly 
of petroleum^ and in many places is saturated with it to 
such an extent as to render the courses in which the oil oc- 
curs, unfit for building purposes. The stratum is also very 
fossiliferous containing the remains of both moUusks and 
fucoids in great quantities the former at times in such num- 
bers as to make an impure limestone layer near the center 
of the stratum. The shells are preserved in remarkably fine 
condition, and a representative collection was made at the 
locality from which Profs. Whitfield and Stevenson have 
kindly identified for me the following : 



39. FRANKLIN. Q*. 249 

Productella Sp. f 

Chonetes Illinoisensis. 

Streptorhyrhchus Chemungensis. 

Spirifera dspera. 

Rhynchonella contracta. 

Edmondia Burlingtonensis. 

Orammysia Hannibalensis. 

Ameulopecten Sp. f 

Pleronites Sp. f 

GoniopJiora aeola. 

GoniopTiora rig Ida. 

Platyceras paraZium. 

Orthoceras S^. f 

Seller ophon Sp. f ' (See Part I, page 110.) 

These eminent authorities remark in connection with this 
hst that ''they represent a horizon well down in the CJie- 
mung^ and if the rocks in which they occur be not Chemung 
then there is no Chemung anywhere." 

In addition to these I have seen Euomphalus depressus^ 
Hall, page 291, Geology of 4th District, New York, at the 
Howard's quarry, as well as at many other localities on this 
horizon in Erie county, and since this shell occurs in the 
Panama Conglomerate, it is additional evidence that the 
latter stratum is identical with the 3rd oil sand of Venango^ 
which I have proven on stratigraphical evidence in another 
portion of this Report. 

This list of fossils, though probably not quite so full at 
other localities, is seen in connection with the 3rd oil sand 
at every quarry on the horizon in Erie county, and serves 
at once as an important check on the stratigraphy, since the 
grouping is peculiar to this horizon. 

It is possible that some of the oil found in this stratum, 
No. 3, has been derived from the moUuscan remains with 
which it is filled, since Mr. Howard tells me that he has 
often in quarrying broken open shells which contain several 
drops of oil in a central cavity ; but it is possible that the 
oil may have percolated into the cavities of the shells from 
the enclosing rock, instead of originating from decomposi- 



260 Ql REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

tion of the animal organisms themselves, although the proba- 
bilities are in favor of the latter hypothesis. 

But if none of the oil in the rock at the Howard quarry 
has been derived from the heaps of shell-remains entombed, 
there remains yet one other possible source for its genesis 
within the containing rock, viz : from the millions of sea- 
weeds which have been enclosed in the same stratum ; they 
are mostly cylindrical, or rather have been so, but they are 
now flattened by pressure. In some parts of the quarry 
they occur in such quantities as to spoil the rock for build- 
ing purposes ; they are of all sizes and shapes, usually not 
more than V in diameter, and crossing each other in every 
direction. 

Mr. Leo Lesquereux, the eminent Palseobotanist of Col- 
umbus, Ohio, several years ago proposed the theory of the 
origin of petroleum from sea- weeds, (see Report of Progress 
J, pages ), and the abundant occurrence of these remains 
in connection with so many localities in Erie county where 
the Srd oil sand is saturated with oil, lends great probability 
to this theory, and especially when they are often the only 
vegetation entombed in the rock. 

Nos. 1 and 5 are rocks very much alike in aspect ; both 
are very hard, rough-looking sandstones, and are indented 
on their upper surfaces with multitudes of vertically-stem- 
med FucoidSy and these weathering away more rapidly than 
the matrix, have left the upper surface of the stratum per • 
forated with holes. 

No. 5 is quite massive, and the water of the stream, after 
running along on its top for a considerable distance, sud- 
denly plunges over a precipice with a vertical fall of 60' 
through the softer underlying rocks. 

Nos. 7 and 13, as well as several streaks in No. 11, are so 
full of shells that they would make regular limestone lay- 
ers, only that the tests of the MoUusks are only partially 
comminuted, and thus stand out quite prominently, giving 
the blocks a rather forbidding aspect. 

No. 15 is somewhat fossiliferous, containing Atrypa^ 
OrtMs^ Rhynchonella^ and others. 

After we pass below this in the rocks, the fossils gradu- 



39. FRANKLIN. Q\ 261 

ally disappear, and when we come down to No. 23 not a 
trace of animal remains is to be seen, and the rocks are 
totally non-fossiliferous, with the exception of Fucoids^ 
which seem to be as abundant as ever. 

This series of flaggy sands and shales from Nos. 6 to 22, 
inclusive, constitute a well-defined group of rocks, both 
lithologically and palseontologically. Failing to find any 
suitable geographical name, I have termed them provision- 
ally the Chemung Flags. The thickness of this subdi- 
vision at this locality, after making allowance for a north- 
ward rise of 40' in the two miles from Howard's quarry to 
Elk creek is about 325'; and this holds at other localities in 
the county, except that the group seems to thicken slightly 
toward the east. A list of the fossils recognized in the 
Chemung Flags is given in the summary of this Report. 

No. 23 is the upper portion of a series of ashen-gray 
shales, which are finely exposed along Elk creek between 
this point and the town of Grirard, and from this fact I have 
termed them the Oirard Shale. The whole fonnation is 
remarkably uniform in structure, being composed through- 
out of a very argillaceous ashen-gray shale, which is ex- 
posed in long lines of cliffs which from a distance look like 
heaps of gray coal-ashes. The thickness of the entire for- 
mation is about 225', so that at the mouth of Falls run 125' 
of it lie below drainage. These shales ar^ exposed along 
every stream that puts into Lake Erie ; and in the hundreds 
of times I have seen them exposed I have never seen any 
fossils in them except Fucoids, I regard them as the tran- 
sUion series from the Portage to Chemung^ since at their 
bottom comes undoubted Portage rocks^ and in the series 
above No. 23 are typical Chemung fossils. 

Howard^ s borings. — At the f oo t of the ' ' Falls, ' ' just below 
the quarry Mr. Howard sunk a well to a depth of 150' in 
quest of oil, but none was obtained. 

A short distance south from the quarry, on the land of 
Mr. Henry Howard, another well was drilled to a depth of 
250', commencing above the 3rd Oil Sand; some oil was 
obtained in it at a depth of 35', but none in the rocks below. 

OoodharCs quarry. — About one mileN. E. from Mr. How- 



252 Q*. EEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WH^TE. 

ard' 8 the 3rd Oil Sand is quarried on the land of Mr. Good- 
ban, along another stream which flows northward parallel to 
Palls run, and the following succession is seen (Fig. 83) : 

OoodhavUs quarry, 

1. Hard Fuooidal S. S., 10' 

2. Shales, 12' 

8. Quarry S.S., 8' 

4. Shales, 10' 

6. Hard Fuooidal S. S., 8' 

Here the section is quite similar to that seen at Howard's 
quarry, except that No. 3 the quarry rock is somewhat 
thicker. The stone smells strongly of petroleum, and the 
quarrymen told me that they often found considerable 
quantities of it in the crevices at the bottom of the stratum. 
Many fossils are seen in the rock at this locality, but not so 
many as at Howard's. 

Nos. 1 and 6 are very much alike in every way ; both are 
buff-colored, very rough-looking, and quite siliceous ; both 
also are tilled with vertically-stemmed Fucoids^ which, 
weathering away faster than the containing matrix, leaves 
the top of the rock full of holes and protuberances. While 
many of the Fucoids have the stems running vertically, a 
great many others lie flat in the rock, their tangled masses 
crossing each other in every direction. 

The base of No. 3 comes here at 1170' above tide, or 20' 
higher than at Howard' s quarry. 

Wa^ham^s quarry. — A mile N. E. from Goodban's, the 
3rd Oil Sand is quarried in the edge of Franklin, on the 
land of Mr. Waxham, w^here the quarry portion is 4' thick, 
and contains much petroleum, which floats out on the water 
at its base. The elevation of the stratum is 1190' A. T. 

Reed! s quarry, — East from this a short distance the same 
rock is quarried on the land of Mr. Reed, where the rock 
shows a face of 8' in layers V-\\' thick. 

Barometric elevations in Franklin, 

Cross-roads near Robinson's S. Mill, .... (above tide), 1850' 

" " School House, next west, ... " 1300' 

Forks near A. Mead's, " 1270' 

Cross-roads at P. O., " 1240' 



40. ELK CREEK. Q*. 263 

Croaaing of Falls mn next north, (above tide), 1180' 

Forks near L. Howard's, «* 1175' 

Crossing of Falls ran at stone quarry, « 1140' 

Forks near J. Hartman's, « 1180' 

Cross-roads near Mrs. Goodban's, >< 1250' 

" " T. Spencer's, •« 1275' 

Forks near J. Clapper's, . " 1270' 

CroBS-roadsnext east (at Township line), ... ** ISIO' 

" near M. Yanbuskirk's, •< 1120' 

Forks near N. Cobum's, " 1026' 



40. Elk Creek^ in Erie County. 

This area lies southwest from Franklin, and has Craw- 
ford county for its southern boundary. 

Its northeastern portion drains northward into Elk creek, 
and its southeast part sends its waters south by way of 
Cussew^ago into French creek, while the western portion 
drains into Conneaut creek, and thus northward into Lake 
Erie. 

The surface rocks of this township belong almost entirely 
to the Venango Oil Oroup^ except along the northern and 
western portions, where the northward flowing streams have 
cut down below the Srd Oil Sand and exposed the Chemung 
Flags. 

Cranes quarry. — The Srd oil sand was once quarried 
about 3 miles east from Cranesville along a small stream 
which flows northward. The locality is on the land of Mr. 
Crane, at his mill. The quarry rock is about 6' thick and its 
base is, by careful barometric measurement twice checked, 
1076' above tide, or 75' lower than the same rock at Howard's 
quarry in Franklin township 4 miles northeast, thus show- 
ing a dip of near 19' to the mile toward the S. S. W. 

Crane's quarry was once extensively mined by the Beaver 
and Erie Canal Co. , and used in building their locks. The 
stone was taken down Elk creek on a tram railroad. The 
stratum is in layers 1-2' thick, and has the same bluish- 
gray color, and general facies as this rock at Howard's 
quarry. It also smells strongly of petroleum, and the oil 
collects on the water at the bottom of the quarry. 

The shaly portions of the rock are filled with millions of 



254 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Fucoids whose long tangled stems cross and re-cross each 
other in every direction. 

Along the stream below the quarry, at Crane's, we see 
the hard silicious layers observed in Franklin, filled with 
vertically-stemmed Fucoids. 

F lag stone. — At Wellsburg, \ mile S. from Cranesville, we 
come down to a horizon 140' below the 3rd oil sand^ and 
there find some hard blue layers of flaggy sandstone which 
are very f ossiliferous and have been quarried to some extent 
for flagging in the bottom of the little run at the upper end 
of the village. These rocks belong to the Chemung flags. 

Reynold's quarry. — At the very eastern line of the town- 
ship, Mr. Reynolds has a quarry in a grayish white flaggy 
stratum at 1300' above tide. It belongs to the oil sand, 
group. 

The following list of barometric elevations was made in 
Elk Creek township. 

Cross roads at eastern line of township near Mrs. 
Sherrod's (above tide,) 1880' 



Level of Cussewago to the west of Mrs. Sherrod's, 

Forks near W. H. Vandyke's, 

Cross roads near J. McCommon's, 

«* " A. J. CampbeU's, 

" " J. T. Thompson's, 

Forks near H. Sherman's, . 

" at cemetery below Wellsville, 

Cross roads at Cranesville, 

Forks near D. Lander's, 

Cross roads near J. O'Brien's, 



1200' 

1290^ 

1170- 

1200' 

1100' 

030' 

955' 

955' 

1100' 

1135' 



41. ConneauU in Erie county. 

This township occupies the southwest corner of the county 
along the Ohio line between Crawford county and Conneaut 
creek. 

It is drained entirely by Conneaut creek, which flows 
north through its eastern margin, bends sharply west, forms 
its northern line, and passes into Ohio, on its way to Lake 
Erie. 

The whole township is one bed of Drift, which buries the 
rocks so deeply that the streams seldom cut down to the 



42. SPRINGFIELD. Q^. 255 

rock strata concealed beneath it. Occasional exposures, 
however, show that all the hills are too low to catch the 
Third Oil Sand; and that all the surface rocks of the town- 
ship are Chemung flags ; Conneaut creek not cutting quite 
down to the Oifard Shale. 

At the bridge-crossing of Conneaut creek, near Mr. Grif- 
fy's, below Cherry Hill P. O., the following section is seen 
in the bluflf (Fig. 84) : 

Griffy's Section. ' 

1. Blue shales, 12' 

2. Sandy flags to water-level, 4' 

A layer of shale near the base of No. 1 contains numer- 
ous fossils, which very much resemble Avicula fragilis, 
Hall. 

Conneaut creek here flows on a rock bottom (212' above 
Lake Erie) 785' A. T. 

Barometric elevations in Conneaut. 

Level of Conneaut oreek west from Albion 
Station, (above tide), 816' 



Forks of road near J. H. Silverthorn*s, 
Gross-roads near V. Forbes', 

•* next west, 

Forks near G. Spauldlng's, 

Gross-roads near P. M. Keep's, . . . . 

" next west, 

** near D. Thomas', 

*• •• H. Huntley's, . . . . 

«« " B.Griffy's, 

Level of Gonneaut near W. Griffy's, 



855' 
850' 
885' 
890' 
930' 
940' 
945' 
925' 
925' 
785' 



42. Springfield^ in Erie County. 

This township lies along the Lake Shore, next the Ohio 
line. 

Its southern portion on the bluflP above Conneaut creek 
has an elevation of 850' to 900' A. T., but gradually declines 
northward down to the Lake Shore bluffs, whose altitude 
here ranges at about 625' A. T. The western end of the 
township drains into Ohio. Raccoon and Crooked creeks 



256 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

rise on the southern highlands and flow north into Lake 
Erie. 

The township is everywhere buried so deep beneath the 
Drift that the streams have seldom cut through it. Except 
along Conneaut creek, at the south township line, and at 
one locality on the Lake Erie Shore, I could see no rock 
exposures in the entire area. Even along the Lake Shore, 
where the cliflfs of gravel and glacial debris are being con- 
stantly washed away, not a single stratum of bed-rock is 
to be seen, except at the one point referred to. 

In descending from the south to the lake, several wide 
level benches are noticeable, covered with a thick deposit 
of sand, no doubt marking the former higher level of the 
lake ; but no successive well-marked terraces can be made 
out in this township ; probably because they have suffered 
so much from erosion as to be unrecognizable. 

Oriffith oil boring, — At the southern line of the township 
a well was once bored for oil on the land of Mr. Wm. Grif- 
fith, commencing near the level of Conneaut creek, and 
passing through the following rocks, according to the state- 
ment of Mr. Griffith (Fig. 85) : 

Oriffith oil well record. 

1. " Conductor," V 

• 2. *« Blue rock " to bottom, 323' 

"Soft water at 76', and small gas vein at bottom ; threw 
water out of the hole 10'. No oil was obtained." 

Rand oil boring. — Another well was drilled two miles 
northwest from this, on the land of Mr. Rand, to a depth 
of 400', but no oil was found. 

The underlying rocks in this township belong to the lower 
half of the Chemung flags ^ and to the Oirard shale; the 
latter extending to the lake shore. If the Drift could be 
removed from the northeastern half of the township along 
the lake shore we should see the top layers of the Portage 
rising from the level of the lake near the mouth of Raccoon 
creek, two miles east of the Ohio line ; for, at the mouth 
of Crooked creek, the top of the Portage f/igs are visible 
15' above lake level = 588' A. T. 



43. GIRARD. Q^ 257 

BaroTnetric elevations in Springfield. 

Forks of road near A. E. Crouch's (near south- 
ern line of T.), .... (above tide), 850* 

Gross roads at H. M. Devereaux's, <* g^' 

** near J. Weldon's, •* 765' 

Forks in West Springfield, «* 720* 

" at A. J. Freeman's, «» 700' 

" near I. A. Benedict's, " 675' 

" near J. C. Kirkland's, «« 675' 

Grossing of Lake Shore R. R. north, « 650' 

Forks next north, «» 640' 

« at Ohio line near N. Blickensderfer's, . . ** 640' 

•< next north near the lake shore, « 625' 

Cross road near G. B. Webb's, «< 600' 

Forks near J. Eagley's, . «« 625' 

«* C. Eagley's, « 640' 

Crossing of Lake Shore R R. near J. Brake's, . " 655' 

Cross roads near R. Hall's, « 660' 

" «• M. Mallory's, " 675' 

Forks near S. Ivory's, " 705' 

*« A. Mallory's, " 680' 

»« A. M. Moon's, " 710' 

« J. Morgan's, ' . . «» 725' 

" C. H. Baldwin's, «* 745' 

Cross roads at Springfield P. O., « 740' 

Forks next north, " 730' 

" near J. M. Strong's, «* 725' 

Cross roads near P. Ellis', " 705' 

Forks in North Springfield, " 660' 

Forks near Halliday's saw mill, " 605' 

«* Mrs. Whitley's, , . . «* 655' 

" G. W. Brindle's . »« 690' 

" H. Dixon's, " 710' 



43. Oirard^ in Erie County. 

This township, along the Lake Shore, is traversed from 
its east line to its northwest corner by Elk creek, a large 
stream, with Brady's run coming in from the northeast, 
the South branch coming in from the south, and another 
branch from Elk Creek township. 

The surface is broken and uneven ; the streams from the 
south descending from highlands with a rapid fall, and ex- 
cavating deep channels (through Drift) into the underlying 
strata. 

17 Q*. 



358 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Elk creek trenches a deep and narrow channel into the 
rock strata clear across the township, exposing the structure 
in a splendid manner ; bluffs 100' high often bordering the 
stream. 

The rocks of the township belong to the Chemung Jlags^ 
the Oirard shale^ and the Portage Jlags, The latter comes 
along the lake shore and extends up the streams for a short* 
distance. 

The Girard shales are exposed all along Elk creek as a 
series of bluish or ashen-gray shales, remarkably uniform, 
and singularly destitute of any organic remains save Fu- 
coids^ which occur in abundance. 

Very few sandy layers occur in the series, which consists 
of finely laminated slate and clay layers. These line the 
streams in vertical cliffs, and from a distance look like huge 
heaps of gray coal^ashes. 

In the southern portion of the township, where the road 
crosses the south branch of Elk creek, near Mr. Babbits', 
along a ravine descending to the creek, the following sec- 
tion shows itself (Pig. 86) : 

BabbWs Section. 

Sandstone, seen, 3' 

Shale, fossiliferouBy 0' 6'' 

Shaly sandstone, 15' 

Blue shale, ... 20' 

Shaly sandstone and. blue shale to creek, 15' 

This shaly sandstone is the base of the Chemung flags ; 
for, the top of the Girard shale is just sinking beneath 
creek level at this point. 

In the 6" layer of fossiliferous shale, may be seen multi- 
tudes of a shell very much resembling Aviculafragilis. 

This is the lowest horizon at which I have ever found 
any fossils in the Chemung flxigs^ and as we go down the 
stream from this point 7^o^ a trace of a fossil animal is seen 
in the fine exposures of the Girard shale. 

About one mile north from this (by the stream) the creek 
makes an oxbow a mile and a half round, and cuts down 
through the Girard shale between perpendicular cliffs 100' 
high and sometimes more. The narrow tongue of land en- 



43. GIRARD. Q^ 259 

closed within this rocky wall has been locally named the 
DeviVs hack-hane. 

As we pass down Elk ci;eek, the Girard sliale continues 
to floor the stream and form cltflfs along its banks until we 
reach Girard. Here the Portage flags begin to come up in 
the bed of the creek, and the layers of sandstone have there 
been quarried for a long time on the land of Dr. Ealy. 

A short distance below where the road crosses Elk creek 
at Girard, and on the right bluflf of the stream is seen sec- 
tion: (Fig. 87.) 

Girard Section, 

Girard shateSf bluish-gray, 40' 

Sandstone layer in bed of creek, 8" to 10" 

The shales belong to the lowest part of the 200' of Girard 
shale; and this lower portion is somewhat silicious; but 
no layers of genuine sandstone are found in it until we 
come down to its base. 

^aly quarry, — The sandstone layer at the bottom of the 
section is the top of the Portage series of thin sandstones 
alternating with shales, which border the lake shore all the 
way to the N. Y. State line. Where quarried here on the 
land of Dr. Ealy it is a hard, blue, fine-grained sandstone, 
not quite one foot thick, and covered with Fucoidal mark- 
ings ; elevation 62' A. L. E =635' A. T. 

Godfrey quarry, — As we descend the stream other layers 
of the Portage flags rise above water level and some of them 
are quarried on the land of Mrs. Godfrey, one mile below 
the Girard bridge. 

Rice oil horing, — Near Girard, a well was drilled for oil 
in 1865 on the land of Dan. Rice. It commenced 25' above 
creek level: (Pig. 88.) 

Rice well record. 

Conductor, {ThHfi), 20' 

Blue shale with thin shells, soapstone, (fee, to bottom, .... 98(V 

Very little gas and no oil were found in the well. The 
shales, &c. , are reported as being very uniform in composi- 
tion and color throughout. 



260 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Barometric elevations in Girard. 

Forks at J. Miles' near mouth of Elk oreek, . (above tide), 600' 

*« just south near shop, " 670' 

«* east from J. Miles', •« 700' 

« near crossing of Lake Shore R. R., . . . «< 715' 

Gross roads in Girard, " 770' 

Forks of road just across the creek at Girard, . << 665' 

« near R. Richter's, " 710' 

Level of stream next south, '* 710' 

Forks near J. M. Laughlin*s '. . *• 720' 

«* J. W. Blair's, " 860' 

" L. Foster's, " 1000' 

« M. B. Babbit's, " 985' 

Level of Elk creek opposite (south branch), . << 815' 



44, Fairview^ in Erie County. 

This township, narrow on the Lake Shore, stretches south 
across Elk creek to Franklin township, between Girard on 
the west and McKean on the east. 

A watershed passes nearly east and west across the town- 
ship south from its central line, and the drainage south of 
this goes westward by way of Elk creek into Lake Erie, 
through Girard township ; while north from the divide the 
water flows directly into the lake by means of Walnut 
creek and several small streams. The general elevation of 
this watershed is about 950' A. T. 

Leopold quarry. — The Third Oil Sand just caps the hills 
along the south line, and has been quarried to some extent on 
the land of Mr. Leopold. Here the quarry rock is 6' thick 
and smells strongly of petroleum^ as usual ; while the oil 
itself floats oflf on the water from the base of the quarry. 
The stone has the usual bluish-gray cast so common to it 
in Erie county. 

Descending a run which comes down over the outcrop of 
the 3rd Oil Sand^ and enters Elk creek near Mr. J. Ryan's, 
is seen the following section (Fig. 89) : 

RyarCs Section. 

Third oil sand (quarry portion), . 6' 

Shales, sandstone and shales to bottom limit of fossili/erous 
layers, 270'* 

* The thickness, 270', is calculated upon a south dip of 20' for one mile, 20' 
being added to a barometric height of 250'. 



44. FAIBVIEW. 

sr. 



q>. 261 









ic- 



262 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Shaly and flaggy sandstone, 55' 

Calcareous band, 0' 6" 

Oirard shales, blue, to level of Elk creek, 50' 

At this geological Jiorizon (base of 270') {all fqssil shells 
disappear; the underlying succeeding 55' of shales and 
flaggy sandstone are entirely destitute of any remains ex- 
cept Fucoids. The fossils closing this series seem to be very 
closely allied to, if not identical with Amculafragilis^ seen 
at the same horizon elsewhere in Franklin, Conneaut, and 
Girard townships. 

The calcareous band in the section corresponds to one 
seen at the base of the CJiemung flags in the section de- 
scending from Howard's quarry, in Franklin township. 

Just below it (this calcareous band) there takes place a 
complete change of rock ; not a single sandy layer being 
seen below it ; but only very argillaceous, soft, ashen-gray 
shales, in which nothing hxxt fucoids are visible ; but these 
fucoids are in great abundance. 

Luther^ s oil boring, — About one mile below this and near 
the mouth of Falls run, a well was once bored for oil on the 
land of Geo. P. Luther, to a depth of 1000'. 

It was commenced at 785' A. T. 

A big gas vein was struck at 500'. 

The Oirard shale is finely exposed in frequent cliflfs along 
Elk creek. On the main stream it continues above water- 
level, into McKean township. On the side streams it soon 
passes below drainage level. On the branch which puts in 
past R. Struker' s, its top is seen at water level at 890'. 

In this township the covering of Drift is not so deep 
along the lake shore ; so that cliffs of the Portage flags are 
often exposed, especially near the mouths of streams and 
in their beds. 

At the mouth of Trout run, 10' of sandy shale is seen 
above lake level; and about 2' under water is a bed of 
sandstone one foot thick, large blocks of which are fre- 
quently thrown up by the waves, and used for building 
stone. Sometimes when the lake level is low the bed itself 
is actually quarried. The rock is quite hard, of a bluish- 
gray color, and its surface is covered Yf\t\\ fucoids. 



44. FAiRViEW. Q^ 263 

Woolen factory hore-hole. — Just at the mouth of Trout 
run a hole was once bored for oil on the property of the old 
woolen factory, commencing 10' above Lake Erie ; it was 
drilled to a depth of 700', and according to the reports of 
one of the drillers, passed through ''blue soapstone with 
an occasional thin shell" all the way down, except that, 
near the bottom, streaks of dark slate were sometimes found 
2" to 3" thick. 

At 360' a great gas vein was struck which furnished more 
than enough fuel to run the woolen factory before the latter 
was burned down. The gas still bubbles from the hole, 
although it is filled up with water and rubbish. 

About two miles further northeast along the lake we come 
to the mouth of Walnut creek, a large stream which drains 
the eastern portion of the township, bounded by rocky walls 
its entire course (in Fairview) oflfering to view fine exposures 
of the strata. 

At the mouth of Bear's run, Walnut creek cuts down to 
the top of the Portage Jlags ; and from this to its mouth 
descends over a succession of thin sandstone layers, sepa- 
rated by blue shales. 

Quarries, — Near the mouth of Walnut creek and 10' above 
the level of the lake, two layers of sandstone have been 
quarried ; the upper layer is 1' thick ; separated by 3' of 
shale from the lower layer, which is only 6" thick ; both 
are quite hard, bluish-gray, fine-grained and covered with 
fucoids^ mostly cylindrical. 

Reed's gas well, — At the mouth of Walnut creek an oil 
well was once sunk to a depth of 750' on the land of Mr. 
Reed. Gas was obtained at 250' and 400,' but no oil at any 
depth. 

Just below where the road crosses Walnut creek first 
above its mouth, a layer of sandstone 1' thick is seen in the 
bed of the stream, 12' above the lake level (585' A. T.) ; most 
probably the stratum thrown up by the waves at the mouth 
of Trout run, 2 miles to the westward ; and the two rocks 
resemble each other. 

Davidson^ s quarries. — About one fourth of a mile up 
Walnut creek from where the road crosses it, we come to 



264 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

the quarries of Mr. Davidson, where a large amount of rock 
has been taken from the bed of the stream. The sandstone 
is about 5' thick, in several layers 2", 4'' and 8" thick, and 
sometimes the layers run together making 18" to 2' of solid 
stone. 

Oilplant bed, — An abundance of vegetable fragments are 
here seen in the rock, and it smells strongly of petroleum. 
Mr. Davidson states that oil frequently floats out on the 
water from the bottom courses of rock when they are lifted. 
The fragments of vegetable matter are too much carbonized 
for identification, but some of them were evidently branches 
from trees of considerable size. Some of them are covered 
with thin films of coalv matter. 

As we ascend Walnut creek, the last of these flaggy sand- 
stone layers passes below water-level at about 700' A. T. 
(127' above the Lake) and then we see vertical cliflfs of the 
Oirard shale 60' to 60' high hemming in the narrow valley 
of the stream. This shale continues to border the creek as 
we ascend it until we ent^er Mill creek township. 

Barometric elevations in Fairview. 

Level of Elk creek at road crossing near S. 

Luther's, (above tile), 810' 

Forks of road next east, ** 840' 

•* near G. Leopold's, ♦« 940' 

•» " F. Leopold's, , . . . . " 960' 

•* " O. L. Galusha's, ** 990' 

" east at township line, " 975' 

Level of Elk creek north from C. Smalley's, . . «* 850' 

Cross roads near J. Guerflo's, ** 955 

" *• G. Shoemaker's, " 935' 

«* " G. P. Luther's, " 935' 

Forks at J. Ross's, «« 900' 

Level of Brandy run near M. W. Wheeler's, . " 880' 

Gross roads north at School House, " 895' 

. Forks near T. Sturgeon's, »* 770' 

Gross roads in Fairview village, " 780' 

Grossing of old canal next north, << 725* 

Cross roads near J. Shuster's, ** 675' 

Lane near J. Mellhorg's, « 695' 

Gross roads near W. Wentz's " 705' 

Level of Walnut creek near T. McKee's, ... " 610' 

Forks east at School House, *< 705' 

" near B. Swan's, «« 725' 

" " . J. Evan's, «* 765' 

" inSwanville, " 785' 



46. MoKEAN. Q*. 265 



Lovel of Walnat oreek, near J. Gadtner's, . 
Forks west firom W. Nicholson's, 

*' near M. Bamett's, 

«« " C. Heidler's, 

Crofls roads near 6. J. Snider's, 

Forks near S. Cnahman's, 

«« " V. HeinU'B, 



(• 


7W 


t« 


815' 


ft 


875' 


*t 


900' 


<« 


945' 


•• 


945' 


«4 


900' 



45. McKeaUj in Erie courUy. 

This central township of the county is a basin surrounded 
by a continuous water-shed, broken through at the west, 
where the waters of Elk creek find an exit. 

Elk creek takes its rise on the eastern border, at the low 
water-shed between it and the head of Le BoBuf creek. 

The rock series in this township extends up to the top of 
the Venango oil group in the southern portion, where the 
surface rises to 1500' above tide ; and Elk creek, before it 
passes into Fairview, cuts down to the Oirard shale ; so that 
the Chemung flags form the surface rocks over all except 
the southern and eastern portions of the township. 

Lamson^s run (heading in the extreme southern part, and 
flowing northward into Elk creek at Middleboro' ) cuts down 
to the Third oil sand about one half mile north from the 
township line. 

LamsoiCs quarry. — Here the sandstone in the bed of the 
run has been quarried for a long time past. The bluish-gray 
or quarry portion is 5' thick ; in about four layers. The 
rock has the same physical aspect as at Howard's quarry, 
four miles west ; smells strongly of oil; and there are pe- 
troleum springs all around its base. A great ma^VLY fucoids 
are seen with the quarry rock. 

It dips visibly northward here, but this is a local irregular- 
ity ; for, two miles further north the regular south dip is 
seen. 

Base of Third oil sand at Lamson's quarry 1160' A. T. 

About one mile east from Middleboro' , along a small stream 
which puts into Elk creek near that village, the following 
section is seen including the Third oil sand : (Pig. 90, a 
repetition of Pig. 18, in Part I of this rei)ort.) 



266 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Middleborcf Section. 

1. Blae shale, visible, 5' 

2. Rough Fucoidal sandstone, 6"| 

3. Shales and flaggy sandstone, 12' |> Third oil sand, W 

4. Quarry rook, 7'j 

6. Shales, ? 

No. 2 is the same iron -stained rough siliceous rock that 
we so often see 8' to 12' above the quarry portion of the 
3rd oil sand; it is filled with Fucoids of almost every 
shape ; some are long and cylindrical, lying horizontal in 
the rock ; many are vertical ; while others have a horse- 
shoe shape. It is the effect produced by their more rapid 
weathering which renders the upper surface of this stratum 
so rough and irregular, being covered with prominences, and 
filled with holes. 

No. 4, the quarry portion of the 3rd oil sand^ has the 
same physical aspect that it exhibits everywhere in the 
county, and is perfectly saturated with petroleum^ pools 
covered with oil being seen all around its base, which comes 
here at 1200' above tide. 

As we go east from this the surface rises to 160' above the 
level of the 3rd oil sand at the cross-roads near Mr. E. 
Bates' s. 

Yorse qnarry. — About one mile west from Middleboro', 
a bed of sandstone has been quarried from the bed of Elk 
creek on the land of Mr. Vorse ; the stratum is 1' to 1^' 
thick and comes very near the base of the C hemung Jlags^ 
since at the mill two miles below, the Oirard shale appears 
in the bed of the creek just before it leaves the township. 

YeighV s quarry, — North from Elk creek everything is 
covered beneath Drift and no rock exposures are seen ex- 
cept near the eastern line, where the 3rd oil sand has been 
quarried in the edge of McKean on the land ofMr. Veight. 

Near the northern line at Rohrer' s Tannery, a wide level 
reach of country is seen stretching away toward Lake Erie 
at a height of 1070' A. T. This may possibly represent one 
of the terrace levels left by the retreating waters of Lake 
Erie when it stood at a much higher level than now. 



46. WATERFORD. Q*. 267 

Barometric elevations in McKean. 

Cross roads in Middleboro*, ... (above tide), 1070' 

Level of Lamson*s run just west, " 1010' 

Forks near A. M. Vorse's, '* 1020' 

" V. Sallinger's, " 1020' 

Level of Elk oreek just north, " »00' 

Cross roads near J. A. Sterrett's, « 1030' 

Forks next northeast, " 1100' 

Forks near J. Bowman's, •* 1115' 

« S. Rohrer's, " 1070' 

CrossroadsnearW. Slack's, " 1080' 

Forks near L. Olenbauher's at western line of 

township, *• 966' 

" J. Wheeler's, »* 980' 

« C. B. Wright's " 1000' 

Forks next east, «* 1030' 

Cross roads near D. Harrison's, ** 1000' 

Forks next east, <* 1180' 

" nes^r D. Hayford's, " 1056' 

«* next south, «* 1050' 

Cross roads near E. Lamson's, " 1165' 

" west from R. F. Sterrett's, " 1325' 

« near sohool house No. 4, '* 1400' 

Forks near J. Comer's, " 1600' 

" next east at township line, " 1500' 

Level of Elk oreek near L. Grant's, <' 1230' 

Cross roads near J. Aubrey's, *< 1260' 

«* " E.Bates', " 1365' 

Level of Elk oreek near O. Dun's, " 1085' 

Cross roods near E. Piney's, <* 1110' 

Forks near W. Maynard's, " 1080' 

Level of Elk oreek near L. Glazier's, " 1060' 



46. Waterford^ in Erie county. 

This township lies on each side of Le Bceuf creek which 
flows through it from north to south. Trout or Black run 
drains its western side into Le Boeuf lake. The north branch 
of French creek cuts across its southeast corner. 

There is scarcely any ''divide" between the head waters 
of Trout run and the head waters of Elk creek, both head- 
ing in Tamaroxik swamp. 

Hills and hummocks of glacial gravel are seen every- 
where. 

The rocks of this township belong to the Venango oil 



268 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

group^ and the Chemung flags. None of the streams cut 
through this last formation into the Girard shale. 

The Third oil sand is exposed at many localities and has 
long been quarried extensively as a building stone. 

The Middleton quarry is just at the southeastern comer 
of the township. Here on the land of J. W. Middleton, at 
the roadside, along a small stream which puts into the 
North branch of French creek, is seen the following section : 
(Fig. 91.) 

Middleton quarry sectimi. 



> 8rd oil sandy 6' 



Blue shale, 2 

Pebble rook, 1' 

Fuooidal layer, 0' 1" 

Quarry rook, 5' 

This is the first place coming east where I found any 
pehhles in connection with the 3d oil sandy since leaving it 
at Le Boeuf or Carroll' s quarry. The distance is about 2^ 
miles. 

The top layer is a perfect wa^^ of flat quartz pebbles ^ and 
is quite irregular in its thickness, since on the opposite side 
of the road, only 3 rods away, I saw it 3' thick and not all 
of it exposed. 

A hard shell of sand, immediately under the pebble bed, 
is a perfect mass offucoidal remains^ many of which very 
much resemble F, graphica Hall, 

The bottom rock is rather flaggy at this quarry, the lay- 
ers being only 4" to 6" thick, but in other respects have the 
typical character. 

McClelland quarry, — On the opposite side of the run a 
quarry is now operated on the land of Mr. McClelland by 
Mr. Young. Here we see 2' to 3' of the pebble rock and the 
top is then concealed. 

Under the pebbly layer comes 3' to 4' of very good build- 
ing stone^ and Mr. Young ships a considerable quanity of 
it to Erie, Corry, and other places principally for doors and 
windows, as well as stepping stones. The rock is bluish- 
gray and slightly harder than the same stratum in Le Boeuf, 
but very closely resembling it in every other respect. The 



46. WATERFORD. Q*. 269 

stone smells strongly of petroleum; and Mr. Young states 
that he often finds small pools of it under the bottom courses 
of the quarry and in the crevices between the joints. He 
also told me that in quarrying he often found pieces of what 
seemed to him like "oW rotten woodP These were most 
probably fragment of branches that had been partially con- 
verted into petroleum, the same as those seen at Kanty 
quarry in Le Boeuf. — Base of bottom rock 1275' A. T. 

SJcabeVs quarry, — ^Just north of this the flags have been 
quarried by Mr. SkabeL 

The Old Middleton qiiarry^ in tlie Third oil sand is 
about one mile west from this and on the opposite side of 
French creek, in the Third oil sand. Many years ago it 
was worked to a considerable extent, but is now entirely 
abandoned. The rocl^ in it contains much oil, as can yet 
be seen in buildings constructed from it. The Eagle hotel 
in Waterford was built of this stone more than 50 years 
ago, and yet the smell ot petroleum still prevades it. Many 
of the blocks of stone were so saturated with oil that it has 
run down the sides of the building and blackened several 
courses. 

In descending the hill east from Waterford to the track 
of the Philadelphia and Erie R. R. below the station, the 
outcrop of the Third oil sand is seen at 1280' A. T. 

The rock is here a flaggy sandstone and not a pebble is to 
be seen in connection with it, but the same association of 
fossils identifies the rock, especially Rhynchonella contracta 
which is here seen in great abundance. 

(Ml boring, — Two miles west from Waterford borough an 
oil well was once sunk to a depth of 650'. Some gas and a 
slight show of oil was obtained. The well commences at 
1260' A. T., but unfortunately like so many other wells in 
Erie county begins below the horizon of the 3rd oil sand, 
since the base of that rock is seen in the bank 10' above the 
mouth of the well. Only about 3' of the 3rd oil sand are 
seen here, since the upper portion is covered under ddbris ; 
the lower portion however has the usual character of the 
quarry rock, and contains great numbers of Rhynchonella 
contracta. The elevation (1270' A. T. ) is also confirmatory 



270 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

evidence of its identity, since this is exactly what we should 
expect from the known dip of the strata. 

Shallow boring. — In the valley below this an attempt was 
once made to drill another well, but when the drive-pipe 
had passed through 50' of Drift it struck a bowlder and 
the advance end was broken up before it was known what 
was the matter, so that the hole was abandoned. 

Trending a little Avest of north from Waterford is a very 
broad high ridge, extending up 150' above the Srd oil sand 
or to about 1450' A. T. ; covered with Drift and no out- 
cropping rocks seen anywhere upon it. 

The valley of Le Boeuf is very wide, and great heaps of 
Drift material are seen in many places along it, and espec- 
ially where it has been cut through by the streams. 



• 



Barometric elevations in Waterford, 

Level of Eagle Hotel, Waterford, (above tide), 1185' 

Forks of road north from Waterford, where road 

turns off to Trout run, " 1240' 

Foi;ks near Mrs. 8. Phelps', " 1220' 

Gross-roads near Mattson's School House, ... ** 1255' 

Forks near 8. Harbison's, •« 1310' 

Cross-roads near W. Sharp's, " 1465' 

Forks near C. Comer's, " 1390' 

Forks north near School House, " 1410' 

Cross-roads near L. Williams', " 1385' 

Forks next west, ♦* 1465' 

Cross-roads south from Williams', «« 1385' 

Forks near C. J. Chase's, «* 1280' 

Level of LeBoeuf creek below Waterford Station, ** 1175' 

Forks near G. W. Cooper's, " 1465' 

Cross-roads near G. Billings', " 1345' 

Forks near W. King's, " 1366' 

a u Dr. Faulkner's, " 1255' 

Level of French creek oppoEate, «* 1225' 

Forks east from this « 1255' 

«« near J. M. Middleton's, «« 1260' 

" " J. Canning's, . .* «< 1335' 

" •« W. B. Lloyd's, *« 1280' 

** " J. P. Vincent's, •* 1290' 

Cross-roads near W. Knox's, " 1410' 

Forks near J. Haynes', " 1470' 

" " A.C.James', « 1460' 

" " J. Sherwood's, «« 1460' 

" •« F. D. Strong's, " 1470' 



47. AMITY. 



Q^. 273 



Doolittle's bore hole. 

'unl^ (quarry rock,) 15' 



' , < ' 



40' 



93. 






a6 






;fcii*-r.«Z.*4 



M p(4)l)les, show of oil at 70', — 

• -r. yellow, like honey." 
•'• ir:iH veins at many points in the well.'* 
n iiIdU to depth of 630'." 

:;wiii of the quarry rock at Doolittle's has an ele- 

I ;;. ] ( )iiieter of 1320' A. T. This determination was 

ti . luii V checked so that it cannot be more than 5' in 



_f . 



\ / 



' . -Tn descending the hill road one half mile 

Doolittle's a bed of red shale, of which 5' are 

VII IS, at 1460' A. T., or 120' above the top of the 

nfJ. (or adding 10' for southward dip of the lat- 

5' » ) making it most probably the red bed found so 

'iiKK'tion with the Second oil sand. 

'j'htrry, — Passing down Doolittle's run two miles 

•1 ihwest, we com6 to another quarry in the Third 

■ •!! the land of Mr. Allen. Here along a ravine at 

V is seen section Fis:. 94. 



Allen's quarry Section. 



■ Illy sandstone, . . . 

' ''file rocky 

■ ij:u:y sandstone, . . . 

'..in' shale, 

■> iixlstone, quarry rock, 

': lie shale, 

"- indstone quarry rock, 

.;u<^ shales seen, . . . 



• Third Oil Sand, 



2' 

2' 

2' 6" 

6' 

7' 

1' 

0'6" 

1' 

6' 



1 to 8 represent the 37^d oil sand, and the quarry por- 
i.'i'e reduced to the two layers of sandstone near the 
, since that immediately below the pebbly layer is 

'•ilv. 

: (M)iTesponds to No. 1 in the section at Doolittle's, 

\'(ji y much like it in every way, being if possible more 

1^, in fact almost chert. 

'J is a i)erfect mass of flat quartz pebbles held together 
narse mud-colored matrix. It is saturated with pe- 
•II. 

IS Q^ 



272 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Venango Oil Group down into the Chemung jiags ; since 
French creek cuts down below the horizon of the Third 
Oil Sand throughout its entire course in this township ; and 
the highlands near the southern portion of the same extend 
up 300' above the Third Sand. 

The Third Oil Sand is exposed at many places in this 
district, and has been quarried in several localities, the most 
important of which is probably the DooUtile quarry^ on a 
tributary of French creek, one and a half miles north from 
the southern line. It shows the following structure (Fig. 
92): 

Doolittle quarry section. 

Hard, silioeous, fossili/eroua sandstone, 2' 

Pebbly layer, 8' 

Bluish-white sandstone, reported 15' 

The top sandstone is very fossiliferous, being covered at 
top with a/ucoid very much resembling JF. cauda-galli, 
and in it are also seen multitudes of Hhynchonella con- 
tracta^ Streptorhynchus chemungensis^ Orammysia hanni- 
halensis^ and many other forms ; indeed so abundant are 
the shells that this layer often becomes a kind of lime- 
stone. 

The pebble rock is a mere mass of flat pebbles of white, 
green, dark, and mottled quartz in a matrix of very coarse 
greenish sand ; a large piece of feldspar was also seen in 
one of the pebbly portions. 

The bottom or quarry rock, has been worked to a consid- 
erable extent and very much resembles that at Le Boeuf. 
Only 5' of the rock are seen, but Mr. Doolittle told me he 
had drilled down through it, and found its real thickness 
to be 15'. The stone smells ot petroleicm as usual. 

As we ascend the small run towards the northeast, the 
Third oil sandri^es about as fast as the bed of the stream, 
or nearly 40 to the mile. 

The indications of oil in connection with the quarry rock 
led Mr. Doolittle to sink an oil well, and he reported the 
following succession : (Fig. 93.) 



47. AMITY. 



Q*. 273 



93. 




DooUttle's hore hole, 

1. Third oil sand, (quarry rook,) 16' 

2. "Soapstone/' 40' 

8. Sand with pebbles, show of oil at 70', — 

**Oil, clear, yellow, like honey." 
" Heavy gas veins at many points in the well.*' 
" Drilled to depth of 630'." 

The bottom of the quarry rock at Doolittle's has an ele- 
vation by Barometer of 1320' A. T. This determination was 
twice carefully checked so that it cannot be more than 5' in 
error. 

Hed shale. — In descending the hill road one half mile 
south from Doolittle's a bed of red shale, of which 5' are 
exposed, occurs, at 1460' A. T., or 120' above the top of the 
Third oil sand, (or adding 10' for southward dip of the lat- 
ter rock 130') making it most probably the red bed found so 
often in connection with the Second oil sand. 

AllerCs quarry. — Passing down Doolittle's run two miles 
to the northwest, we comfe to another quarry in the Third 
oil sand on the land of Mr. Allen. Here along a ravine at 
the quarry is seen section Fig. 94. 

Allen^s quarry Section. 

1. Flinty sandstone, .... 



2. Shale, 

3. Pebble roekf 

4. Flaggy sandstone, . . . . 

5. Blue shale, 

6. Sandstone, quarry rock, . 

7. Blue shale, 

8. Sandstone quarry rock. 



r 



► Third Oil Sand, 



■ • • • 



• / 



2' 

2' 

2' 6" 

5' 

7' 

1' 

0'6" 

1' 



7. Blue shales seen, 5' 

Nos. 1 to 8 represent the 3rd oil sand, and the quarry por- 
tion is here reduced to the two layers of sandstone near the 
bottom, since that immediately below the pebbly layer is 
too shelly. 

No. 1 corresponds to No. 1 in the section at Doolittle's, 
and is very much like it in every way, being if possible more 
siliceous, in fact almost chert. 

No. 2 is a perfect mas9 of flat quartz pebbles held together 
by a coarse mud-colored matrix. It is saturated with pe- 
troleum. 

18 Q^ 



274 Ql REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Nos. 6 and 8 are the only courses quarried here, they hav- 
ing been mined along the little ravine by stripping off the 
shales above. ; both are of a bluish- white color, rather hard 
but excellent building material since the weather has 
scarcely any effect upon it. The bottom of this No. 8 
comes at 1355' above tide, being 35' higher than the base of 
the same stratum at Doolittle's, 2 miles to the southeast. 

Second Oil Sand ? — As we pass south from this toward 
Union, the outcrop of a yellowish sandstone is seen at 1490' 
A. T., which very probably represents the Second oil sand 
horizon; and on going further south we see a grayish-white 
flaggy sandstone near the southern line of the township at 
an elevation of 1560' A. T. This would come near the hori- 
zon of the First oil sand^ since the southward dip would 
place it about 275' above the Third oil sand. 

About two miles north from Allen's near the northern 
line of the township we see the outcrop of a bluish-white 
sandstone on the land of Mr. Finley at an elevation of 1400' 
A. T., thus being most probably the representative of the 
Third oil sand. 

About f mile so\ith from where the North Branch of 
French creek enters the township a splendid exposure of 
the Third oil sand occurs on a small stream which flows 
north into French creek. The rock is there 20' thick on the 
land of Mr. J. R. Smith, and consists entirely of pebbly lay- 
ers, the quarry portion usually found below the conglomer- 
ate being reduced to nothing by the incursion of the coarse 
material. 

This mass of flat pebbles is saturated with petroleum^ 
and the oil floats off on the water from its base. The little 
stream passes over the entire outcrop of the rock in a series 
of cascades, thus exposing it very finely. It also forms a 
cliff around the hill, and many large blocks of the rock 
are scattered over the field. 

The base of the stratum has an elevation of 1375' A. T., 
or 55' higher than the same part of the rock at Doolittle's 
quarry, 2i miles south, thus showing a rise of 22 feet per 
mile in a direction about North 10° East. 



47. AMITY. 



Q*. 276 



The section seen here is as follows (Pig. 95. See Pig. 15, 
p. 109.) : 

J. R. SmitJb Section. 

Shales, virible 3' 

Third Oil Sand, jnaea of pebbles, in layers 1' to 4' tbick, ... 20' 
Blue HhalsB, with Faeoidt, 6' 

It is an instructive lesson in showing the great changes 
constantly taking place in the structure of this and other 
sandy deposits, to compare the section here with that at 
Doolittle's and Allen's, given on preceding pages. 
94. 96. 




Maynard's ran rises at the eastern edge of the tovraship, 
and flows northwest into French creek near where the latter 
stream enters the township. Along this stream the Third 
Oil Sand is exposed in many places ; the first locality near 
the head of the run is on the land of Mr. Hubbell, and here 
the following section is seen (Fig. 97) : 
HybbeWs Section. 

Fl^tgj Sandstone {Second OilSandt), Uy 

ConcealBd, 100' 

Blui3h-whit« sandstone (TAtrd Oil <San<;), ICH 

Conoealad to level of run, 20' 



276 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The top rock of this section forms a steep bluff around 
the top of the gorge. 

The Third Oil Sand has been quarried in the bank of the 
stream, and it is of a lighter color than usual, being almost 
white in some of its layers ; the pebbly portion is concealed 
at this locality, or else absent altogether, as nothing was 
seen of it. Beneath the base of the exposure a line of oil 
springs come out around the bluff. 

About one half mile northwest from Hubbell's the Third 
Oil Sand becomes very massive and is seen on the land of 
Mr. Maynard forming a cliff of conglomerate along the hill 
above the road (which passes down Maynard' s run) and im- 
mense blocks, some as large as an ordinary house, lie scat- 
tered over the field below. These blocks are mere agglom- 
erations of quartz pehhles^ of almost every shade of color, 
white, red, green, dark, &c. ; many of them are IJ inches 
long, and all are much longer than thick. This flattening ' 
seems to have been universal in the pebbles of the Third 
Oil Sand. All give evidence of long attrition in water. 

Along a ravine which comes in just north from Maynard' s 
house the following exposure is seen (Fig. 98) : 

Maynard^ s Section, 

Sandstone {Second Oil Sand?), visible 2' 

Shales, 15 

fiuff sandstone, rather massive, 5' 

Shales and concealed, 85' 

Pebbly sandstone (TAird OtZiiyancf), 15' 

About midway of the 95' shales occurs a rather sandy 
portion, very hard, and 5' thick. 

The Third Oil Sand is pebbly throughout, and quite 
massive; it possesses a strong odor of petroleum^ and pools 
of oil are seen in the stagnant water at its base, which has 
an elevation of 1380' above tide. 

Maynard Quarry, — A short distance north from this, 
Mr. Maynard has a quarry in the Third Oil Sand^ though 
it is so pebbly that no first-class stone can be obtained from 
it, as the pebbles occur in streaks all through the stratum. 
An oil spring comes out of the rock at this locality, from 
which petroleum is often collected for lubricating purposes. 



47. AMITY. 



Ql 277 



Lowers quarry one mile N. E. from Maynard's the Third 
Oil Sand is finely exposed along a stream which puts into 
Maynard's run from the east. It has there been quarried 
on the land of Mr. U. B. Lowe, where we see the follow- 
ing (Fig. 99) : 

9S, 





Lowe* s section. 

Shales, 6' 

Pebblerock, 6' | Third oU sand.lb' 

Bluish white sandstone, 10' ) 

Shales, . 



visible 3' 



. The pebbly rock is quite variable in thickness being only 
V thick at the head of the falls where the stream pours over 
it, but further down the stream thickening up to 8 feet. 

A large amount of building stone has been quarried in 
the past from the white sandstone, but as the quarry is in 
the woods it has lately been abandoned and the road to it 
is blocked up with fallen timber. The rock is grayish-white 
with a tinge of blue, and is also saturated with oil^ which 
covers the surface of pools around the outcrops of the 
stratum. 

Oilhoring. — These ''oil shows" induced a company to 
sink a well to a depth of 500' to 600', commencing just below 
the quarry ; of course nothing of value was obtained except 
some rather strong gas veins. 

Barometric elevations in Amity, 

Forks near center line of south boundary, . . . (above tide), 1595' 

Forks at 8. Bemas', " 1520' 

Forks near W. Hatch's, " 1325' 



278 Q^ KEPORT OF PK0GRES8. I. C. WHITE. 

Forks near S. Doolittle's, (above tide), 

" J. ChaflTee's, " 

" C. Colburn's, ' " 

•* N. Chaflfee's, " 

Gross roads near J. W. Stone's, " 

Forks next southwest, «* 

<t tt (( 

Level of French creek opposite J. W. Stowe's, " 

Forks near L. A. Stowe's, " 

" W. A. Donaldson's, " 

Cross road near W. Parker's, " 

ForJis near G. Davis', " 

" S. Brown's, " 

" D. Finley's, «« 

«* W. William's, " 

" school house No. 4, " 

" G. Sammon's, " 

" school house No. 9, " 

" C. Maynard's, " 

Cross roads near H. Person's, " 

Forks at school house No. 2, " 

Cross roads near E. B. Wheeler's, " 



1320' 

1335' 

1425' 

1445' 

1320' 

1335' 

1395' 

1310' 

1325' 

1345' 

1285' 

1330' 

1290' 

1325' 

1350' 

1320' 

1315' 

1375' 

1495' 

1470' 

1520 

1610' 



48. Wayne^ in Brie county 

This township corners on New York State and Warren 
county. 

Its western half drains south into French creek by Beaver 
ran, Slaughter's run, Baskin's run, and Spencer's run. 

Its eastern half drains southeast by Hart run and Bear 
creek. 

The Brokenstraw flows southeast across the extreme north- 
east corner. 

Both the Brokenstraw and Hare's creek flow in old Z>r^^ 
filled valleys. 

In the case of Hare's creek the "divide" which reaches 
an elevation of nearly 1800' along the northern line of the 
township, has been cut through so that where the water 
turns northward in it the elevation is only 1500' A. T. and 
the slope is so imperceptible that it is very difficult to locate 
the line of the water-shed, while the bounding valley walls 
rise 250' above the same. The water flowing north in this 
old valley passes into a fork of North French creek in the 
State of New York. 



48. WAYi^E. Q^ 279 

The rocks of this township belong exclusively to the Ve- 
nango oil group, with possibly one or two exceptions where 
high knobs rise above the First oil sand. The surface is 
so deeply buried with drift however, that exposures of any 
kind are very rare. 

MusselVs quarry, — Near the eastern line of the township 
on a small stream which empties into Francis' run, a gray- 
ish-white sandstone occurs, which has been quarried by Mr. 
Kussell. It is about 6' thick and is rather hard ; contains 
much petroleum in the crevices and porous portions of the 
stone. It has an elevation of 1600' A. T., and represents 
one of the sands in the Venango oil group. 

Oil boring, — A short distance north from this, a well was 
bored for oil on the land of Mr. Henry, to a depth of 600', 
but no oil of any consequence was obtained, though some 
very strong gas strikes were made. 

Along the Big Brokenstraw valley the hills rise quite 
abruptly on its right bank, though the slopes are so covered 
with Drift that no exposures are to be seen. In some places, 
however, blocks of a conglomerate rock very much resem- 
bling the Third Oil Sand are scattered over the ground, 
and there is no doubt that this stratum crops out under the 
Drift along the hillside above the valley. 

Quarry, — Just across the New York State line, and one 
fourth of a mile west from the Big Brokenstraw, the Third 
Oil Sand has been quarried in a ravine ; the stratum quar- 
ried is 4' to 5' thick, and is the base of the rock, being a 
bluish-white, tolerably fine-grained stone, having the odor 
of petroleum ; its base occurs at 1500' above tide, and this 
is exactly where it should be when carried here in the dip 
from LeBoeuf at the southwest, or Wattsburg at the west, 
and then the physical appearance of the rock itself is suflSi- 
cient evidence of its identity, even if it were not supple- 
mented by the evidence of fossils ; but when we find in it 
Rhynchonella contracta, the evidence is complete and per- 
fectly satisfactory, so that there is no doubt whatever that 
this stratum represents the LeBoeuf quarry rock. 

About 4i miles northeast from this there is an extensive 
quarry in the 3rd Oil Sand, in the State of New York, and 



280 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

the rock has there the same characteristics that it has every- 
where in Erie. Then going 4 miles further to the northeast 
we come to the famous ledge of Conglomerate at Panama^ 
where the base of the stratum is 1600' A. T., or 100' higher 
.than at the State line on the Brokenstraw, which is also 
about what the average rise of the rocks in that direction 
should make it ; so there can be no doubt that the LeBcsvf 
Conglomerate is the same stratum as the Panama Con- 
glomerate^ and that both are equivalents of the Third Oil 
Sand of Venango. 

In the neighborhood of Carter Hill P. O. the surface rises 
to 1800' above tide, and extends up a short distance above 
the Yenxingo Oil Oroup^ but nowhere in the township is 
the Corry Sandstone caught in the hills. 

Barometric elevations in Wayne, 

Forks of road near C. I. Webber's, north from 

Corry, (above tide), 1410' 

Forks near H. D. Francis', " 1420' 

" W.W.Henry's, «* 1600' 

" J. Brewer's, " 1450' 

« H. Johnson's, *» 1490' 

** C.Williams', »* 1510' 

«* B. C. Bemis', ** ' 1560' 

" C.E. Avery's, " 1420' 

»* Mrs. Graves', " 1640' 

«* N. B. Creeley's, " 1720' 

Fork just west from Hare's creek, at N. Y. line, " 1600' 

Fork near A. Raynold's, " 1475' 

Cross-road? near H. S. Pitt's, " 1800' 

Carter HiU P. O., " 1790' 

Forks near A. J. Ford's, " 1700' 

" C. A. Perkins', ** 1635' 

" P.Miller's, " 1480' 

«« J. Coon's, " 1525' 

Level of Stoughter's run, near J. Lyons', ... " 1410' 

Cross-road in Beaver Dam, " 1435' 

Forks near W. F. Follett's, " 1466' 

" W. Smith's, " 1480' 

Cross-roads near J. Allen's, " 1510' 



49. Venango^ in Erie county. 
This township lies immediately north from Amity along 



49. VENANGO. Q\ 281 

the New York line, and French creek north branch flows 
across it southward ; Safford run coming in from New 
York at its southeast comer. Six Mile creek heads at its 
northwest corner and flows northward into Lake Erie. 

The rocks of the township belong to the Oil sand group 
and to the Chemung j^ags below. At no locality does the 
surface rise more than 250' above the Third oil sand, and 
the horizon of that rock is above water level along all the 
principal streams, but as everything is deeply buried with 
Drift, it is rarely seen. 

Safford' s run puts into North French creek just south 
from Wattsburg at the southern line of the township. The 
Third oil sand is constantly above its level and often seen 
until we come to Mr. D. P. Bailey's where it sinks below 
drainage level. At Mr. Bailey's it exhibits the following 
structure before passing out of sight: (Fig. 100.) 

Bailey" s section. 

Pebble rook, 0' 6" 

Shales, 2' 

Sandstone, bluish-gray ; hard ; fucoids, 0' 6" 

Shales ; fucoids^ ... 2' 

Sandstone in bed of run ; fucoids, 1' 

This section presents a striking contrast to that obtained 
2i miles southwest from here on the land of Mr. Smith in 
Amity, where the pebble rock is 20' thick, whereas here only 
&' is to be seen ; its base at the level of the run here being 
1425' A. T., and at Smith's 1375', there can be no doubt of 
its identity. 

There may be more of the sandstone below water-level as 
the base of it was not observed ; the lower sandstone layers 
are bluish-gray in color and tolerably hard. Msluj fucoids 
are seen in the intervening shales. 

About 2 miles west from Wattsburg where the road crosses 
a small stream on the land of Mr. Baldwin many blocks of 
the Third oil sand are seen along the valley at a height of 
1400' A. T. , and as there is a bluff at this horizon, the rock 
evidently has a considerable development. 

Many portions of this township have been planed down 
below the general level. 



282 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Lake Pleasant lies surrounded by low hills of glacial 

Drifts half a mile long, a quarter of a mile wide ; water 
level 1325' A. T. 

Barometric elevations in Venango, 

Wattsburg, . . (above tide), 1325' 

Level of French oreek there, ** 1315' 

Forks near J. Moore's, " 1375' 

" H. G. Tracy's, *« 1380' 

" H. Black's, " 1400' 

Cross roads near R. Week's, »* 1500' 

»* •* H. E. Ladd's, «* 1700' 

«* " L. Chapin's, " 1350' 

Forks next north, •* 1400' 

" near P. H. Yost's, ** 1800' 

Cross roads near T. Henderson's, " 1440' 

" " J. 3. Smith's, " 1425' 

" « T. M. Robinson's, " 1360' 

*« " J. Smith's, «« 1515' 

«* " A. Beanas', *♦ 1540' 

Forks near D. Peck's, " 1530' 

** H. Howland's, »« 1490' 

Cross roads near E. K. Foster's, «* 1400' 

Lake Pleasant, " 1325' 

Forks near Wm. Allison's, ** 1410' 

Cross roads near T. Butler's, " 1620' 

Forks near J. Munsel's, " 1600' 

" J. Chapin's, " 1360' 

Cross road near Mrs. Carson's, " 1360' 



60. Greene^ in Mrie county. 

This township surrounds the head waters of Le Boeuf 
creek, east branch. 

A low (1400' A. T.) broad, flat divide ranges east and west 
across its northern half, draining southward into Le Boeuf 
creek, and northward into Crowley's run and Six mile creek. 
Walnut creek also heads along its northwest line. 

The rocks of this area belong to the Oil sand group and 
to the underlying Ohemung flags ; the former occupying all 
the highlands ; the latter exposed along the streams and in 
their bounding valley walls. The Drift however covers the 
rocks so completely that only a few exposures are seen. 

About one half mile south from the northern line of the 



51. SUMMIT. <y. 283 

township, near Mr. M. Netegan' s the surface rises to 1400' 
above tide, and there along the road is seen the rough fn- 
coidal sandstone that so often occurs 10' to 15' below the 
quarry portion of the Third oil sand^ so that this latter 
stratum just misses the surface. 

Appleman^s quarry, — One mile south from Netegan' s a 
stratum of blue sandstone {C hemung flags) is quarried on 
the land of Mr. Appleman, 2^' thick ; in three layers ; 1320' 
above tide. 

Ripley's quarry. — A short distance south from this the 
same stratum is quarried by Mr. Ripley in a gulch below 
the road, at 1310' A. T. 

Where the road crosses Crowley's run, south from this, 
a blue flaggy sandstone is seen in the bed of the .stream, 
fiUed with Chemung shells ; OrtJiis unguiculus^ Atrypa 
Jiystrix^ and many others. 

In the southeastern portion of the township, the outcrop 
of a somewhat massive sandstone of a bluish- white color is 
seen on the land of Mr. Cutlar, just before we cross the 
headwaters of LeBoeuf creek ; base 1400' A. T. 

Barometric elevations in Greene. 

Forks near A. Baker's (north line of town- 
ship), (above tide), 1305' 

Cross-roads at C. Weber's, »* 1350' 

Forks next south at School House, .... ** 1360' 

Level of Crowley's run, near W. Uroh's, ... " 1230' 

Forks at D. Ripley's, ** 1320' 

Forks near Mrs. Bailey's, " 1360' 

Cross-roads near E, Ring's, " 1370' 

Forks near H. Seymour's, «* 1340' 

" J. Entley's, *» 1300' 

Level of LeBoeuf creek, here, •* 1290' 

Cross-roads near W. B. Weed's, " 1420' 

Forks next southeast, " 1395' 

Cross-roads at School House No. 3, *' 1390' 

Forks near Mrs. Foster's, " 1370' 



61. Summit^ in Erie County. 

This township surrounds the headwaters of LeBoeuf creek, 
west branch, flowing south, and of Walnut creek, flowing 



284 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

north and then west into Lake Erie. Elk creek touches 
the southwest comer. 

The divide makes almost a semi-circle within this area ; 
entering it from the southeast, it separates Walnut creek 
and LeBceuf, and passing north around the head of this 
latter stream to the central portion of the township, it makes 
a short curve southward between Elk creek and LeBoeuf. 
The height of the watershed varies from 1300' to 1400', be- 
ing seldom more than 1350' A. T. 

The section of rocks includes the lower portion of the 
Oil Sand Group and the Chemung flags^ since Walnut 
creek cuts far down into these before leaving the township. 

The Third Oil Sand is to be seen at many localities, and 
has been quarried at several places for a long time. 

Reynold^ s quarry, — One of these is on the land of Mr. 
Reynold, along a branch of LeBoeuf creek, \\ miles west 
from Jackson Station, on the Phila. and Erie R. R. Here 
the following succession is observed (Pig. 101 ) : 

Reynold'^ s Section. 

Fuooidal sandstone, visible 2' 

Blue shale, 8' 

Quarry rocl£; (base, 1310' A. T.), 6 

The base of the quarry rock was carefully determined by 
checking the Barometer twice at Jackson Station. As this 
spot is nearly 14^ miles due west from the eastern line of 
Venango, where the same stratum lies 1425' A. T. the differ- 
ence of level is 115' ; westward dip, 8' per mile. 

The fucoidal sandstone is a very siliceous stratum, and 
filled with vertically-stemmed fucoids^ which make its sur- 
face very rough and irregular. This rock seems to be per- 
sistent, since it occurs in several townships. 

The bottom rock has been quarried extensively for local 
use^ and some has also been shipped to Erie on the Phila- 
delphia and Erie R. R. ; it is the same bluish-gray rock 
that we so often see at this horizon, being saturated with 
petroleum^ which seeps from it slowly around the outcrop. 

Reynold) s horing. — ^The plentiful oil show induced a com- 
pany to drill on the land of Mr. Reynold to a depth of 



CI. SUMMIT. Q". 2S5 

400'; bat as it commenced in the Third oil sand, a produc- 
tive well was not to be expected, and nothing but gas was 
obtained. 

HamiC s quarry. — Abont 2i miles due west from Rey- 
nold's the Third oil sand, is again quarried on the land of 
Mr. Hamit ; base 1285' A. T. , or 25' lower than at Reynold' s. 
Nothing can be seen at this exposure except the quarry por- 
tion, 5' thick, containing much pyrite in one layer, as well 
as multitudes of fucoids, and the odor of pelroleum. The 

101. 





water running from the rock has a very snlphurous taste 
and odor. 

Red rock.— A. band of red rock comes near the center of 
the stratum, and a considerable portion of the stone at this 
quarry has to be rejected aa worthless. 

Ve/^Af^jwarry.— About one half mile south from Hamit's 
the same stone was once quarried on the land of Mr. Veight 
and used in building locks on the old Beaver and Erie canal 
many years ago ; this is near the McKean line. 

Pierson^s juarry is also in the Third oil sand, i mile 
north from Veight' s, 

lAddelV s quarry. — Just south from school honse No. 5, 
Mr. Liddell has a stone-quarry in a rock which comes 60' 
below the Third oil sand at 1270' A. T. It is a fine-grained 



286 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

blue sandstone, with layers 2'' to 9'' thick. It is hauled to 
Erie principally, and sells at the quarry for $4 per cord. 

A spirifer hand comes immediately above the sandstone. 

Coal, — Mr. Liddell states that in stripping off the clay 
and d^ris above the rock, he often finds lumps of coal ; he 
once collected a bushel of it and burned the same. I did 
not see any coal in the clay, but some chips of black slate 
were observed, and these may have been mistaken for coal. 
These slate chips belong to the Drift and were doubtless 
brought here by the ice from the Hamilton black slate out- 
crops of New York. 

Frances horing, — Just where Elk creek passes out of the 
township an oil well was bored on the land of Mr. C. France 
to a depth of 300' ; a "slight show" of oil was obtained ; 
some strong gas veins were struck. 

Barometric elevations in Summit, 

Cross roads at southern Hne of township near 
W.Blair's (above tide), 1470' 

Forks near J. Murphy's, " 1400' 

" H. Ebenhouse's, '< 1370' 

" L. Webster's, " 1375' 

" School House No. 5, " 1280' 

" R. Tenbroke's, " 1350' 

Cross roads near L. A. HuU's, . . r " 1290' 

Forks near J. M. HuU's, " 1270' 

" L.Vaughn's, »« 1290' 

Forks next east of L. Vaughn's, " 1230' 

" near J. Veight's, " 1325' 

Five Points, at Wm. Smith's, »* 1280' 



52. Mill Greeks in Erie County, 

This large township borders Lake Erie for 11 miles east 
and west of the city of Erie. 

The drainage of this township all passes northward into 
Lake Erie ; Walnut and Mill creeks being the principal 
streams. 

There is a broad level area running east and west through 
the township just south from its central line, with a general 
elevation of 950' to 1000' A. T. Mill creek cuts across this 



52. MILL CREEK. Q*. 287 

and flows directly north into the Lake ; but Walnut flows 
west along the southern slope of the highland, draining the 
southwestern portion off through Fairview before it enters 
the Lake. 

The northern slope of this level area is drained by a great 
many small streams which plunge down with a very rapid 
fall to the Lake. 

In many places the level stretch of land is covered with 
what appears to have once been beach sand, so that it prob- 
ably marks the former sojourn of the Lake when it stood 
400' or more higher than now. 

The rock-section exposed in Mill Creek belongs to the 
CJiemung flags, Oirard shales, and Portage flags. 

The Portage flags form a broad band bordering the Lake 
shore, and extending up the beds of the streams much 
further. 

The Oirard shale forms a still wider band just south from 
the Portage outcrops. 

The Chemung flags come in south of that, and extend 
to the southern line of the township — none of the hills 
rising high enough to take in the rocks of the Oil Sand 
Group, 

Along Walnut creek the Oirard shale is seen outcropping 
in long lines of ash-colored cliffs ; and the top of it goes 
below water-level at 900' A. T., near Smith's mill. 

Along Mill creek, which flows into the Lake through Erie 
city, the Oirard shale is seen flnely exposed, and the top 
of it goes under the same near Daniel Winfield' s, at 940' 
A. T. 

Two miles below this, near Hope Mills, we come to the 
base of the Oirard shale at 750' A. T., thus making its 
thickness, by allowing 40' for dip in the two miles north- 
ward rise of the rocks (940'— 750')440'=230', which is very 
close to its thickness (225') on Elk creek above Girard. 

From Hope Mills to Lake Erie Mill creek flows over the 
alternating layers of flaggy sandstone and shales of the 
Portage system for 750'— 573'=187', and 33' added for the 
nearly two miles of northward rise of Wlq strata, gives 220' 
for the thickness of the Portage rocks above Lake level at 



288 Q*. KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Erie, and as this is about 22 miles from where the Portage 
flags first emerge above the Lake, near the mouth of Rac- 
coon creek, it makes a dip of 10' per mile along the Lake 
shore from Erie to the Ohio line. 

Erie city is built mostly on a sloping terrace, which has 
a general elevation of 100' to 125' above the level of the 
Lake, the Union D^pot being 686' A. T. 

Gas. — During the period of oil excitement sometime in 
the decade beginning with 1860, a hole was bored for oil at 
Erie, but instead of finding much oil, plenty of gas was ob- 
tained. Soon after this it was learned that it could be ob- 
tained in almost any boring, when carried deep enough, and 
then its use for domestic purposes became frequent,*one well 
often supplying all the fuel necessary for several families. 

The manufacturing establishments also put down wells 
at their works, and the use of gas greatly lessened and in 
some cases entirely supplanted coal as a fuel. 

Of the many wells that have been drilled in Erie I could 
get records of only three or four, since in most cases none 
were kept, and in the few that were recorded the drillers 
who put down the wells hare moved to other parts of the 
country and taken the records with them. Then the rock 
material passed through seems to have been of the same 
character throughout, so that there was little inducement 
to keep a register of the strata passed through, feince the 
depth at which the principal gas strike occurred in any well 
could be easily remembered by the owner. 

Mr. J. Cawthro has drilled several wells in Erie, and one 
of these, a few rods northwest from the Union D^pot, gave 
the following record : (Fig. 102.) 

''The rock material was apparently the same throughout, 
consisting of gray shales alternating with thin hard shells." 

Cawthro well record. 

1. Conductor, 12' to 12' 

2. Gray slate, 230' to 242' 

8. 1st gas at bottom of last. 

4. Gray slate (2nd gas at bottom), 29' to 271' 

5. " (8rd " ), 33' to 804' 

6. " (4th •* ), 66' to 868' 

7. " (5th gas 397', oil 892), 29' to 897' 



53. MILL CREEE. 

(6th gaa at bottom), . . G'to40S' 

B. " (7th ■' ), . . 17' to 420' 

(8th " ), . . 24' to 444' 

(»th " ), , , 2' to 446' 

(lOth ■' >, . . 8' to 449' 

(gaaandoil), . . . 19' to 468' 
(gM and oil at bottom), 125' to 598' 

(moreoilat bottom), . . 53'to646' 

to bottom of hole, ... 49' to 6flB' 
"Firatollat392'." 

The well commences at 670' above tide or 
abont 100' above Lake Erie and therefore 
100' down in the Portage flags. The first 
oil struck, then, at 392', comes at an hori- 
zon 392' +100'-l-225' (Girard 8hale)-|-325' 
(Chemung flags)=1042' below the Srd oil 
sand of Venango^ and may represent the 
Bradford oil, but probably not. 

Mr. Cawthro has a well in another part of 
the city which produces 15 barrels of oil 
annually, besides considerable gas. The 
well is 840' in depth commencing at about 
the same elevation as the one already given. 
The oil however comes mostly from about 
400' down. 

Another well near this latter has yielded 
1500 barrels of oil since 1864, or about 100 
barrels as the annual average. 

The Steame Manufacturing Co, have two 
wells on their property which furnish fuel 
for the engines. One of these is the deep- 
est well ever drilled in Erie of which I can 
get any account. Mr. Michael Plannigan 
who worked at the deep well while it was 
being drilled gave me the following items 
concerning It : 

Stearne Manvfaciuring Co. deep well record. 

1. " Conductor," S' to 8' 

2, "Gray fl«B«." 450' to 458* 

8. "ReddlBh-brown shale," f to 

4. SoapMoue and stialea to bottom, . T to 1416' 

XOQ*. 



Q*. 389 



290 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The heaviest gas vein came in No. 3 which Mr. Flannigan 
thinks was abont 50' thick, but is not certain, and the gas 
came near its base. 

He also states that No. 4 seemed to have almost the same 
composition throughout, being a mass of gray "soapstone" 
shales with occasional thin " shells," or sandy layers 1' to 2' 
thick. No black slates of any importance were penetrated, 
except thin streaks which alternated with the ''gray" ma- 
terial, hence the Portage formation was not passed through 
in this boring. The well commences at 655' above tide or 
about 120' below the top of the Portage system^ and this 
would give us as the thickness of these rocks at Erie, 1418' 
-|-120'=1538' plus an undetermined amount not penetrated 
by the drill hole. 

The other well at Stearne's is 500' deep and the heavy gas 
vein was struck at the bottom. It commences on the same 
level as the deep well. 

Oliver & BacovH s gas wells. — At the Canal mills, two wells 
have been drilled, commencing at 640' above tide. In one 
of these a splendid strike of gas was made at 470', and it 
supplied all the fuel used to generate steam for the first 
year, or an equivalent of three tons of coal daily. 

In the other well a strike was made at 600' but not so 
strong as in the first one. Both wells furnish about i of the 
fuel now, and the proprietors say that the supply does not 
seem to be decreasing any since the great decrease which 
took place in each during the first two years. The wells 
have to be pumped out every day as the water was imper- 
fectly cased off. 

Hope Dale Mills well. — Near the south line of Erie bor- 
ough, on Mill creek, a well was drilled to a depth of 650', 
commencing at 730' above tide, or only 20' below the top of 
the Portage formation^ which is seen just above the mill. 
The gas vein was struck at the bottom of the well, or 650' — 
(730' — 573')=493' below Lake level, which, when we come to 
the Lake, 1 J miles northward, making due allowance for the 
rise of the strata, would represent a horizon about 460' be- 
low the level of the same, and this is near the horizon in 
which most of the gas strikes at Erie are obtained, viz : — 



62. MILL CREEK. Q*. 291 

400' to 500' below Lake level, though some gas is obtained 
at almost every horizon. 

BelV swell. — The latest large gas strike is at The Point on 
the property of H. L. Scott, 4 miles west from Erie. The 
hole was put down by Mr. W. E. Bell, an<\ the great strike 
was made at 640'. The well commences 10' above the level 
of the Lake ; this gas, therefore, comes at the same geolog- 
ical horizon as that at Erie. 

The blnflfs along the Lake where the well was drilled are 
80' high, and composed entirely of Drift material. Back 
from the bluflfs is a wide level area, which was once the floor 
of the Lake when it stood at a higher level than now. 

NeeVifs quarry. — ^East from Erie two miles, Neely's run 
puts in, and one fourth mile south from its mouth a bed of 
sandstone is largely quarried on the land of Mr. Neely, 
where it comes 25' above the Lake level. The bed is a bluish- 
gray sandstone 3' thick, in three layers, the bottom one being 
li' thick, and the others 1' and i', respectively. The whole 
stratum has a strong odor of petroleum^ and the quarrymen 
state that they frequently find heavy oil under the lowest 
course of stone. The rock is hauled to Erie and used 
wherever rough unhewn rock is needed. 

Crowley* s quarry^ li miles east from this we come to 4 
Mile run, and there near its mouth a quarry is worked on 
the land of Mrs. Crowley, and descending from it the fol- 
lowing is seen (Pig. 104) : 

Crowley Section. 

1. Sandstone (quarry), 2' 6 ' 

2. Shales, 20' 

3. Sandy sheU, 0' 6" 

4. Shales, with thin "shells" to Lake, 10' 

No. 1 is a bluish-gray rock, smelling strongly of petro- 
leum^ and is hauled to Erie and used principally in build- 
ing cellar walls. 

In No. 2 were seen many specimens of "Cone-in-cone." 
South from the road, and further up the stream, there is 
another quarry at a height of 65' above the Lake, on the 
land of Mr. T. Crowley, where we see 3' of bluish-gray 
sandstone full of oil and gas. 



292 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The quarrymen say that they often strike gas veins here, 
since abont 6' to 8' of blue shale has to be stripped from the 
quarry rock. The shales in these Portage rocks are often 
seen forced up in ridges with an angle of about 30°, and 
fractured at the crest of the miniature fold. As they occur 
principally along streams' beds, it would seem most proba- 
ble that they had been produced by the sudden escape of 
imprisoned gas when the stream, in cutting down, had re- 
moved enough of the overlying rock to render the strength 
of its tensile power less than the elastic force of the con- 
fined gas, when it would escape explosively and fracture 
the shales in the way we now see them. 

Continuing on up this stream the shales and thin sand- 
stones of the Portage continue up to 855' above tide where 
they end with a sandstone somewhat calcareous in character, 
and then the Girard shale begins : 

BaroTnetric elevations in Mill Creek. 

Forks near I. Waidle's, (at south line of town- 
ship,) (above tide), 1080' 

" Mrs. Moore's, " 920* 

Level of Walnut oreek, opposite, . « 850' 

Gross roads near J. L. Reed's, *< OSO' 

Forks north from S. S. McCreaiy's, , " 910' 

Gross roads next east, <* 925' 

** near G. A. Evans, " 936' 

Forks next east, « 925' 

" near W. Stair's, " 980' 

Level of Walnut creek near H. J. Hooh's, . . ** 866' 

Forks next south, ** 920' 

Gross roads east from H. Shorner's, " 1110' 

Forks near J. M. Reed's, " 1126' 

Level of Walnut oreeOt at O. Smith's, •* 900' 

Gross roads next north, " 935' 

Forks near J. Garhouse's, " 1000' 

Gross roads near J. Zuok's, « 900' 

Forks near G. Wooster's, «* 975' 

Gross roads at sohool house near Mrs. Smith's . « 926' 

Forks near M. Whitman's, " 930' 

" at Toll House on Mill creek, «« 870' 

«< near J. H. Miller's (east from Erie), . . " 660' 

" near J. Fagan's " 655' 



53. HARBOR CREEK. Q*. 293 



63. Harbor creek^ in Erie county. 

This township borders on Lake Erie, and its southern line 
is just north from the divide between French creek and Lake 
Erie so that all its drainage is carried into the latter basin 
by several small streams which rise just south of the town- 
ship line. The principal draining streams are 4 Mile run, 
6 Mile creek, Elliot's and Scott's run, while 12 Mile creek 
flows through the northeast corner. These streams descend 
from the highlands with a very rapid fall and plow rudely 
parallel to one another. 

The general surface of this area, leaving out the trenches 
cut by the streams, is a broad plain, rising gently from the 
Lake Erie bluflfs to an elevation of 875' A. T. (300' above 
lake level) where the foot hills commence, and there the 
surface rises much more rapidly ; this 875' level may have 
been the highest point ever reached by the Lake Erie waters 
when it had a much greater expanse than now. 

The foot-hills' level is about 2i miles from the Lake, and 
can be seen extending along for a great distance ; the slop- 
ing plain toward the Lake is everywhere covered with Lake 
shingle^ so that there can be no doubt that Erie once cov- 
ered it up to 875' above tide. As we pass up the hills we 
come to another wide level space at an elevation of 1070' or 
nearly 500' above the Lake, and it seems to be covered with 
Lake shingle also ; hence it is probable that this level area 
was once the Lake bottom, in the remote past ; but a rapid 
cutting down of its outlet carried its surface down to the 
foot-hills in a very short time, thus making a sharp descent 
from one to the other, while subsequent erosion has almost 
entirely removed the Lake shingle from the intermediate 
portion. Going further back from the 1070' level, toward 
the south, we reach another and the last level exposure at 
1175' A. T. (600' above Lake Erie) ; whether or not this rep- 
resents an old beach line cannot be determined, since ero- 
sion has entirely removed the evidence of Lake shingle, if 
any ever existed at that elevation. 



294 Q^. KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

The rocks of Harbor Creek belong to the Portage flags ^ 
the Glrard shale^ and the Chemung flags. 

The first forms a broad band of outcrop facing the Lake, 
and from 1^ to 2^ miles wide ; the Glrard shale comes in 
south from this and occupies all the rest of the township 
except the highlands along the southern portion, where the 
surface rises high enough to take in the most of the Che- 
mung flxigs^ but does not catch any of the Oil sand group^ 
the highest point coming within about 50' of the base of 
these latter measures. 

At the mouth of Elliott's run the following succession is 
seen (Fig. 105) : 

ElliotV s Run Section. 

1. Shales containing thin sandy layers, 25' 

2. Greenish shales streaked with black to Lake level, 6' 

The sandy layers in No. 1 are very pyritiferous, and the 
exposed surfaces are encrusted with copperas. 

No. 2 is a grayish-green shale, in which are seen black 
streaks only a fraction of an inch in thickness and soon 
running out entirely when traced horizontally. The Lake 
shore consists of outcropping rocks at this locality, and the 
continual dash of the waves has worn them into irregular 
forms. 

As we pass up Elliot's run from its mouth a succession 
of bluish shales with thin flaggy sandstone is seen until we 
reach a point 2i miles south from the Lake, on the land, of 
Mr. T. Elliot, and there at an elevation of 825' above tide, 
or 250' above Lake Erie, the Portage flags pass below 
water level, and the Girard shale comes into the bed of 
the stream. 

At the mouth of the stream this 250' of rock would be 
increased by the northward rise about 50', so that there 
would be about 300' of Portage rocks above Lake level at 
the mouth of Elliott's run. In going carefully over the ex- 
posed outcrop of these 300' of strata along the stream, not 
a single fossil of animal origin is to be seen — ^nothing but 
Fucoids is found, but their abundance compensates for the 
absence of all traces of any other forms of life. Casts of 



53. HABBOB CBEEE. Q^ 296 

rain-drops^ ripple-marTcs^ and the peculiar fossil cast of 
flowing mud^ so common in the Portage, and figured by 
James Hall in Geol. 4th Dist. New York, are especially- 
abundant. 

On Six Mile creek the top of the Oirard shale goes under 
water-level near the Harbor Creek Woolen Factory at an 
elevation of 1060' above tide, and on going south from that, 
the fossiliferous series of the Chemung flags ^ is seen occu- 
pying all the high ground toward the southern portion of 
the township. 

On Elliot's run the Oirard shale goes under near Mr. 
Grove's at an elevation of 1070' above tide. 

At the south line of the township near M. W. Barton's 
the surface rises to 1360' above tide, and comes within about 
50' of catching the Third oil sand, since the latter rock 
should be found there at somewhere near 1400' above tide 
according to the calculated dip of the strata ; and, then a 
short distance south from this line in Greene township, we 
come up to the Lower Fucoidal SS. at an elevation of 1380' 
above tide. 

Barometric elevations in Harbor Creek. 

Gross roads in WesleyyiUe p. O (above tide), 720' 

Forks near J. M. Sterrett's, •« 766' 

" J. Blackwood's, " 790' 

Top of Portage on 4 MUe run, " 766' 

Forks near S. Chamber's, " 705' 

" J. O'Brien's, " 626' 

" W. Mahoney's, " 626' 

Lane near M. Goner's, *< 626' 

Forks next east, << 636' 

" «* near Elliot's run, " 626' 

" near J. Hoggs', «* 670^ 

" " W.Greenwood's, , . •* 720* 

" next east, «* 716' 

" near T. EUlot's, " 780' 

Top of Portage on Elliot's run, " 826' 

Forks near S. Stitson's, ** 870' 

" next south, " 880^ 

** near G. Graves', " 1065' 

«* next south, " 1090' 

Cross roads near W. Tate's " 1130* 

" «* O. RoUfai's, " 1185' 

" next S. W., " 1116' 

Level of 6 Mile creek near woolen factory, . . ** 1060' 



296 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Cross roftds near E. Owens', (above tide), 1180' 

" " Wm. Henton's, " 1225' 

Forks near J. E. Barton's, «« 1280' 

Cross roads near W. Barton's, ....;... ** 1850' 



54. Oreenfieldy in Erie county. 

This lies directly east from Harbor creek, and extends to 
the New York State line for its eastern boundary, having 
Venango on the south, and Northeast township at the north. 

It lies on the water-shed between Lake Erie and French 
creek, and its surface is more elevated than that of any of 
the townships west from it in accordance with the general 
rise of the land going east from the Ohio State line. Along 
the "divide" the elevation is about 1500' above tide, with 
some few points rising still higher. 

The North Branch of French creek takes its rise on the 
southern slope of this water-shed, and drains all tie eastern 
and southern portions of the township. The extreme north- 
ern border and the northwest corner drain into IJake Erie. 

The rocks of this area belong to the Oil sand group and 
to the Chemung Jlags below. The surface of the township 
is very deeply buried with Drift so that very few rock ex- 
posures can be seen. 

Jones^ well. — Near Greenfield P. O., on the land of Mr. 
E. Jones a well was once bored for oil, commencing at 1400' 
above tide ; no record could be obtained, but Mr. Jones gave 
me a few points concerning it which he remembered. 

"The drive-pipe passed through 60' of Drift before strik- 
ing bed rock. Then nothing was found except soft blue 
slate down to bottom at 780', when a great gas vein was 
struck, which threw water over the top of the derrick, and 
still continues to force a column of water from the hole." 

At no point within this area, does the 3rd oil sand have 
any exposure though it underlies quite a large scope within 
the township. 

Barometric elevations in Oreenfield. 

Forks near M. E. Church west of Greenfield, . (above tide) , 1460' 
'< next north at school house, '* 1435' 



65. NORTH-EAST. Q*. 297 

Forks at Greenfield p. O., (aboye tide), 1125' 

Cross roads near J. Wilson's, •< 1460' 

«« " N. Mauoh's, «« 1460' 

Forks near school No. 2, ** 1420' 

" A. Wilkinson's, «« 1485' 

" O. Dann's, " 1465' 

•« , J. Hartiey*s, " 1460' 

Level of stream near H. Carrahan's, *< 1385' 

Gross roads near J. H. Gobom's, « 1390' 

Forks near G. C. Parker's, «« 1425' 

" H. C. Robert's, " 1475' 

Cross road near I. Shadduok's, « 1470' 

Forks near D. Dodge's, ** 1440' 

" S. B. Cole's, " 1375' 

Level of stream next south, ** 1220' 



55. North-East^ in Erie County. 

This large township borders Lake Erie at the New York 
State line. 

The southern portion of the township occupies the north- 
ern slope of the high watershed between French creek and 
Lake Erie, and hence its drainage is all north into the latter 
basin. 

The principal streams are Twelve Mile creek, which drains 
the southwestern portion, Sixteen Mile creek draining the 
southeast and central parts, while the northeast comer is 
drained by two or three small runs and Twenty Mile creek, 
which cuts a profound gorge across the extreme north- 
eastern portion of the township. 

The rocks belong to the Chemung Jlags^ the Oirard 
shaU^ and the Portage system^ this latter formation mak- 
ing a still broader band of outcrop facing the Lake shore 
than it has in any of the townships hitherto described, since 
the continued northeastward rise of the strata brings more 
of these rocks above water-level ; so that if the column had 
not been eroded it would at the northeastern extremity of 
this township stand about 1050' above tide, thus making 
its outcrop about 3 miles in breadth. 

The Girard shale comes in south from this and extends 
to within a short distance of the southern border, except 
toward the eastern line. 



298 Q^ REPORT OF PROaRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

The Chemung flags extend in a narrow belt along the 
southern and eastern half of the boundary, but in no case 
does the surface rise high enough to catch any of the Oil 
sand group^ though the lowest portion of that series misses 
the hills by only about 60^ 

A t the southern line of the township the following suc- 
cession is seen in descending along the road northward from 
Wm. Sweitzer's (Fig. 106) : 

Switzefs Section. 

1. Sandy shales and thin sandstone, 4<y 

2. Chooolate shale, . 15' 

8. Blue shales, 6(V 

4. Spirifer band, 1' 

5. Concealed, 40' 

6. Blue sandstone, 4' 

These measures are all quite fossiliferous, and they be- 
long to the Chemung fl^ags. 

No. 4 is very limy where the outcrop has not been too 
long exposed to the weather. 

Lathrop' s quarry.— IS o. 6 is quarried on the land of Mr. 
Lathrop for building-stone ; it is a rather fine-grained rock, 
and very blue, being also quite fossiliferous. In it were 
seen Spirifera disjuncta^ Rhynchonella contracta^ Leio- 
rhynchus Newberry^ and many Fucoids besides. 

The top of this section has an elevation of 1440' A. T. 

AtJcin^s quarry. One mile N. W. from Mr. Lathrop' s we 
come to another quarry on the land of Mr. Atkins, at an 
elevation of 1300' above tide. The rock is a bluish sandstone 
in layers i' to V thick ; the stratum is 5' thick, and below it 
are seen 40' of bluish-green shales containing the character- 
istic Chemung fossils in great abundance. 

This is most probably the same stratum as the one quarried 
at Lathrop' s. 

About two miles west from Atkin's the top of the Girard 
shale is seen in descending from the highlands along the 
road toward Lake Erie, near Mrs. Leonard' s, at an elevation 
of 1125' above tide. 

Just south from this in the bed of Twelve Mile creek the 
top of the Portage flags is seen at an elevation of 906' above 



56. NORTH-EAST. Q*. 299 

105, 107, 



300 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

tide, thus making the thickness of the Oirard shale 225', 
allowing '5' for northward rise in the i mile between the two 
exposures ; this is the same thickness I found it near Grirard 
along Elk ereek. 

The foot-hills bordering the old lake plain commence at 
1000' above tide, and the wide level plain slopes gradually 
away toward Lake Erie, except the irregularities made by 
the trenches of the streams. 

Where the road crosses Twelve mile creek near Mr. 
Houston' s we see 50' of the Girard shale in a perpendicular 
cliff along the bluff of the stream ; very few sandy layers 
occur in it. 

As we pass down Twelve Mile creek the Portage flags are 
constantly in view, being alternations of shales and flaggy 
sandstone, in which no organic remains except fucoids are 
seen. 

Terrace. — Just north from the Lake Shore RR. near Mr. 
J. B. Caldwell's a well-defined Terrace is seen, the top of 
which is 795' above tide, and we pass by a sharp descent to 
the next lower level at 765'. This latter wide level exposure 
is covered with clay near Mr. Caldwell's, whicl^ is used in 
brick making. Prom this point to the northward the slope 
of the old lake plain is quite small, since it has an elevation 
of 740' until we come to the lake bluff, when it passes down 
abruptly to the lake. 

At the mouth of 16 Mile creek, the following section is 
obtained in descending its bed to the lake from Child's mill : 
(Fig. 107.) 



t 



ChilfP s Mill section, 

1. Hard flaggy sandstone, 10' 

2. Sandy shale, 10' 

3. Dark blue fissile shale, 20' 

4. Hard caicareo-silioious layer, 0' 8'' 

5. Flaggy sandstone, 5' 

6. Concealed to lake level, 5' 

From the top of No. 1 copious springs of iron-charged 
waters issue, and have stained the underlying strata a deep 
red, as well as deposited several inches of hog ore in many 



NORTH-EAST. Q^ 301 

places. This is nearly one fourth of a mile from the lake, 
at the mill-dam, which is built upon No. 1. 

No. 4 is a very sandy limestone and contains some iron 
in the form of carbonate. 

In No. 5 were seen some curiously shaped fucoids^ hav- 
ing the form of a horse-shoe, and being about 2^ inches 
across the open space. They occur here in great quantities. 
Many specimens of Fucoides grapMca were also seen at 
this horizon. 

As we ascend 16 Mile creek, a succession of shales, blue, 
gray, &c., alternating with thin sandstones is seen along its 
bed and banks until we come to A. Bucklin's two miles south 
from the town of Northeast, and here the Portage flag- 
stones sink below the level of the stream at an elevation of 
925' above tide, and then the ashen colored shales of the 
Girard begin, and continue to form cliflfs along its banks 
until we come to near Seeley' s mill where it too goes under 
at 1150' A. T., and then come the Ohemungflxigs which are 
well exposed at the road crossing near Mr. I. McCord' s. 
There the bluish-green shales are filled with fossils at an 
elevation of 1250' A> T. 

At the head of Averill run, near the New York State line, 
the top of the Portage flags is seen at an elevation of 980' 
A. T., and as this is 3i miles south from the northeastern 
corner of the township, the elevation of the top of the 
Portage flags would be about 1050' at the latter locality. 

Twenty Mile creek enters this township from New York, 
about three miles south from Lake Erie. It carries a large 
amount of water, and rushes down with a fall of 100' to 150' 
per mile, excavating a gorge along which the Portage flags 
are seen rising in almost perpendicular cliffs 100' and more 
in height. This deep narrow cation is termed the "Gulf," 
near where the creek enters this State from York, and is a 
famous pleasure resort in summer. 

Along Twenty Mile creek, the finest exposure of the Port- 
age system occurs that can be seen anywhere within the 
county, there being about 500' of Portage flags seen from 
where the creek enters Lake Erie up to where the Girard 
shale comes into the section in the State of New York. 



302 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Near the mouth of Twenty Mile creek the stream makes 
a fall of 4' over a somewhat massive stratum of dark-brown- 
ish sandstone, which smells strongly of petroleum. 

Barometric elevations in North-East. 

YUlage of North-East, (above tide)» 78&' 

North from North-East, nev !>• Pierce's, ... *« 785' 

Forks of road near H. Terry's, *« eTO* ♦ 

" " T. Crawford's, *« 716' 

Cross-roads near D. Child's, «* 610' 

Forks near R. M. Crawford's, *• 725' 

" " J. R. Caldwell's, " 746' 

" " B. Caldwell's. " 766' 

Cross-roads near W. Colby's, " 796' 

" •« J. Clark's, " 850' 

*• « J. Fuller's, " 866' 

« east from D. Houston's, <* 985' 

Forks near M. C. Putman's, " 1016' 

Cross-roads near C. T. Putman's, " 1010' 

" " G. W. Law's, »* 880^ 

Forks near Mrs. Furgpisson's, *' 1276' 

Cross-road near W. Switzer'a, •* 1440' 

Forks near A. D. Smith's, « 1405' 

" «* C. Sohuldtz's, •* 1360' 

»« «« E.S.Cole's, ** 1276' 

Cross-roads near J. A. Stetson's, " 1275' 

Level of 16 Mile creek, near last, '* 1246' 

Cross-roads near I. Malick's, ** 1246' 

" " V. Belknap's, " 1340* 

Forks near D. I^utman's, " 940' 

*• " A. Martin's, " 776' 

" " J.Johnson's, " 780' 

" west from H. Janes's, " 736' 

Cross-roads near mouth 20 Mile creek, .... '* 646' 

Forks near A. Duncan's, ** 720' 

" " W.Dewey's, " 710' 

" " G. W. Butt's, " 720' 

«• " A. V. Pierce's, " 740' 

Cross-roads near B. C. Town's, " 730' 

Forks next west at Vineyard, ** 736' 



APPENDIX. 



Notes on the Place of the Sharon Conglomerate in the Pal- 
(Bozoic Series. By Prof. I. C. White. 

{Read before the American Philosophical Society December 17 ^ 1880.) 

With regard to the place of this rock in the series, about 
which there has been much diversity of opinion among 
geologists, I have to say that my study of it and its as- 
sociated rocks during the past season in this district, as 
well as in Venango and Warren counties, to the east, and 
in the State of Ohio to the west, has dispelled the idea that 
I at one time entertained of the possibility of its being the 
Vespertine Conglomerate, or No. X of Rogers, and has con- 
firmed me in the position that I took in my reports Q and 
QQ on Beaver and Lawrence counties, viz : that it is the 
true base of No. XII. 

It may be of interest to state here the reasons which 
caused me to entertain such a possibility. 

It happened that during my season's work in Mercer 
county in '78, I discovered a new limestone in the Mahon- 
ing river, only about 50' above the horizon of the Sharon 
Conglomerate, and nearly 100' below any limestone hitherto 
known in Western Pennsylvania. It was filled with fossils 
and some of them seemed to be related to Subcarbonif erous 
types. 

By a singular fatality, it also happened that the supple- 
mental report of Prof. Orton on the Hanging Rock district 
of Southern Ohio came into my hands about the same time. 

It is well known that in the Report in question Prof. 
Orton takes the ground ( in which he was also sustained by 
the Chief Geologist, Prof. Newberry,) that the Jackson 
shaft coal of that State is of Subcarbonif erous age^ since, 

(808 Q*.) 



304 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

as he maintained, its place comes below the horizon of the 
Maxville (Chester) Limestone of Andrews, and as the Max- 
mile was placed in the section about 100' above the Jackson 
shaft coal^ I supposed there could be no doubt about it. 

I also knew that wherever the Jackson shaft seam was 
placed, the Sharon must go with it, since the general stra- 
tigraphy, the flora connected with each, and • everything 
else found in connection with them go to prove that they 
are identical. 

Then the fact that Prof. Orton placed the Maxville Lime- 
stone the same distance below the Zoar Limestone (=our 
Lower Mercer ) that I had found the new limestone below 
our Lower Mercer^ strengthened the supposition that it 
might be synchronous at least with the Maxville. 

And in order to bring out these new facts, I prepared a 
special chapter for my Report on Mercer county, QQQ, en- 
titled "The Place of the Sharon Coal in the Rock Series," 
in which the facts were given that seemed to favor the view 
that the Sharon Coal was of Subcarhoniferous age^ and the 
Conglomerate below it, Vespertine, 

Before the volume was published, however, I had studied 
the matter still further in the Crawford and Erie district, 
as well as elsewhere, and as before stated, saw reasons for 
the giving up the probability of its Subcarhoniferous age. 
I accordingly requested Prof. Lesley to suppress the chap- 
ter in question, as its publication at that time would have 
done more harm than good. Hence QQQ was allowed to 
leave the press with Chap. VII stricken out. In the mean- 
time Prof. Orton has written me that he will have to give 
up the position that he took in Vol. Ill, of the Ohio survey, 
with regard to the Svhcarhoniferous age of the Jackson 
shaft coal^ and with that abandoned there remains so little 
evidence that the Sharon coal is Subcarhoniferous^ that for 
the present it is not worth serious consideration. 

The foregoing explanation is relevant in this connection 
because of the currency given in Prof. Lesley's preface to 
QQ to the views expressed in the afterwards discarded 
Chapter VII, of QQQ. 

But while it thus appears that the Sharon Conglomerate 



APPENDIX. Q^. 305 

is the true base of the Carboniferous epoch proper, it must 
also be remembered that like the Sharon coal resting on its 
top, it seems to have been a deposit peculiar to the north- 
ern rim of the Coal measures, everywhere skirting them 
around the north, but seldom passing far south under them, 
so that although toward the north the succession is definite 
enough, and it is plainly seen that the Subcarhonifermis 
rocks end with the base of this stratum, yet toward the 
south in the absence of this rock the Subcarboniferous beds, 
with their fossils, extend up to the base of the Sharon coal^ 
and in the absence of that deposit, also extend to the very 
base of the Lower Connoquenessing Sandstone which then 
becomes the base of the Conglomerate series. 

Thus it is that in passing south along the Shenango and 
Mahoning rivers into Lawrence county, the Cuyahoga shale^ 
and its fossils, are found coming up to the base of the 
Lower Connoquenessing Sandstone. 

It follows from this northward distribution of the Sharon 
Conglomerate, that the marine conditions that had so 
widely prevailed during the closing period of the Subcar- 
boniferous epoch, so far as Western Pennsylvania is con- 
cerned, came to an end sooner around the northern margin 
of the present coal field than elsewhere, that to the south, 
marine conditions continued to prevail, while on the north- 
ern beaches, brought above or near sea-level either by greater 
rising or less rapid subsidence, the Sharon Conglomerate 
commenced to accumulate, and continued to do so during 
the long time that marine conditions still obtained to the 
southward ; finally however the incursion of the coarse sedi- 
ments of the Connoquenessing Sandstone destroyed the 
life in the shallow seas southward, and so far as we know 
this put an end to Subcarboniferous life and conditions in 
Western Pennsylvania, that had already been forced a con- 
siderable distance southward by the incursion of the dis- 
turbing currents which carried the coarse material of the 
Sharon Conglomerate. It may even have happened that 
still farther south along the Chestnut Ridge region where 
subsidence was greater, that the marine conditions of the 

Subcarboniferous epoch continued to exist until the great 
20 (y. 



306 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

incursion of coarse sediment which formed the Homewood 
Sandstone and completed the Conglomerate series^ and this 
indeed seems in some regions to have actually been the state 
of affairs since in Fayette and Westmorelond counties, Pa., 
and in the adjoining county of Monongahela, W. Va., the 
only member of the series present in any force is the Upper, 
or Homewood^ and it is 176'-200^ thick. There is nothing 
at all to represent the Sharon Conglomerate of the north, 
and the interval between the TJTnbral Limestone and the 
Homewood Sandstone is made up of reddish and greenish 
shales interstratified with green sandstones which look more 
like Svhcarboniferous rocks than any representatives of 
No. XII that I have ever seen. And in fact at times this 
Homewood Sandstone itself appears absent or in little force, 
and then the red shales of the Umbral continue up to the 
very base of the Lower Productive Coal measures. 

Hence, if I am correct in this interpretation of facts, it 
will not do to draw a hard and fast line at any place in the 
series and say that everything above it is Carboniferous 
and everything below Suhcarhoniferous ; for as well as we 
can unravel the history in Western Pennsylvania, it would 
seem that the Sharon Conglomerate at least, was in process 
of formation and synchronous with marine conditions pre- 
vailing further south, essentially similar to what had ex- 
isted at the north previous to the change in conditions 
which rendered the accumulation of that mass of coarse 
sediment possible, and that subsequently the changed con- 
ditions at the north were carried further and further south 
with each great incursion of coarse material until finally the 
period culminated and ended by the spread of the Home- 
wood Sandstone as an almost universal covering over West- 
em Pennsylvania. 

After this final castastrophe scarcely any of the life forms 
that had existed before the accumulation of the Sharon 
Conglomerate remained, though the process of extinction 
and change had been progressive toward the south from the 
beginning. 

On this. theory only, so far as I can see, can we explain 
the results at which Mr. W. Gr. Piatt of the Survey Corps 



APPENDIX. Q*. 307 

seems to have arrived from the study of the rocks to the 
southeast in Jefferson, Indiana and Armstrong counties, viz : 
that the rocks of No. XI (Subcarboniferous) extend up to 
the base of the Homewood sandstone^ and that it is the 
only member that can be proporly placed in No. XII. 
[This conclusion, however, has been set aside as erroneous 
by the identification of the Stbh- Homewood strata in Mr. 
Piatt's district with the middle and lower members of No. 
XII. The whole subject is discussed in the Preface to Re- 
port W.—3. P. L.] 

In such localities where Subcarboniferous conditions seem 
to have existed until the epoch of the Homewood sandstone, 
or top member of the Conglomerate series, it would cer- 
tainly be unwise to include any lower beds in this series, 
and yet it seems to me equally wrong to draw the line along 
the base of the Homewood sandstone in such a case and ex- 
tending it over wide areas, call everything below it Subcar- 
boniferous. 

It is a question of time against conditions. If it be right 
to call all rocks Subcarboniferous that were formed every- 
where and under any surroundings until Subcarboniferous 
conditions had closed everywhere then it would undoubt- 
edly be correct to draw the line squarely at the base of the 
Homewood sandstone ; but under the broader view that dis- 
cards cataclysmal changes in the Earth's history, and rec- 
ognizes the now well proven fact that almost all great changes 
have been gradual and progressive, and that to be so they 
must have had a beginning somewhere in the midst of widely 
differing conditions, recognizing this principle it seems to 
me tliere should be no hesitation about extending the line 
downward from the base of the Homewood sandstone, as 
we proceed north, under the feather edges of these northern 
Conglomerates, until we reach the base of the Sharon Con- 
glomerate, even if this latter stratum were coetaneous with 
the deep sea that prevailed along the south line of Western 
Pennsylvania during the Chester limestone epoch, for all 
these conglomeratic sandstones, from the base of the Sharon 
to the top of the Homewood, were formed under similar 
conditions, and the Subcarboniferous sea at no time returned 



308 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

northward to restore the life forms which the appearance of 
the Sharon Conglomerate had driven away forever. To do 
otherwise than this would be equivalent to classifying the 
marine deposits which are now taking place along the coasts 
of this country and Europe with the Cretaceous, because 
perchance Cretaceous life and conditions may now exist in 
the deep bed of the Atlantic. 

I have discussed this matter somewhat at length, hoping 
to throw some light upon and help to harmonize the hitherto 
conflicting results of all who have undertaken the study of 
this question. It is certainly a difficult subject to deal with, 
but it seems to me that we have now got hold of some of 
the threads at least, out of which the true history of the 
fabric can be woven. 

Philadelphia and Erie railroad. 

New levels, 1879, by Mr. Welch. 

Erie ; frog point, E. end of old freight-house, 585' A. T. 

L. S. <fe M. S. RR. oroseing, 685' 

BeUeyalley, 1000' 

Langdon»8, 1185' 

Jackson's, 1227' 

Waterford, 1192' 

LeBoeuflf, 1218' 

Union, 1270' 

Reilly's siding, (center), 1347'. 

Elgin, ' 1885' 

LoveU's, *. 1874' 

Buffalo, Gorry A Pittsburgh RR. crossing, 1440' 

Corry, 1446' 

Atlantic A Q. W. RR. crossing, 1427' 

Columbus, 1407' 

Spring creek in Warren county, 1396' 

Garland, 1809' 

Warren, 1195' 

Clarendon, 1390' 

Sheffield, ISSO* 

Kane, 2020' 

Clarion summit, 2026' 

Ridgeway, 1893' 

West creek summit, lOOd' 

Buflftdo, N. Y. A Phil. RR. junction, 1019' 

Driftwood, 815' 

liock Haven, 659* 

Williamsport, 528^ 

Sunbury, 447' 

End of P. A D. RR., opposite Central Hotel, 446' 



INDEX TO Q4. 



Page. 

'A.cliims (ooiuty), . . . : 81 

'Adam's S. H. school-house, . .* 179 

AdamsvUle; level, 7,80,85,149,156; 12,13,150 

hUl, 49 

seotion, 149 

station (Atlantic), '. 7 

Adsits, Mrs., 142 

Albion; levelsin, 8,22; 16, 22 

Albion station, 255 

Alexander's, N., 224 

Alice's, Isaac W., 206 

AU^heny college, 168 

Allegheny river, . . . .13,15,18,25,27,28,45,64,65,87,100,102,103,160,215,228 

Allegheny valley ; RR., 57; 56 

Allen, Mr., 273 

Allen's; drive pipe, 121,274,275; 34 

Allen's John estate, • 130 

AUen's, J., 280 

Allen's quarry section, 107,273 

Allison's, Wm .* 282 

Allorisma, 85,86,134,230 

Alma rubra (black alder), 21 

Amboy, Ohio, 10 

American Journal Science, Aug., 1879, 68 

American Philosophical Society transactions, 115 

Amity township, Erie CO., 1,103,107,271,280,281 

north line, ' 107 

barometric elevations, »277 

Anderson, Mr., 244 

Anderson's quarry, 102,*244 

Anderson's, Amos, 223 

Anderson's, Jas., 142 

Andover, 12 

Andrews, Prof., 90 

Andrews' church, 166 

Aneroid barometer, 121 

Angola, N. Y. (level), 10 

Aniicola limosa, Say, 41 

Antisell, Thos., 161 

Appleman, Mr. ; quarry, 283 

(309 Q*.) 



310 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Arznstrong county, 63 

Armstrong, John ; drive pipe ; oil well, ^ ' 180 ; 34 ; 180 

Arnold»8,P., 188 

Asdlt, Geo., 141,142 

Ash's, W., 246 

Aflhbnmer, Mr. ; reports, 60,77,78; 50,61, 87 

Asher's, Ir., 243 

Ashland, 77 

Ashland oomity, Ohio, 77,83,92,101,120 

Ashley's, Dr., 180 

Ashtabula, Ohio (level,) 10, 12 

Atchison, Mr., 190 

Athens' mills (level), 15 

Athens township, Crawford county, . .' ' 5,8,21, *I91 

barometric levels in, 193 

Atken, Mr. ; quarry, 298 

Atlantic, 7,80,147 

Atlantic road, 148 

Atlantic station ; dip east of, 86,147; 46 

Atlantic and Great Western railroad, 2,4, 

5,7,80,133,143,147,148,168,197,221,223,234,237,239 

Atlantic and Great Western Railroad Company, 144 

Depot (in Union City), 237 

Venango station, 221 

levels, 13,136,142,136 

section ; deep cut section, 197 ; 132 

Franklin branch, 8, 13 

Attenburg's, J., 184 

Atrypa, 250 

Atrypa hystriz, 118,240,283 

Aubrey's, J., ; ... 267 

Austin's cheese factory, 155 

Averillrun, 19,301 

Avery's, C. E., 280 

Avicula /ragilis, Hall, 255,258.262 

Aviculopecten, Sp., 110,249 . 

Aviculopecten suborbiculairia, 102,165,171 

Babbitt's, Mr. ; section, . 258 

Babbitt's, M., 243 

Babbitt's, M. B., 260 

Bacon's, Oliver A gas wells, 290 

Bailey's land in Venango township, 106 

Bailey's run, 241 

Bailey's, D. P. ; section, 81 

Bailey's, Mrs., 283 

Baker's, A., 283 

Baldwin, Mr., 281 

Baldwin's, C. H., 257 

Bancroft's, C, 193 

Banister's, W., 179 

Barber's, C, 188 



f 



INDEX. Q*. 311 

Page. 

iBarlow*8, J. L., 180 

Barnes', C, 179 

Bamett'B, M., 265 

Barometer (Aneroid), . . . ; 121 

Barraokman's, S. S., 156 

Barrow's, V., 22 

Bartholomew ; section, 203 ; 204 

Bartholomew's, in Hajfield, 96 

Bartholomew's quarry, ' 94 

Barton's, J. E., 296 

Barton's, M. W., 295 

Barton's, W., 296 

Baskin'smn, 27,278 

Baiacanthus, 83 

B<U€teanthus baculiformiSf St. J. A W., 88 

Bates, Mr., 227 

Bates', A., 228 

Bates', E. ; level, 266; 267 

Bealer's (F.) cross-roads (level), 150 

Beanas', A., 282 

Bear creek, ... 29,279 

Bear lake, in Warren county (level), 13 

Bear run, 18 

Bear's run; mouth, 23; 23,262 

Beardsley, Mr., 158 

Beatty's, A. 8., 138 

Beatty's, J. J., 166 

Beatty's, J. S., 166 

Beaver; level; dip; Beaver Falls section, 210; 17; 47; 69 

Beaver canal feeder (old), 136 

Beaver Centre; level; wells, 6; 214; 212,215 

Beaver County; Report, 38,45,69,104,225; 63 

wells, 95 

Beaver Falls wells, 91 

Beaver dam ; level, . . . t 4 ; 280 

Beaver Falls; dip; section, 74,153,225; 46; 69, 72 

«* " well, 74,91,104,118 

« *( Economy well mouth ; section, . 46 ; 70 

Beaver river; dip at mouth; terraces, 101; 47; 88, 89 

Beaver run, 27,112,278 

Beaver Township, Crawford Co., 5,6,*210 

barometric elevations, 214 

Beaver valleys, 88 

Beaver Valley glacier, 33 

Beaver and Erie canal ; company, 24,31,80,158,285; 285 

Beers, S. A., 136 

Belknap's, v., 302 

Bell's, J., 236 

Bell, W. E 291 

Bell's well, 291 

Belle Valine, 4 



308 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

northward to restore the life forms which the appearance of 
the Sharon Conglomerate had driven away forever. To do 
otherwise than this would be equivalent to classifying the 
marine deposits which are now taking place along the coasts 
of this country and Europe with the Cretaceous, because 
perchance Cretaceous life and conditions may now exist in 
the deep bed of the Atlantic. 

I have discussed this matter somewhat at length, hoping 
to throw some light upon and help to harmonize the hitherto 
conflicting results of all who have undertaken the study of 
this question. It is certainly a difl&cult subject to deal with, 
but it seems to me that we have now got hold of some of 
the threads at least, out of which the true history of the 
fabric can be woven. 

Philadelphia and Erie railroad. 

New levels, 1879, by Mr. Weleh^ 

Erie ; frog point, E. end of old freight-honse, 585' A. T. 

li. S. & M. S. RR. oroseing, 685' 

BeUe valley, 1008^ 

Langdon's, 1185' 

Jackson's, 1227' 

Waterford, 1192' 

LeBoeuflf, 1218' 

Union, 1270' 

Reilly's siding, (center), 1847'. 

Elgin, * 1885' 

lioveirs, V 1874' 

Buffalo, Gorry & Pittsburgh RR. crossing, 144(y 

Corry, 1445' 

Atlantic A G. W. RR. crossing, 1427' 

Columbus, 1407' 

Spring creek in Warren county, 1896' 

Garland, 1809' 

Warren, 1195' 

Clarendon, 1890' 

Sheffield, ISSO* 

Kane, w . . 2020' 

Clarion summit, 2025' 

Ridgeway, 1893' 

West creek summit, 1095^ 

Buflklo, N. Y. & Phil. RR. junction, 1019* 

Driftwood, 816' 

liOck Haven, 559' 

Williamsport, 528^ 

Sunbury, 447' 

End of P. A D. RR., opposite Central Hotel, 445' 



INDEX TO Q4. 



Page. 

'Adams (oonnty), . . . '. 81 

Adam's S. H. school-house, . .* 179 

Adamsville; level, 7,80,86,149,168; 12,13,160 

hill 49 

section, 149 

station (Atlantic), '. 7 

Adsits, Mrs., 142 

Albion; levelsin, 8,22; 16, 22 

Albion station, 266 

Alexander's, N., 224 

Alice's, Isaac W., 206 

Allegheny college, 168 

Allegheny river, . . . .13,16,18,26,27,28,46,64,66,87,100,102,108,160,216,228 

Allegheny valley ; RR., 67; 66 

Allen, Mr., 273 

Allen's; drive pipe, 121,274,276; 34 

Allen's John estate, • 130 

AUen's, J., 280 

Allen's quarry section, _ 107,273 

Allison's, Wm., .' 282 

Allorisma, 86,86,134,230 

Alma rubra (black alder), 21 

Amboy, Ohio, 10 

American Journal Science, Aug., 1879, 68 

American Philosophical Society transactions, 116 

Amity township, Erie CO., 1,103,107,271,280,281 

north line, . * 107 

barometric elevations, «277 

Anderson, Mr., 244 

Anderson's quarry, 102,*244 

Anderson's, Amos, 223 

Anderson's, Jas., 142 

Andover, 12 

Andrews, Prof., 90 

Andrews' church, 166 

Aneroid barometer, 121 

Angola, N. Y. (level), 10 

Aniicola limosa^ Say, 41 

Antisell, Thos., 161 

Appleman, Mr. ; quarry, 283 

(309 Q*.) 



812 Q^. REPOBT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Page. 

B«U Valley; level, 4,88; 17 

BeUeraphon, Sp., 110,249 

Bemiii', B. C, 280 

Bema8^ S., 238,277 

Benediot's, J. A., 2S7 

Bennett's, D. A., 156 

Bennett's, T. S., 156 

Bennett's run ; level, 156 

Bentley farm (well on), 213 

Bentley's, A., 179 

Berea, Ohio, 144,212 

Berea Grit discussed, 68 

Berg, Mr. ; quarry; quarry section, 135,186 

Berger's, G., 248 

^ce's, Mrs., 243 

BickenstaflT, Mr., . 137 

Bierly heirs, 136 

Big Brokenstraw creek ; level, 29,279; 11 

Big Brokenstraw Valley, 279 

Big Sugar creek ; level on, 127,186 

BUlings', G., 270 

Bishop's, A., 243 

Biter, Mr. ; wells ; section, 195 

Black alder (alma rubra), 21,157 

Black run, 25,105,267 

Black's, H., 282 

Blackwood's, J., 295 

Blair county report, 72 

Blair (Mr.) quarry , . . . H7 

Blair's, H., 148 

Blair's, J. W., ; . . 289 

Blair's, W., 288 

Blakeslee's, Mrs., 237 

Blatchley's, S., 286 

Bleaksley quarry, 112 

Blickensderfer's, N., 257 

Blookville J12 

Bloomfield township, Crawford oo^ 5,8,21,*224 

barometric elevations, 226 

Bloomfield-Sparta-Ooncord highlands, 28 

Blooming valley, 199 

Bloss & Cogswell, 6 

Blotohley's, 284 

Blue Eye run, 11 

Blyston&'a, W., 221 

Bogardies', C. A., 179 

BogurdieB', P., 179 

Bogardies, T., « . . 179 

BfAl»\ S., 176 

Boasard^Hn 199 

Bougher's, G. A^ 105 



INDEX. Q^ 313 

Page. 
Bongher'g, M,, 191 

Bower's, Mr., 201 

Bower's, G., 286 

Bower's, J., 188 

Bowxnan'is, J., 287 

Boyd's, J., 180 

Boyle, Jas., 168,175 

Boyle's well, 61 

Bradford oompany map, 60 

Bradford region, 100 

Brady's run, 257 

Brake's, J., 267 

Branch of Woodoook creek, 11 

Brandon's, J., 179 

Brandy run, 284 

Brawley's, H., 178 

Brawleys, H. T., 179 

Brawley's, J., 178 

Brawley^s, N., 178 

Breed's, J. F., 178 

Bresley's flouring-mills, 128 

BreYillier's, 120 

Brewer's, J., . 280 

Bright's, Henry, 183 

Brindle's, G. W., 257 

Britain run ; level, 28, 11 

Broad leaved flag, (Typlialatifolia), 21,157 

Brocton; level, ^ . . . 2,17; 10 

Brocton Junction, N. Y., 17 

Brokenstraw creek, 88,87,228,278,280 

Brokenstraw valley, 18 

Brokenstraw waters ; level, 17 

Brooks, Mr., . . . ' 284 

Brook's, A. H., 142 

Brookhouser's, Jacob, 208 

Broomfield tunnel, ^ . 81 

&x>wn, Mr., 41 

Brown's, A., 186 

Brown's, F., 176 

Brown's, J. F., 166 

Brown's, J. I., 166 

Brown, Philip; oil boring, 182,164 

Brown, P., 166 

Brown's, S., 278 

Brown's hill P. O., 222,223 

Buck's, J., 142 

Bucklin's, A., 301 

Bnel's, Jos., 196 

Buffalo; level, 2; 10 

Buffalo, Gorry & Michigan Soutliem BR ; level, 2 ; 17 

Bumb's, B. R., . ' 228 



314 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Page. 

Bunoe's, C. F 222,223 

Buady's, L., 158 

Burch's, H., 160 

Burried valleys, 83 

Burlington & Keokuk types, 84 

Bume'swell, 217 

Burn's, J., 176 

BuUeroo., 45,68,100 

Report, 63 

oil wells ; oil region, 67 ; 09 

Butler's township, 282 

Butler county, antiolinal, • 53 

Butt's, G. W 302 

Butt's mill, 23 

Byhm, A. H., 130 

Byhm's, 181,173 

Byhm's hill, 130 

Byhm's land, 60 

Byhm's run section, 181 

Byhm's shaft, 60,61,131 

Byhm's, L., 133 

Caldwell's, B., 302 

Caldwell's, John, 142 

Caldwell's, J. B., 300 

CaldwelPs, J. R., 802 

Callum's, C. 177 

Calvin's, D. M. ; drift mound on land of, 149 ; 148 

Calvin's, J. H., 137,138 

Cambridge; level; dips, 8,25,26; 16,26,221,222; 46, 47 

Cambridge station (level), . . . < 13 

Cambridge township, Crawford county, 5,8,*221 

barometric elevations, 221 

Cameron county, 63, 77 

Campbell's, A. J., 254 

Campbell's, G. C, 166 

Campbell. Surveyor General, 166 

Canada, 44 

Canal Feeder dam section, 200 

Canal mills, 290 

Canning's, J., 270 

Canty's quarry, 114,241 

Carex, 40 

Carey's, E. J., 214 

Carll,J. F., 9,11, 

15,16,28,37,40,47,49,54,77,81,88,93,98,101,113,122,171,188,189,210,224,230 

Reports, 61, 96 

Report I; II; III 50,54,66,87,185; 71,185,226; 66,68,112,186 

Pleasantville section, 106 

Carlton (Evan's bridge) level, 13 

Carman's, W., 149 

Carpenter's, A., 199 



INDEX. Q^. 315 

Page. 

Carpenter's, Riley, . . 196 

Carr's, M. T., 208 

Carrahan*s, H., 297 

Carroll, Dr., 168 

Carroll Moravian quarries, 107,112,114,168,170,137,139,241 

level, 26 

section, 126 

CarroU quarry; levels and dip, . . 110, «239, 241, 242, 268; 122,243 

Carringer's, A., 199 

Carson's, Mrs., 282 

Carter Hill P. O. ; level, 280 

Carter's, W., 238 

Cassadaga lake ; level, ... 18, 40 

Cassewago township, Crawford county, *218 

Catholic church ; section; level near, 162,163,164 

Cawthor, Mr., 289 

Cawthro, J. ; well record, 288 

Cemetery branch of the Mill run, 83 

Centreville, 8,28,85,93,188,189,192 

boring, 189 

level of Oil creek at, 189 

level of water at, 28 

Chaflfee's, J., 278 

Chaffee's, K., 278 

Chamber's, S., 295 

Champage's, J., 183 

Chance, Mr. ; Report G«, 78, 50, 53 

Chapin's, J., 282 

Chapin's, L., 282 

Cliapman's, A., 156 

Chase's, C. J., 270 

Chase's, W. S. ; section, 174 

Chateley's ; coal mine, 137 

Chautauqua, 113 

county, 112 

lake ; level, 112 ; 40 

quarry, 112 

Cheese factory. Level of cross-roads near, 223 

Cherry Hill vicinity (level), 22 

Ctierry Hill P. O., 255 

Chestnut street, Erie, 2 

Chicago, 2 

Child's (level), 18 

Child's, D., 302 

Child's, B. J., 196 

Child's mUl ; section, .300 

Cffionetes Ulinoisensis, 110,247 

Cladodus, 83,140 

Clapper's, J., 253 

Clapville, 191 

Clarion, 100 



306 Q"*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

incursion of coarse sediment which formed the Homewood 
Sandstone and completed the Conglomerate series^ and this 
indeed seems in some regions to have actually been the state 
of affairs since in Fayette and Westmorelond counties, Pa., 
and in the adjoining county of Monongahela, W. Va., the 
only member of the series present in any force is the Upper, 
or Homewood^ and it is 175-200' thick. There is nothing 
at all to represent the Sharon Conglomerate of the north, 
and the interval between the Umhral Limestone and the 
Homewood Sandstone is made up of reddish and greenish 
shales inters tratified with green sandstones which look more 
like Svbcarhoniferous rocks than any representatives of 
No. XII that I have ever seen. And in fact at times this 
Homewood Sandstone itself appears absent or in little force, 
and then the red shales of the Umbral continue up to the 
very base of the Lower Productix>e Coal measures. 

Hence, if I am correct in this interpretation of facts, it 
will not do to draw a hard and fast line at any place in the 
series and say that everything aho^e it is Carboniferous 
and everything below Subcarhoniferous ; for as well as we 
can unravel the history in Western Pennsylvania, it would 
seem that the Sharon Conglomerate at least, was in process 
of formation and synchronous with marine conditions pre- 
vailing further south, essentially similar to what had ex- 
isted at the north previous to the change in conditions 
which rendered the accumulation of that mass of coarse 
sediment possible, and that subsequently the changed con- 
ditions at the north were carried further and further south 
vdth each great incursion of coarse material until finally the 
period culminated and ended by the spread of the Home- 
wood Sandstone as an almost universal covering over West- 
em Pennsylvania. 

After this final castastrophe scarcely any of the life forms 
that had existed before the accumulation of the Sharon 
Conglomerate remained, though the process of extinction 
and change had been progressive toward the south from the 
beginning. 

On this. theory only, so far as I can see, can we explain 
the results at which Mr. W. Gr. Piatt of the Survey Corps 



APPENDIX. Q*. 307 

seems to liave arrived from the study of the rocks to the 
southeast in Jefferson, Indiana and Armstrong counties, viz : 
that the rocks of No. XI (Subcarboniferous) extend up to 
the ba«e of the Homewood sandstone^ and that it is the 
only member that can be proporly placed in No. XII. 
[This conclusion, however, has been set aside as erroneous 
by the identification of the Sub-HoTaewood strata in Mr. 
Piatt's district with the middle and lower members of No. 
XII. The whole subject is discussed in the Preface to Re- 
port H^— J. P. L.] 

In such localities where Subcarboniferous conditions seem 
to have existed until the epoch of the Homewood sandstone, 
or top member of the Conglomerate series, it would cer- 
tainly be unwise to include any lower beds in this series, 
and yet it seems to me equally wrong to draw the line along 
the base of the Homewood sandstone in such a case and ex- 
tending it over wide areas, call everything below it Subcar- 
boniferous. 

It is a question of time against conditions. If it be right 
to call all rocks Svbcarhoniferous that were formed every- 
where and under any surroundings until Subcarboniferous 
conditions had closed everywhere then it would undoubt- 
edly be correct to draw the line squarely at the base of the 
Homewood sandstone ; but under the broader view that dis- 
cards cataclysmal changes in the Earth's history, and rec- 
ognizes the now well proven fact that almost all great changes 
have been gradual and progressive, and that to be so they 
must have had a beginning somewhere in the midst of widely 
diflfering conditions, recognizing this principle it seems to 
me there should be no hesitation about extending the line 
downward from the base of the Homewood sandstone, as 
we proceed north, under the feather edges of these northern 
Conglomerates, until we reach the base of the Sharon Con- 
glomerate, even if this latter stratum were coetaneous with 
the deep sea that prevailed along the south line of Western 
Pennsylvania during the Chester limestone epoch, for all 
these conglomeratic sandstones, from the base of the Sharon 
to the top of the Homewood, were formed under similar 
conditions, and the Subcarboniferous sea at no time returned 



308 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

northward to restore the life forms which the appearance of 
the Sharon Conglomerate had driven away forever. To do 
otherwise than this would be equivalent to classifying the 
marine deposits which are now taking place along the coasts 
of this country and Europe with the Cretaceous, because 
perchance Cretaceous life and conditions may now exist in 
the deep bed of the Atlantic. 

I have discussed this matter somewhat at length, hoping 
to throw some light upon and help to harmonize the hitherto 
conflicting results of all who have undertaken the study of 
this question. It is certainly a diflftcult subject to deal with, 
but it seems to me that we have now got hold of some of 
the threads at least, out of which the true history of the 
fabric can be woven. 

Philadelphia and Erie railroad. 

New levels, 1879, by Mr. Welch. 

Erie ; fh>g point, E. end of old freight-house, 685' A. T. 

Ij. S. a M. S. RR. oroseing, 686' 

BeUe valley, 1008^ 

Langdott's, 1185' 

Jack8on*8, 1227' 

Waterford, 1192' 

LeBoeuflf, 1218' 

Union, 1270' 

Reilly's siding, (center), 1847'. 

Elgin, ' 1885' 

LoveU's, *. 1874' 

Buffalo, Cony A Pittsburgh RR. crossing, 144(y 

Corry, 1446' 

Atlantic A G. W. RR. crossing, 1427' 

Columbus, 1407' 

Spring creek in Warren county, 1396' 

Garland, 1800' 

Warren, 1105' 

Clarendon, 1800' 

Sheffield, 1880' 

Kane, ^ . . 2020' 

Clarion summit, 2026^ 

Ridgeway, 1808' 

West creek summit, le&ff 

Buffalo, N. Y. A Phil. RR. junction, 1010* 

Driftwood, 816' 

IxKsk Haven, 660' 

Williamsport, 628^ 

Sunbury, 447' 

End of P. A D. RR., opposite Central Hotel, 445' 



INDEX TO Q*. 



Pftge. 

'A.dams (oonnty), . . . '. 81 

Adam's S. H. school-house, . .* 179 

AdamsvUle; level, 7,80,86,149,158; 12,18,160 

hill, 49 

aeotion, 149 

station (Atlantic), '. 7 

Adsits, Mrs., 142 

Albion; levelsin, 3,22; 16, 22 

Albion station, 256 

Alexander's, N., 224 

Allee's, Isaac W., 206 

Allegheny college, 168 

Allegheny river, . . . .18,15,18,25,27,28,45,64,66,87,100,102,108,160,215,228 

Allegheny valley ; RR., 57; 56 

Allen, Mr., 273 

Allen's; drive pipe 121,274,275; 34 

Allen's John estate, • 130 

AUen's, J., 280 

Allen's quarry section, ^ 107,273 

Allison's, Wm., .* 282 

Allorisma, 85,86,134,230 

Alma rubra (black alder), 21 

Amboy, Ohio, 10 

American Journal Science, Aug., 1879, 68 

American Philosophical Society transactions, 115 

Amity township, Erie CO., 1,103,107,271,280,281 

north line, * 107 

barometric elevations, «277 

Anderson, Mr., 244 

Anderson's quarry, 102,*244 

Anderson's, Amos, 223 

Anderson's, Jas. 142 

Andover, 12 

Andrews, Prof., 90 

Andrews' church, 166 

Aneroid barometer, 121 

Angola, N. Y. (level), 10 

Aniicola limosaj Say, 41 

Antisell, Thos., 161 

Appleman, Mr. ; quarry, 283 

(809 Q*.) 



320 Q*. EEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Dixon's, H., ^ ^ 

Dobbin's, S. L.; T. L., 71,224,226 

Dobbin's oil well, 225 

Dobbin's quarry, 93 

Dock street bridge, . ^ « 105 

Dodge's, D., « 206,297 

Donaldson's, W. A., 278 

Doolittle, S., .............. 272,278 

Doolittle's bore hole, 278,274,275 

Doolittle's quarry, 103,112,272,274 

Doolittle's section, 107,272 

Doolittle's run, 26,271,273 

Dorset, 12 

Douglass, J., , 177 

Drake's, Jos., 198 

Drake's mills, 222 

Drake's sohool-house, 128 

Drake well, , 184 

Dr^anaeanthv^ 88 

Drifton ridge, 128 

Duoret, ^ . . 176 

Duriet's, J., 176 

Duncan's, A., 802 

Duncan's, Jos., 149 

Dunkirk, 6, 10 

Dunn, N. W., 217 

Dunn's, J., 248 

Dunn's^ C, 22,267,297 

Dunn's well, 217 

Dupont's, D., 180 

Dutch hill, 60, 88 

Dyse, • 66 

Eagle hotel, Waterford, 114,267,270 

Eagle Petroleum Company, . 188 

Eagley's, C; J., ^ . 267 

Ealy, Dr., quarry, 259 

East branch oil creek, 8, 28 

East Cleveland quarries, 92, 94 

East Fairfield township, 5,8,88,60,180»,178 

barometric levels ; ravines, 188; 90 

East Fallowfield township, £,7,83,66,58,69,65,80,88,142* 

barometric levels, 148 

East Kentucky oil springs, 102 

Eastman's summit, « 228 

East oil creek, 6 

East Shenango township, 164 

Eaton's, Aift^, 218 

Ebenhouse's, H., 280 

Economy well, 70 

Edinboro' ; levels, 4,102,244; 16,246 

Edinville, P. 0., 242 



INDEX. Q^ 321 

Page. 

£dmondia BurlingtanensiSf 110,249 

Eighmy'8, Clark, : 218 

Elk county, 68, 77 

Elk creek 4,18, 

to 22»,23,86«,105,118,246 to 253,257 to 262; 265,267; 284 to 287,300 

Elk creek forge, 101 

Elk creek levels, 22,260,264,267 

Elk south branch ; level, 257,258; 260 

Elk creek township, Erie CO. ; levels, 3,18,257; 254 

Elk lick, 18 

Ellery Centre, 112 

Ellis^s, D. S., 176 

Ellis's, P 257 

Ellis, 8. E., 169 

Ellis' mill run section, 160 

Ellison's oil boring, 178 

Elliot, T.; level, 294; 295 

Elliott's creek forge, 101 

Elliott's run ; section, 8,19,23*; 293 to 295 

Elsworth's, S. & W., 148 

Emery A Tateham well, 183 

Ennis well section, 65 

Enterprise, 93 

Entley's, J., 283 

Erie, 2 to 4,9,10,16,17,19,23,31,38,44,107,144,240,268,284 to 291 

Erie city; borough, 287,288; 290 

Erie levels; dip, 10,16,17; 47 

Erie gas and oil wells, 120 

Erie county, . . .4,12,18,20,21,29,30,35,38,43,45,50,53,54,67,74,78,81,87,92, 
93,94,98 tol06,lll to 115,119,153,221,228,236,241,247,249,250,260,269,280 

Erie county line, 48,86,214,218,219 

Erie divide, 43, 47 

Erie valleys, 38 

Brie A Pittsburgh RR., 8,6,7,151,158,209' 

Espyville; levels, 7; 16,156 

Estel's,E., 242,243 

Euclid, Ohio, 10 

JEuomphalus depresaus, Hall, 249 

Evans, G. A., 292 

Evans, J., 264 

Evans' bridge (Carlton), 13 

Evansburg, 7,12,13,80,158,160 

Evansburg (RR.)» 12 

Evansville, 12 

Ewing's (RR.), 176 

Pagan's, J., 292 

Fagundus, 65, 81 

Fairview; level, 8, 10 

'Pairview village (level), 264 

Fairfield township, Crawford county, 5, 33, 56, 80, ♦137 

barometric elevations, 138 

210*. 



322 Q^ REPOKT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Fairfield— Greenwood township line, 66 

Fairview township, Erie county, 1,*260,265,287 

barometric elevations, , , '. 264 

Fall's run; levels, 4,18,247,251,252; 28,253 

Fairs run section, 248 

Fairs well, 262 

Fanner's, D. E., 209 

Famham, N. Y. (level), 10 

Faulkner's, Dr., .270 

Faunce, Mr., 180 

Faunoe's, 183 

Faunce's heirs, .' 183 

Fausburg's, J., 222,224 

Faust's, Adam, 163 

Faye (Joel) ferm, 234 

Faye's quarry, • • • • 234 

Faye's school house ; lavel, 23i ; 286 

Fayette county, 63 

Federal run, 27 

Feldmiller's land, 125 

Fenner's, Alex., 209 

Fenno's, J. E., . 238 

Ferris, G. D., 223 

FivePoints, at Wm. Smith's (level), 286 

Field's, G 223 

Findmiller's oil boring, 125 

"Fine Points," J. Douglass (level), 177 

Fingle's farm (abandoned oil boring on), 125 

Finley, Mr., 274 

Finley's, D., 278 

Finney's, Mrs., 176 

First Geological Survey, 46,63, 74 

Five Forks (level), 191 

Five points at Putman's store (level), 189 

Flannigan, Mr., 290 

Flannigan, Michael, 289 

"Flats" of Pine, '. . . * 184 

Floch, Mr., 155 

FoUett's, W. F., 280 

Fonner's, P., 155 

Forbes', V., 255 

Ford's, A. J., 280 

Ford's, P., 208 

Ford's, Silas, 164 

Forest county, 30,53,63, 68 

Fort of Le Boeuf, 8 

Fourth terrace, 89 

Fortuna well, 120 

Forster's, Mrs., 283 

Forster's, E. K., 282 



INDEX. Q^ 323 

Page. 

Forster's, L., 260 

Fountain house hotel, 199 

Four MUe run, 293,296 

Fralich's, J.; Mrs., , 228; 232 

France, C boring, 286 

Francis', H. D., 280 

Francis' run, 279 

Franklin, 6,13,26,46,48,65,79,81,83,87,109,181,183,253 

dips on meridian of, 47 

barrier above, 16 

quarries; bluffs, 57,65; 85 

level of water, 26 

brancii railroad ; station, 8 ; 13 

division L. S. M. S. RR 7, 12 

township, Erie county, 1,4,18,246* 

barometric levels, 252,253,260,262 

Frasder's, Roderick, 206 

Frees*, J., 193 

Freeman's, A. J., 267 

Freeman's, H. D., 219 

Freeman's, T., 156 

French creek, 4, 8,11, 

13, 16, 19,24,34,36,43,56,60,65,80,90,93,97,101,108,121,130,137,160,164, 
167,170,189,196,198,200,215,218,228,236,253,267,269,272,274,278,293,297 

waters, 12, 20 

head waters 12 

present bed, 30 

ancient bed, 189 

valley 82,^,80,105,117,164,228 

bluflBs, . 84,240 

bridges, 132,197 

levels, ^ 200,206,220,223,243,270,278,282 

high divide in Crawford county, 14 

south branch, 13,26* 36*,47 ,48,228,287 ,239,242,271 

levels; valley, 17; 230,232 

north branch, 4,26*,36, 107,239,242,268,271,274,281,296 

forks; valleys; dips at Wattsburg, 278; 44; 28 

French town, 174 

Frenen's, H., 155 

Frisbee's, Mrs., 242 

Freyermuth's, F., 133 

Fucoids, 65,83,85,114,115,117,118,134,214,215,223,230,240, 

241,244,250,251,252,254,258,262,263,265,266,272,281,284,285,291,298,301 

Ihtcoides eaudagaUi, 272 

jPttcoide« ryropAico, Hall, 119,268,801 

Fucoid, vertical stemmed, 147 

Fulk, John, 137 

Fuller's,!., 802 

Fulling-mill, 246 

Furgusson's, Mrs., 302 

Gage's school-house, 223 



324 Q*. EEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Gallagher's, J. AS., . 154 

Galmish's, A., 176 

Galusha's, C. L., 264 

Goniophora aeola, 110,249 

Ooniophora rigida, 110,248 

Gant's, E., 206 

Gardner, 40 

G^a^dner's J. T. tables, 9 

Garhouse's, .T., 292 

Garland in Warren county 65,81,87, 88 

RR. cut; dips, 94; 17, 49 

Garwood's, Jas., 164 

Gaston's, G., 148 

Generalized section, 66*,72,118 

Geneva, . . " 7,89,133,141 

Geneva, Ohio, 10 

Geneva (Sutton's), 13 

Geneva cross-roads, ' 142 

Geneva section, ; 141 

Genth, Dr. F. A., 88 

Geology of New York, 249 

Geology of Ohio, ^ 77,85,91,92,120 

Geology of Pennsylvania, 86,87,88,152 

Geological maps, 4,78,101 

George's, Wm., 200 

Gibson's, A., 167 

Gibson well; section, 90,152,153,165 

Gibson <fe Sterritt's oil well, 230 

Gilbert, M. N., oil boring, .178 

Girard 3,22,118,251,259,287,300 

levels, 10,22,260 

Girard junction ; level, 16 

Girard station, - 3 

Girard section ; bridge, 259 

Girard township ; levels, 1,4,257; 200,262 

Glazier's, !»., 267 

Glendale; level, 24,81,83,138,140; 142 

gorge ; section, 84; 139 

Glenn's, A., 165 

Glenville, 7 

Godfrey's Mrs. quarry, 259 

Goering's D section, 244,246 

Good's, T., 142 

Goodban's quarry, 251,252,258 

Goodbase run, 18 

Goodman^s quarry section, 110 

Goodwing's, H., 222 

Gourley's, S., 137,138 

Graham's, Wm., 209 

Orammysia Hannibalensia, 40,249,272 

Grand divide, 17, 23 






INDEX. Q^. 325 

Page. 

Grant's, L., 267^ 

Grant RR. station, 112 

Grass ran; level, 126,127; 130 

Grassy run, 81,83, 84 

Gravel run, 200 

Graves', Mrs., 280 

Graves', C, 295 

Gray, 190 

Gray's, J., 196 

Gray's, Wm., 196 

Gray's oil well, 233,231 

Gray's run section, 233 

Gray & Walling's atlas, 1, 5 

Great Bend section, 102 

Great Divide, 16,17,18,21,25,26,36,101,108,118,208 

Greendale cemetery, 167 

Greene township, Erie county, 1,18,283,295 

barometric elevations, 283 

Greenfield; level, 4,26,25; 295 

Greenfield township, Erie county, 1,18,25,296 

barometric elevations, 296 

Greenbee's, Mrs., , 214 

Greenbee's, S., 149 

Greenville, Mercer county, 13,17,24,26 

Greenville furnace, 59,151 

Greenwood township, Crawford county, 6,7,33,56,60,80,81,89,138* 

barometric elevations, 142 

Greenwood-Fairfield line 56 

Greenwood's, W., 295 

Greer's, J. W. mill, 163 

Grey's pipe, 34 

Grev well, 28 

GriflStb, Wm., oil well record, 256 

Griffy's, B., 255 

Griffy's, W., section, 255 

Grigg's, S., ^ 160 

Grist-mill on Sugar creek, 133 

Graves', 295 

Gudtner's, J., mill, 23,265 

Guerflo's, J„ 264 

Gulf. The , 24,301 

Guy's mills, 8,27,36,177,178,180 

Guy's run, * . 87 

Hagelbarger's, 220 

Hall's, E., 193 

Hall, Prof. J. C, 119 

Hall, James, 295 

Hall's, R., 257 

Hall, Thos. T., 122 

Haller's, S. H., 149 

Halliday's saw-mill, 257 



326 Q^ REPOJIT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Pa«re. 
Hamburg, N. Y. ; level, 10 

Hamilton's, A.lex., 214 

Hamilton's, Jas., 219 

Hamit, Mr. ; quarry, 285 

Hammon, Mr. ; ooal boring, 207 

Hammond's, E. A., 236 

Hanoook's, A., 183 

Hank's, J., 180 

Hannah's, J., 180 

Harbor creek; level; woolen factor^, 3,88,294; 10; 295 

Harbor Creek townsl^ip, Erie county, 1,*293,296 

barometric elevations in, 295 

Harbison's, S., 270 

Hardsell 's, Dennis, 218 

Hare creek; level of forks west from, 29,*36,278; 280 

Harmon's, Mrs., 222 

Harmonsburg; level, 7,40,160; 163 

Harriett's, J. B., 156 

Harrisburg. Laboratory of the Survey, 161 

Harrison's, D., 267 

Hart run, 278 

Hart's, S. P., 138 

Hartley's, J., 297 

Hartman's, J., 253 

Hartstown; level of forks at, 21,156,157; 150 

Hatch, Mr., 93 

Hatch's, H. A., 176 

Hatch, W., 277 

Hatch's school-house, 179 

Hawkins's, M. S., 246 

Hawthorn's, J. H., 183 

Hawthorn's, J. K., 222 

Hayes' & Proper's mill, 183 

Hayfield village ; level, 96,201,205; 206 

Hayfield, Bartholomew's in, . 96 

Hayfield run, 205 

Hayfield section ; section below, 202; 201 

Hayfield township, Crawford CO., 5,7,89,97,*200 

ravines, 90 

barometric elevations, 206 

Hayford's, D., 267 

Haynes', J., 207 

Hazen, I.; hill, 12,142 

Heard's, A. B., 219 

Heath, Mr 230 

Heath's, H 138 

Heath's, B., 128 

Heath's quarry, 92 

Heath's oil well, 282 

Heidler's, C, • • 265 

Heintz's, V., • 266 



INDEX. Q*. 327 

Page 

Henderson, Mr., 185 

Henderaon's, T., 282 

Hendriok's, 168 

Hendrick A Iiogan, quarry on land of, 167 

Henry run ; section, 148 

Henry, Mr. ; quarry, 147 

Henry's quarry, in East Fallowlield township, 65 

Henry, Mr. ; oil boring, 279 

Henry's, A., 160 

Henry's, Joseph, 14^ 

Henry's, W. W., 280 

Henton's, Wm., 296 

Herbert's, H., 246 

Herrington's, O. H. P 136 

Hickqrnell's, Fred., 206- 

Hicks' compensated field barometer, 112 

Hlggins', Mrs., .^ 236 

HUl's, J., 138 

Hill's, S., , 137,188 

Hill's, T. W., 155 

Hilliker's, C, 189 

Hite's, H. C, 206 

Hoboken, N. Y., ocean mean level at, 9 

Hock's, H. J., 292 

Hodge, James T. ; Meadville section, 45,74,87,94,112,127; 94,95 

Hoffman, M. ; "well boring 125 

Hollbaugh's, P., 128 

Hollenbeck's, A. J., 206 

Holman's, J. R., 220 

Holoptyohiua, : 102,140 

Holoptychius nobilissimuSf 140 

Honeycomb rock, 57 

Hope Dale MUls well, 290 

Hope Mills, 287 

Hotchkiss' crossroads, 244 

Hotchkiss' school-house 218 

Hotckkiss' Henry, 219 

Houghtelling's, N., 208 

Houston's, Mr., 800 

Houston's, D., 302 

Houtz, S., 130 

Howard. Mr., 110,147,151 

Howard, Henry, , 251 

Howard's, li., 253 

Howard's boring, 251 

Howard's quarry, 110,115,«246,247,249 to 253,262^265 

section, 109 

Howe Truss bridge. Level of south end, 15 

Hower's, J., 206 

Howland's, H., 28 

Hubbell's, 276 



328 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Hnbbell, Mr. ; tsection, 275 

HubelPs, D., 288 

Huberts, 61,135 

Huber'B sohool-house, 186 

Huber & Clippel, 60 

Huidekoper, Ph., 176 

Huirs, J. M., 286 

Hull's, L. A., 286 

Humes, Mr., 197 

Humes. 199 

Humes, R. A., 196 

Hunt's, M., 196 

Hunter's, J. W., 248 

Huntingdon county, 72 

Huntley's, H.. 255 

Huron county, Ohio, 120 

Hutchinson's, G., 195,196 

Hyde's, W. A., 180 

Hydetown; level; section, 29; 186 

Hydeville, 8,28,34,93,184,186,187 

niinois State Geologist, Prof. A. H. Worthen, 84 

Indiana county, 68 

Iowa, 110 

Irish's, M., 214 

Irvineton; level, 6,228 17 

Irvinetown, 102 

Irving, N. Y. ; level, 10 

Ivoryls, S., 257 

Jacklett's, S., 180 

Jackson, Mr., quarries, 144 

Jackson's quarry, 60, 80 

Jackson station ; RR. station, 284; 108 

Jackson's on the Grand Divide, level, 17 

James, A. C, 270 

Jamestown, 7,68,77,81,83,85,86,89,90,91,160,153,155 

dips from Garland to, 49 

levels, 12, 16 

Adamsville hill, dip, 49 

Gibson well, 91 

ravine, 85 

Snodgrass' quarry near, 65, 78 

Jamison's, Jas., 164 

Jane's, H 302 

Jannesat's school-house, 130 

Jareki's two wells, 120 

Jeanney's, T., 179 

Jinney*s, E., 196 

Johnson's, H., 179,280 

Johnson's, J., 302 

Johnson's, Wm., 137 

Johnson's Endycopedia, 1,2,3,5,6 



INDEX. Q*. 329 

Page. 
Jones, E., 206 

Jones* well, 206 

Joslin's, Geo., 210 

Kaler's, Geo., 206 

Kam's, F., 136 

Kashee's bore-hole, 141,142 

Eas8on*s, 16 

Raster's, R., 128 

Eeeber's, Mrs., 167 

Eee's, Jno., 140 

Keep's, D., 166 

Keep's, P. M., 266 

Keller's, J., 166 

Kelley's, Mr., 205 

Keiley's, H., 106 

Kelley's, J., 167 

Kelley's, M., 228 

Kelley's, R., 163 

Kelley's, U., 223 

Kelley's, run, 27 

Kelly's, M., 222 

Kelsey's, J., 208 

Kennedy's, J., 166 

Kentuoky, (see East Kentucky), 102 

Keokuk A Burlington types, 84 

Kerr, Mr., 226 

Kerr's, mill dam, 03 

Kerr's mills ; section, 186 

Kightlinger's, Mrs., 176 

Kimple's, Edwin, 206 

Kinderhook fiauna of the Mississippi valley, 84 

King's, Jacob, 226 

King's, W 270 

Kingsley's, E., 106 

Kingsville, Ohio (level), 10 

Kinney, Mr.; borings; wells, 188; 35 

Kinzua; Great Bend section below, 78,70,81; 102 

Kirkland's, J. C, 257 

Kiser's, Mary, 100 

Kiser's, S., 176 

Kleckner's ravine, 04 

Klinginsmith, L., 141 

Klinger's, J., 133 

Klipple's, J. ; section at, 133,134 

Knox county, Ohio, 77,02,101,120 

Knox's, W., 270 

Kollabaugh'8, G., 166 

Ladd's,H. E, 282 

LaflTerty's school-house, . 133 

Laflferty's, E., 180 

Lake's, H. J., 210 



330 Q^ KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Lake Chautauqua in New York, 18, 24 

Lake Conueautee, (see Conneautee), 16 

Lake Erie, 1,2,«9,11, 

16-18,21-25,28,30,31,34,37,89,40,43-45,64,67,99,100,105,116,160,206,208, 
214,243,246,251,253-256,260, 263,266,281,284,286,287,293, 296-298,300,301 

bluffs, 293 

front, 38 

mean level; level, 9; 40 

divides above, 12 

region, 53, 55 

shore; dips along, 70,256; 49 

slope ; deep ravines, 117 ; 83 

streams, 35. 

to the Ohio river (dips), 46, 

oil well boring between and Titusville, 104 

Lake LeBoeuf, 3, 25 

Lake Pleasant; level, 20,271,282; 40,282 

Lake region, 69 

Lake Shore; biufEet, 255,257,260; 255 

road, ' 16 

RR.; levels at crossings, 300; 257,260 

<& Michigan RR.; levels, 2,3,39; 10 

Franklin division, 7, 12 

Lake View, N. Y., (level), 10 

Lakeville; level; ravine, 14,225 

Oil Co. station, 224 

Lambdodus, 88 

Lamlo*s (S.) school-house, 176 

Lamson's quarry, 265 

Lamson'srun; level, ^ 18,265; 267 

Lamson's, E., 267 

Lander's, D., 256 

Lane's, A. J., 208 

Lane's, J., 176 

Langdon's, (level), 17 

Lang's, Elizabeth, 200 

Lang's, J. W., 200 

Iiarned's, C, 214 

Lathrop's, Mr. ; quarry, 298 

Laughlin's, J. M., 260 

Laughlin's, T., 166 

Law's, G. W., 302 

Lawrence, 33 

Lawrence county ; report; wells, 66,68; 63,79. 95 

Lawson's, J., 176 

LeBcBuf, 34,94,112,113,247,268-270,272,279,284 

level, 17 

oreek, 20,25,36,106,237,239,267,282,283,284 

branches, 20 

East branch, 282 

head waters, 265,283 






INDEX. Q*. 331 

Page. 

LeBoeof, levelson, 283,270,248 

moath, 26 

valley, 44,105 

buried valley, 84 

lake; level, 267; 40 

(Carroll) quarry, 114 

station; level of forks east, 239,240; 243 

township, Erie oo., 1,4,106,*239,243 

barometric elevations, 242 

Lee's, Thos., 226 

LeFevre's, D.H., . ; 206 

Lehentaler's, A., 243 

Leiorhynchus meaacoataliSf 104 

Leiorhynchua Newberryi, 118,298 

Lenkhart's, T 206 

Leonard's, Mrs., 298 

Leopold, Mr. ; quarry, 260 

Leopold, C, 264 

Leopold's, F., .• 264 

L^dodendron^ Sp., 252 

Lqindodren Oaspianumf Dawson, 65,78,79,152,191 

Lepidodendron Weltheimianumf St., 78, 79 

Lepley's,J., 128 

Lesley, J. P., 68,68,102,113,117,146,205 

Lesquereux, Leo., 79,114,115,250 

Lewis, Mr., 131 

Lewis, Mr., of Fardoe, 60,134 

Lewis's, D., 286 

Lewis's, Geo., 206 

Lewis's, T., 154 

Lewis' quarry, 112 

Lewis <fc Oliphant, Messrs., 130 

Liberty furnace ; section, 59,88,125,127; 122,124 

Liberty ftimaoe (old), 58, 62 

Licking county, Ohio, 77 

Liddell's (Mr.) quarry, 285 

Liddell, 286 

Lllleyfarm, 234 

Lilley run, 27 

Lilley'srun; branch; level at saw-mill, 236; 233; 236 

Lilley's, Henry, 206 

Lilley oil well; record, . . 234 

Limestone well, 190 

Lincolnville; level, 8,28; 14 

Line Mr.; farm; section, 205; 94,204; 204 

Linesville; levels in, 7,16,93,157,158; 16,158 

Lingo's, S., 148 

LingulcB, 62,89,124,132,148,170,172,192,195,199,202,207,219 

Lingula melia, 89,132,198 

Lingula membranacea, 89 



332 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Page. 

Lingula Newberryii, 62 

Linguloid sheila, 88 

TAnnaea humilis, Say, 41 

Linsey. Messrs. Nobles and , 189 

Little, Mr., 203 

Little Brokenstraw oreek (level), 11 

Little Conneautee creek, 20,*25,26,248 

branch; mouth; level, 244; 8; 246 

Little Cooly [or Cooley] ; levels in, 8,11,66,192; 11,15,193 

Little lake, 24 

Little OU oreek, 28,184,188 

Little Sugar creek, 28,85,121,126,127,132,167,171 

bottoms, 125 

branch ; east branch, . 81 ; 86 

mouth, 26 

valley; buried valley, 130; 34,167 

levels on, 133,176 

Little's Comers, 7,93,94,95,98,201 

Lloyd's, W. B., 270 

Lockport, 3 

Logan & Hendrick. Quarry on land of , 157 

Logue's, J., 246 

Loney, D., 219 

Long, Mrs., 207 

Long, G. W., 121 

Long's, J., 130 

Long's, Wm., 199 

Long's W. school-house (level), 271 

Long's oil boring, 207 

Loomy's, M. J., 186 

Lorain county. Ohio, 77, 85 

Lovell's; level, 4; 17 

Loveli's station (level of cross-roads at), 237 

Lowe, U. B, ; section, 277 

Lower Oil creek, " 225 

Lowing's, H. D., 209 

Low's quarry, 277 

Lubold's J. school-house (level of cross-roads at), 128 

Lubold's, W. L., level, 128 

Luther, Geo. P., 262,264 

Luther's, Sm 264 

Luther's oil boring, 262 

Lycoming and Sullivan county maps, 50 

Lyon's Hollow P. O. level, 196 

Lyon's, J., 280 

Lyon's, J. J., 238 

A^key's, D. S., 196 

Madison, Ohio level, 10 

Mahoney's, W., 295 

Mahoning river, 101 

Mahoning valley, 58, 59 



( 



INDEX. Q*. 333 

Page. 

Malick's, I., 302 

Mallory's, A., 257 

Mallory's, M., 257 

Manning's, W. M., 179 

Mansfield's, 0. A., 221 

Map and model of the Mahanoy and Shenandoah district, 50 

Marbrush, Wni. Knob on land of, 148 

Maroy's, A., 166 

Marker's, H., 176 

Marley's, James, 133 

Marquette, 2 

Marsh's, 8., 1»5 

Marshall's, Soott A., 154 

Marshall's Comers. Level at forks, 154 

Martinis, A., 802 

Marts, G., 180 

Maryland, 55 

Matteson's, A., 189 

Matterson, Mr. ; quarry, 282 

Matterson's D. ravine, 94 

Matteson, Mr., 188 

Matteson, >E., 238 

Mattiaon's, L. C, 179 

Mattson's sohool-house (level near), 270 

Mauch's, N., 297 

May's, G., 223 

Maynard, Mr., 276 

Maynard's, C, 278 

Maynard's, W., 267 

Ma3rnard'8 house, 276 

Maynard's quarry, 276,277 

Ma3rnard's section, . 276 

Maynard's run ; bluflBs, 271,276,276,277; 105 

May's quarry, 147 

Mayville, 17 

McCartney, Mr., 178 

McCartney's ledge, 66, 67 

Mccarty's, J., 180 

McClelland, Mr., 268 

McClelland's, H., 246 

McClelland's, J., 183 

McClelland's, W., 246 

McClelland's tarm, 112 

McClelland quarry, 268 

McClure's, Jas., 214 

McCommon's, J., 254 

McCord's, I., 301 

MoCormick's, D., 155 

McCreary's, 8. S., 292 

McCreath, Mr., 42,161 

McDaniel's, 68, 59 



334 Q*. REPOBT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 
MoDaniel, Mr., 124 

McDaniel, George, sohool-house (level), 130 

McDill's, W., school-house (level near), ^ .... 130 

McDowell, Mr., 158 

MoDoweirs, R., 160 

MoElhaney's, J., 154 

McElhaney, Matthew ; section, level, . 153; 154 

McElhenney*s, , 86 

McElroy's, W., ^ 130 

McEntire, Jas. M., , , . . . 60,142 

MioEntire's, J. W., 149 

McEntire, Jesse, 60,144,149 

McEntire's; property, 58,144; 142,145 

McEntire mines; coal hill, 60; 12 

McEntire settlement, 60,61,65 

McFadden's, J., ,4 198 

McFarland's, R., , 133 

McFate's, D., 133 

McFate*s, R., 133 

McGahan's, G., 246 

McGaw's, W. H., 175 

McGaire*s, Alex., 163 

McGuJre's, Jas., j .... 163 

MoKean, 67 

McKean corners (Middleborough) level, 22 

McKean's corners; level; dip, 22,45; 16; 48 

McKean county, 61,63,77-79,81, 99 

report, 79 

map, 53 

anticlinal crossing, ■ , 53 

township, Erie county, 1,4,I8,243,260,262,*265 

barometric elevations in, 267 

line, 285 

McKean- Waterford township line, 21 

McKee's, T., 264 

McLanahan quarry, 12 

McLean's corners ; level of Shenango near, 7,16; 154 

McLaughlin's, J. A., 180 

McLaughlin's, Thos., 219 

McLaughlin's run, 188 

McMicliael's, J. & C, 142 

McMichael's run ; level at mill, 141 ; 142 

McMichael's school-house, . 166 

McMillen's, Jas., 206 

McMillen's, R., 179 

McNamara's, G. ; section, 173,176,174 

McNamara's, J., 175 

McQuiston's, M., 142 

McQuiston's run, 147 

McVicker's, J., 149 

Mead's, A., 252 



INDEX. Q*. 335 

Page. 

Mead's, E. D., 176 

Mead Corners; level, 86,173; 176 

Mead township, Crawford county, 6,33,35,36,61, 130, ♦167, 177 

barometric, elevations, 175 

ravines, 90 

MeadvUle, 5,7,8,11,13,16,24,25,26,28,80,32.35,43,60 to 66,74,81,83, 

85,87 ,89,93,95,102,133, 13i, 144, 164 to 170,173 to 175,196,198,200,201,205 

levels in, 11,26,169 

dips near, 48 

hills, 80 

Junction; level, .8,18; 13 

Methodist Episcopal stone church, . 64 

oil well, 170 

Oil and Oas Company, 170 

quarries, 63, 64 

ravines east of, 84 

road, , 174,198 

station (level), 13 

section, 94,95, *167 

iron bridge section, 164 

Medina county, Ohio, 77, 85 

Meehan's, J., 238 

Mellhorg's, J., 264 

Mellon's, Wm., 160 

Mentor, Ohio (level), 10 

Mentro, Peter, section. Fig. 4, 61 

Mercer county, 24,33,56,58,59,63,67-69,78,81,86,87,89,113,120,137,138,151,225 

dip at Shenango Village, 48 

hilltops, 43 

level in, 12 

Ihie, 7,137,138,142,150 

report, 63 

wells, 75 

Sharon well, 91 

Mercer-Crawford county line, 5, 91 

Merchant's, M., 193 

Mereley's, J., 183 

Mesodmodus, . . . ; 83 

Messenger's, C, 228 

Messerall, Mr. ; saw-mill section, 127,128; 127 

Methodist Episcopal church, 168 

in Meadville, 64 

W. of Greentteld (level), 295 

Methodist church south of Corry, 230 

Middleboro', . . 4,22,265 to 267 

quarry (level and dip), 112 

section, 108,266 

Middleborough (McKean Comers) level, 22 

Middlesex fUmaoes, 151 

Middlesex and Greenville furnaces, 59 

Middleton's, J. M., 270 






336 Q*. KEPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Middleton, J. W., 268 

Middieton's fSarm, 112 

Middleton quarry ; aeotion, 268 

Middleton quarry (old), 269 

Midway in Meroer county (level), * 12 

Mile run, 291 

Miles', J., 260 

Miles', T. H., 196 

Miles* run (level), 11 

Mill creek 4, 19, «23, 286, 287, 290 

South branch, 35 

Rorge, 101 

level at forks at toll-house on, 292 

Mill Greek township, Erie county, 1,264,«286 

barometric elevations, 292 

Mill pond, 81,227 

Mill pond, Oil creek (dip), 48 

MUlrun, 84,167,169,170,171 

cemetery branch, 83 

hydraulic ram on, 89 

sulphur spring at head, 171 

levels on, 175 

Mill Village; levels in and near, 4,84; 13,26,242,243 

Miller's; section; levels; land, . . . .7,13,26,27,86,147; 123; 13,26,223; 53 

Miller's knob section, 146 

Miller's mine, 60 

Miller's quarry (level), 12 

Miller's, A., 220 

Miller, D. V.; quarry; level, 207,208 

Miller's, I., store, 226 

Miller's, John, 218 

Miller's, J. A., 175 

Miller's, J. C, 160 

Miller's, J. H., 292 

MUler's, J. M., ' 142,292 

Miller, P.; section; level, 154,280 

Miller, O. K. ; mine, 146; 69 

Miller, T. J., 146 

Milwaukee, 2 

Minnis', J. S. (school-house at), 192 

Mississippi Valley (Kinderhook fauna of the), . , , , 84 

Moffat's, J. H., 236 

Mohawk run (level at crossing of) 223 

Monroe's, P., 179 

Monroe's school-house (level), 179 

Montgomery's, Mr., quarries in Summer Hill township, 93 

Montgomery, J. R, ; quarry; level, 207,208 

Moon's, N.M 267 

Moore. Mr. ; borings, 242 

Moore's, Mrs., 292 

Moore's, J., 282 






• 



INDEX. Q^ 337 

Page 

Moorheads; level, ^ 183»184; 10 

Moorhoufle's, G., 206 

Moravian (or Carroll) quarry, 112 

Morian's, New York (level), 10 

Morgan's, J., 257 

Morris section, 219 

Morns', J., 219 

Morns', J. S., 218 

Morrisey's, J., 176 

Morse's, Stephen, 206 

Morse's, W. P., 183 

Mosey run ; level at crossing, 28; 226 

Mosiertown. Level of cross-roads in, 218 

Mosierville, 7 

Mourass', H., 248 

Muokinhaupt's, Geo. W., 219 

Muddy creek, 8,11,»27 ,28,32, 189,191, 194,222 

branch (level), 193 

south fork, 86 

valley; buried valley, 15,192; 34 

levels on, 11,191,193,223 

Muddy run, mouth, 7, 26 

Muddy and Woodcock waters. Divide between 8 

Mud lake, 8, 24 

Mud run, .... 35 

Munsel's, J., 282 

Mullen's, W., 155 

Murphy's, J., 286 

Museum of Natural History, N. Y., 97 

Mushrush coal (level), .*.... 12 

Nash A Coxan's, 214 

Neely's quarry, 291 

Neely's run, 291 

Negus run ; junction with Oil creek, 28; 226 

Nelson's, J., 138 

Netegan's, M., , 283 

Newberry, Dr.; section, 94,120,203; 91 

New Brighton, 89 

Newcastle; level, 7,163; 17 

New Jersey. White Pond, Warren county, 41 

New Richmond; levels in, 8,80; 11,196 

Newton's, C, 142 

Newton's Mills (level), 15 

New York State, 4,12,17,18,23,44,101,112,271,278,279,281,286,301 

high lands of western, 9 

State line, 4,9,10,18 to 20, 

23,25,86,44,47,49,70,99,106,108,119,259,279,280,281,296,297,301 

State line, dips, level, 47,49; 280 

south line, '. 1 

New York and Ohio State line, 1 

22 Ql 



838 Ql REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

New York State Survey, 63 

Geology of 4th District, 249,295 

New York Petroleum Company, 190 

New York and Erie RR., 2 

Nicholson's, Mrs., 226 

Nicholson's, W., 286 

Niece's, H., . . . . 138 

Noble's (level), . 14 

Nobles & Linsey, Messrs., 189 

Norris, Mr., 22 

Norris, Henry, , 199 

Norris, J., 220 

Norrisville. (Level of cross-roads at) 206 

North branch, 20 

North branch (French creek), 26 

North branch of Shenango (level at Linesville), 158 

North Eaist; level, 3,801; 10 

North East township, Erie county, 1,296, *297 

barometric elevations, 302 

North East village (level), 302 

North Shenango creek, 209 

North Shenango township, Crawford county, 5,7,93,*155,157 

barometric elevations, 156 

North Springfield ; level of forks in, 3; 257 

NymphcBa odorata, 243 

NymphcRa (white water lilies), 25 

Oaks', A., . . . 177 

Oaks', W., 179 

O'Brien's, J., 254,295 

Odell's, S., 158 

Ohio, 12,21,53, 

59,62,63,68,77,78,86,89,90-95,98,99,112,120,144,155,203,227,254,255 

South Eastern , 90 

high lands of Northern , 9 

Western Reserve, 20 

Ashland county, 85,92,101,120 

Huron county, 120 

Knox county, 101,120 

liOraine county, 85 

Medina county, 85 

Richland township, 92 

Trumbull county, 85, 90 

Ohio State line, 1,4,6,16,18, 

19,21,22,24,31,38,44,78,79,95,108,119,156 to 158,208,254 to 256,288,296 

bluff east of, 38 

dips, 48, 49 

levels, 13,22,257 

Ohio. Map of , 21 

Ohio river, 13,16,45,62,72,104 

dips from Erie to the , 46, 47 

terraces, 89 



INDEX. Q*. 339 

Paire. 
Ohio valleys, 38 

Ohio State Survey; Geologists; Geology, vols. I, II, and III, 53 ; 68; 85,91,92, 98 

OU City, 6, 87 

dips; levels 46,48; 14,15, 29 

blufOs opposite, 89 

Oil creek,- 6,8,15,«28,32,34, 36, 

81,87,93,96,97,100,180,182,184,187 to 189,191,214,222,224,226,228,237 

bed, . 98 

dKHKlry, 65 

forks, 8 

head, ...•*...^* 27 

waters, « 14,15,186 

levels, 11,15,28,183,189,226,191 

dip at mill pond, .^ 49 

valley ; andent valley, , 28,94; 27 

Watson's flats of , 6 

east branch ; heads, 8,28,35,188; 227 

west branch, 8,28,188 

Ofl Creek lake, 8,20,»28,91,103,*224,225,226 

levels, 28,40,226 

bore-hole at ; boring, 71; 101 

Oil Creek Lake Lumber and Mining Company's wells, Nos. 1 and 2, . . . 225 

Oil Creek Station [see Lakevilie], 224 

Oil Creek township, Crawford county, 6,6,*184 

Oil lake, 74,81, 93 

bore-hole section. Fig. 11, 72 

Oil Lake well ; section, 74 ; 119 

Oil region; reports, .74,85,185; 79, 95 

Oil regions of Venango, Butler, and Clarion counties 99 

Oil well near Evensburg, / 160 

Oil well on Mr. Philip Brown's land, 162 

Old Liberty Furnace [see L], 58 

Old Middleton quarry [see M], 269 

Olean Rock City, 18 

Olenbauher's, L., 267 

Oliphant & Lewis, Messrs., 130 

Oliver A Bacon's gas wells, 290 

Olmstead's, Mr., ... 232 

Orang^ville, Mercer county (level), 13 

Orangeville, Ohio, 86 

Orodua, - 83,140 

Orthis, 79,83,230,250 

Ortkis wnffuiculua, 283 

Orthoeeras, 83,97,201 

Orthoceras, Sp., 110,249 

Orton, Prof. Ed., 68, 90 

Odbum's, D 193 

Osgood's, S. W., 196 

Ouspaugh's, P., 166 

Owens', E., 296 

Owen's school-house, 180 



840 Ql KEPOET OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Paare. 
Piaden's (Pejrtx)!!) run, 24 

Padant*s oreek, mouth, '. 157 

Painsville, Ohio (level) 10 

Paige's, J. B., 226 

Paint Fork of Sandy. East Kentucky Oil Springs, .102 

Palm's, Mr., 192 

Palm's, S., 193 

Palmer's, J. B., . . . 167 

J^ilceaniscus, 83,140 

Panama; level; station 112,113; 18; 112 

Pardee's, J., 179 

Pardoe, 60,130,184 

Parker, Mr., 222 

Parker's, G. C, .297 

Parker's, W., 278 

Parker's, 100 

Parsons', H., 236 

Peck's, D.. 282 

Pegan's, A., 180 

Peiflfer, Mr., 198 

Pennell's, B., 193 

Penney's, Buel, 196 

Pennsylvania; middle and eastern ; western, 12; 63,55; 53 

highlands, 9 

line, 6 

shore of Lake Erie, 9 

Pennsylvania and Petroleum BR. (levels) 15 

Perkins', C. A 280 

Perry, Ohio (level), 10 

Person's, H., 278 

Peters', Jno., 206 

Peterman's, C, 138 

Peterson's, A., 139,140,142 

Peterson's, J., 142 

Peterson's, S. A., 138 

Peterson's, W 138 

Petit, Mr., 214 

Peyton (Paden's) run, 24 

headwaters, 208 

level at crossing, 158 

Pfeiffer's section, 199 

Phelps', Mrs. S., 270 

PhUadelphia and Erie BR., 2,3,4,6,28,95,107,233 

bridge, 25 

depot. Union City, 237 

levels, 240,269,284; 17 

station, 4, 93 

Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, 41 

Phillips, Mrs., 191 

PhiUips, O., 191 

Fhysa heteroatrqpha. Say, 41 



INDEX. Q^ 341 

Page. 
Picker's J., 166 

Pierce's, A. V., 302 

Pierce's, D., 302 

Pierson, Mr., 133 

Pierson's quarry, 285 

Pike's rocks, Warren county (level), 11 

Pine creek, or East Oil creek ; level, 6,28,93,184; 16 

Pine "Flats," 184 

Pine knoll, 68,61,126,127 

Pine run near A. White's (level), 288 

Pine township, Crawford county, 6,7,93,*166 

barometric elevations, 158 

Piney's, E., 267 

Pitt's, H.S., 280 

Pittsburgh, . * 38 

Pittsburgh, Corry and Buffalo RR., . . -.36 

Pittsburgh, Titusville and BuflFalo RR. ; levels, 2,6,227,230; 14 

Pittsfield (level), 17 

Flanorbia bicarinatu8, 41 

Pfanorbis eampanulatus, 41 

Planorbis parvus, 41 

Ptanorbis trivolvis, 41 

Piatt, Franklin (Reports G*, G^), 60 

Piatt, W.G. (Reports H3 and H«) 60, 63 

JKatyeeras, 93 

Flaiycer<M paralium, 110,249 

Pleasantville, Venango county ; section; wells, 60,66; 106; 92 

Poison sumach, 21 

Pollack's, B., 167 

Pond-weed, 41 

Port's, H., 243 

Porter's, C. W., 142 

Portland, N. Y. (level), 10 

Post Office (level of cross-roads at), 262 

Potash creek (level), 193 

Potter county ; map, 62,63; 50 

Powell's, J. F., 132,133 

Powell's, T. F., 133 

Power s, Mr., 216 

Powers', H., 136 

Powers', O., 136 

Powers' knob, 66 

Powers' School House (level), 193 

Prather's, T., 183,184 

Presque Isle bay, 2 

Preston, A. J. (oil well on land of), 176 

Preston farm, 34,190 

Price, Mr., 234,236 

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 102 

Productella, 110 

Productellaf Sp., 249 



342 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

P«^. 

Produetella Boydii, 102,104,118,171 

IVoduetella hirsutaj US 

J^oduetella lachrymosa ! 118 

BroduciuB, 79,80,83,85,86,126 

iVod«e<tt« alVorivma^ 78 

iVodi«c<ujt ^oydii (read JFVoducteMa), 97,165,198,201 

Proper, A. G., 181 

Proper's oil boring, 181 

Prosi)ect (level), 17 

Prussia's, G. W., 218 

P««fnnte, Sp. ? 1«5 

P«erom<««, Sp.? 102,110,249 

Putman's, C. T., 802 

Putman's, D., 802 

Putman's, M. C, 802 

Putman's store (level), 18® 

Pymatuning creek, 85,149 

Pymatuning swamp ; level, 16,20,21,24,*36,*156,158,160; 158 

I^matunlng valley, S3, 86 

Quigley's, Sebastian, 168 

Raoooon creek ; mouth, 18,«22,35,119,255; 256,288 

Radel, Mr. ; oil boring, 178 

Rand, Mr. ; oil-boring, 256 

Randall, Mr., 102 

Randall's, R. P., 189 

Randall's, Truman, • 206 

Randall's, Mr., section at Warren, 87 

Randolph P. O. ; level of cross-roads at, 56,178; 180 

Randolph's run (level), 149 

Randolph township, Crawford county, . . . 5,8,21,27,33,56,57,80,90,n77,194 

barometric elevations, 179 

Ransom, Robert, 146 

Raynold's, A., 280 

Rea's, A. C, 158 

Read, Mr., 77 

ReadP, 86 

Read's, Mr., section, 92 

Read's, M. C, section, 120 

Record's, W., 130 

Reed, Mr., 252,268 

Reed's, J. L., 292 

Reed's, J. M., 292 

Reed estate; near Hydetown, 187; 34 

Reed's Comers (well at), 212 

Reed's gas well, 268 

Reed's map of Trumbull county, 86 

Reed's quarry, 252 

Reeser's, R., 188 

Reeves', G., 177 

Reitzer's, G., 138 

Reitzer'srun (level), 186 



INDEX. Q^ 343 

Paire. 

Report F, 72 

G, 50 

G2andG3, . 60 

G*, 60,63,e&, 78 

H3 and H^, , 50,68, 69 

I, 49,50,54,66,67, 99 

LI, 71,100,225 

I.I.I, 9,18,28,37,47,66,68,98,99,100,106,112,185 



J 



» - 



* . . . 120,260 

N, 2,7,9, 38 

Q, 39 

QQ, 69,70;79, 91 

QQQ 33,49,89,91,137 

R, 60,69,78, 87 

T. (Blair oounty), 72 

Reymore's, D., 166 

Reynold's, Mr.; section, 254,284; 284 

Reynold's, B. E., 288 

Reynold's, J., 188 

Reynold's, J. E., 183 

Reynold's boring, 284 

Reynold's quarry; dip; level; section, . 109,*254,284,285 ; 46,112; 112; 108 

Bhynchonella, 83,86,126,148,250 

Bhynchonella eontracia^ 104,107,110,118,240,249,269,272,279,296 

Rice's, Mr., 198 

Riee, Dan, 269 

Rice oil boring ; well record, 259 

Rioeville, 8,28,81,93,192,193,226 

bluflfnear, 97 

levels in, 11,14,28,226 

section, 192 

wells, 226 

Richard's, S., 176 

Riciiard's, V. C, 180 

Richland oounty, Ohio, 86, 92 

Ridimond (level), ... 12 

Richmond township, Crawford county, 6,8,67,90,*194 

barometric elevations, 195 

Richter's, R«, 260 

Rick's, A., 189 

Ridgway, Mr. ; well, 187 

Ring's, B., 283 

Ripley, Mr. ; quarry, 283 

Ripley's, D., 288 

Ripley, N. Y., 10 

Ripley crossing, N. Y., (level), 10 

Roach's steam mill, 244,246 

Roberts', H. C, 297 

Roberts, W., 128 

Roberts, Col. W. M., 40 

Robinson's, S., mill, (level of crossroads near), 252 



344 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Page. 

Robinson's, T. M., 282 

Rochester (dips), 46, 47 

Rook oities of Salamanoa and Glean, 18 

Rockdale township, Crawford county, 5,7,221,*222 

barometric elevations, 223 

Rockwood's, N., . • 238 

Rodney's, C., 179 

Rogers', Edward, 206 

Rogers, H. D., 87, 88 

Rogers, M., 218 

Rohrer's,S., 267 

Rohrer's tannery, 266 

Rollin's, G., 295 

Rome township, Crawford county, 5,8,*188,I89 

barometric elevations, 189 

Root's, Daniel, 222 

Ross', J., 262 

Rouseville, 54 

Rubner's, J. W., 221 

Rung's, Adam, 136 

Russell, Mr.; quarry, 279; 102,279 

R3ran's ; cross roads, 197 

Ryan's, E., 246 

Ryan's, J. ; section, * 260 

Ryan's, W. 8., 199 

Sackett's, E. B. R., 176 

Sadsbury, 80 

Sadsbury township, Crawford county, 6,7,90,*158 

barometric elevations, 160 

Saeger's cross roads, 223 

Saeger's, John, 223 

Saegertown; station; level, 8,26,27,28,102,196; 13; 26 

Saflfordrun, 20,25,271,281 

Sagertown, . . 197 

St. John. Prof. Orestes, 84 

Salamanca; level; Rock City, 2,113; 13; 18 

Salix longi/olia (Swamp w^illow), 21 

Saliinger's, V., 267 

Sammon's, G., 278 

Sanderson, Mr., 194 

Sansor's, D. G., 200 

Saraeenia purpurea, 21,157 

Saunders', Warren, 192,193 

Saunders', Wm., 192,193 

Saybrook, Ohio (level), 10 

Sayers', F., 196 

Schmallenberger's, E., 166 

Schofteld, Mr. ; boring, 31,32,35,212,216,217; 216 

School House, (level of cross-roads near), 224,252 

No. 2 (level), 278 

No. 3 (level), 283 



INDEX. Q*. 345 

Page. 

No. 4 (level), 207,278 

No. 4, Union township, Erie county (level), 288 

No. 5; (levels near), 282,233; 236,285,286 

No. 6 (level), 242 

No. 7 (level) 236 

No. 8 (level), 237 

No. 9 (level), 246,278 

No. 11 (level), 246 

No. 12 (level), 246 

No. 14 (level), 246 

Fairview township, ^rie county (level), 264 

Oreene township, Erie county (level), 283 

Waterford township, Erie county (level), 276 

Schreck, Adam ; section, 131 

Schuidtz's, C, 802 

Scofield, Mr. (SeeScho/leld), 85 

Scott, H.L., 291 

Scott's creek gorge, 101 

Scott's run, 19,293 

Seamon's, N., 180 

Second street, Erie, 2, 9 

Second terrace, 39 

Seeley'smill, 801 

Seley's, E., 141,158 

Seley, Samuel, 141 

Seley's bore-hole, 140 

Seventh street, Erie, 2 

Seventy-second street, 9 

Seymour's, H 283 

Shadduck's, I., 297 

Sharon, 63,74,77 to 79,81,86,87,89,225 

section, 70, 72 

well, 74,91,101,113,153 

Sharp's, W., 270 

Sharpsville, 66,85, 89 

Shaw's Landing ; station, . .131,132; 13 

Shaw's. M., 208 

Sheldon's, S. W., 218 

Shellito's, G., 149,156,160 

Shenango; levels in, 66,160; 13,17,155 

Shenango creek, 85,156 

Shenango river, . . 7,13,16,20,21,24,25,80,89,90,101,150,153,155,156,158,208 

levels On, 154,156 

Shenango valley, 33,58,59,77,86,87,153 

Shenango Village, Mercer county (dip), 48 

Shenango waters. High divide between the Conneaut and , 7 

Shepard, Jno. ; knob, 147,148; 66 

Shepard's, W., 238 

Sheridan, N. Y. (level), 10 

Sherman (level), 18 

Sherman's, H., 254 



346 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Sherman's Sohool House (level near), 180 

Shermansville (level of croBS-roads at), 160 

Sherred's, Andrew, 220 

Sherred'B, A. M., 219 

Sberrod*s, Mrs., , 254 

Sherwood's, J., 270 

Sherwood's, S., 1 .... 214 

Sherwood, Report O, 50 

Shields', N., 246 

Shingle mill. (Level of Muddy creek near), 223 

Shoemaker's, G., *. 264 

Shore quarry (level and dip), . . 112 

Shorner's, H., 292 

Shorts, Washington ; quarry, 194 

Shorts', T. J., 196 

Shout's, J., 160 

Shreck's (dip), 46 

Shriner's, Mr. ; oUwell, 182,188 

Shriner's, F., 183 

Shryook's mill, 166 

Shryock; oil well, 166,182,183 

Shryook, Col., 210 

Shuey,Mr., 88,125^,264 

Side Saddle flower {Saracenia purpurea) 21,157 

Sigler's, Mrs., 188 

Bikes', S.S., 180 

Sill's, J., 238 

Silver creek, N. Y. (level), 10 

Silverthorn's, J. H., 255 

Simond's (level), 12 

Singer, Mr. ; boring, 242; 241 

Singer's quarry, 269 

Sitler's, Geo., 163 

Six Mile oreek, 19,281,282,293,295 

gorge, 101 

level near woolen &ctory, 295 

Six Mile run, 23 

Sixteen Mile oreek, 19,«23,297,301 

mouth, 300 

level, 302 

Skabel, Mr., quarry, 269 

Skelton's, Mr., 220 

Slack's, W., 267 

Slaughter's run, 27,278 

SlingluflF, Mr., 127 

Smalley's, C, 264 

Smethport, 87 

Smith, Mr.; section, . . .• ... 171,222,281; 171 

Smith's, A., 206 

Smith's, A. D 802 

Smith's, A. S., 218 



/ 



INDEX. Q*. 347 

P*ge. 

Smith's, C, 19* 

Smith*Sj Darius, 108 

Smith's, E. E., 138 

Smith's, F., 184 

Smith's, G., 176,196 

Smith's, H., 167 

Smith's, J.; bore-holes, 282; 178 

Smith's, James, 199 

Smith's, J. H., 282 

Smith, J. R. ; section, 274,275 

Smith's, Legrand, 200 

Smith's, Mrs., 292 

SmUh's, M., 193 

Smith's, O., 292 

Smith's, Peter, 206 

Smith's, Rufus, 176 

Smith, W., 280 

Smith, Wm., 28a 

Smith's farm section, 107,108 

Smith's land, 167 

Smith's mill; level, 287; 28 

Smith's quarry, 222 

Smith well, 83 

Smocks, Asa, 136 

Smock's, J. S., 138 

Snider's, G. J., 265 

Snodgrass, Mr., 151 

Snodgrass, Jas. ; section, 150 

Snodgrass', Jas. M., 58 

Snodgrass, Wm. ; quarries, 150; 152 

Snodgrass ore bank (level), 12 

Snodgrass quarry ; near Jamestown, 78,81,89; 65 

Somerset county coal basin map, 50 

South branch; mouth (level), 267; 26 

South branch French creek [see F], .26 

South Branch run, 18 

South Shenango township, Crawford county, 6,7,33,58,80,*150,156 

Southwick's ; white rock quarry, 194 

Sparta township, Crawford county, 5,8,27,81,*227 

SpartarBloomfleld-Concord highlands, 28 

Spartansburg ; trestle, 8,36,227; 14 

Spaulding, Daniel, 209 

Spaulding's, G., 256 

Spencer's, N., 218 

Spencer's, T., 253 

Spencer's run, 27,278 

Sperry's,J., -218 

Sphcerium striaiinum^ Lam., 41 

Spirifers, 78,85,86,88,230,240,244 

SpiH/era, 79,83,126,134 

Spirt/era alia, ^3 



348 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Page. 

Spirifera aspera, 249 

Spiri/era diajuncta, 88,97,102,104,118,165,171,198,201,228,240,298 

S^irifer mesocostalis ? 118 

Spoflford's run (see SpafTord's run), 4 

Spring; levels at, 6; 16, 22 

Spring oreek; branch; level, 29; 227; 17 

Spring P. O. ; dip at, 105,214,215; 48 

Spring Station (level near), 218 

Spring township, Crawford county 6,6,18,*214 

barometric elevation, . ^ 218 

Springtield township, Erie county, 1,*225 

barometric elevations, 257 

Spring Village ; levels, 111,113,115,116; 212,218 

Springfield, (level), 10 

Springfield P. O. (level), 267 

StaflFord's, T. O., . 246 

Stair's, W., 292 

Stanton's, A. B., 288 

State line (level), 18 

State line, N. Y. (level), 10 

State road, 7,8,10,11,12,227 

levels, 11,228 

Steamburg P. O. (level), 209 

Stearne's, 290 

Steame Manufacturing Company ; Deep well record, 289 

Steel's, Jno., 208 

Stein's, Fred, 186 

Stein's, Lorin, 176 

Stemmatodus, . . 88 

Stenochysma contractumj 110 

Sterin's, D. J., 183 

Sterrett's, J. A., 267 

Sterrett's, J. M., 295 

Sterrett's, R. F., 267 

Sterrett <& Gibson's oil well, 230 

Stetson's, J. A., 302 

Steuben township, Crawford county, 5,8,57,62, *189 

barometric elevations, 191 

Stevens', A., 209 

Stevens', A. L., 208 

Stevenson, Prof., 110,248 

Stewart's run; level, 20,220; 221 

Stewart's, W., IW 

Stilwell's, R., 246 

Stimpson, Mr., 212,214 

Stimpson, Benjamin, 210 

Stitson's, S., 295 

Stitzer's, H., 183 

Stockton's, W. li., 206 

Stoddard's, J , 188 

Stone quarry ; level and dip, 4 ; 112 






INDEX. Q^ 349 

Page. 

Stone Quarry Village, * 109,246 

Stone's, J. W., 278 

StonebrookB', J., 133 

Stony Point; level east of, 7,80,143,148; 149 

Stoughter's run. Level near J Lyons^ 280 

Stowe's, J. W., 278 

Stowe's, li. A., 278 

Stranahan's, 243 

StraparolluSj 78, 93 

Stratton's, A., .160 

Stratton's, C. R., 160 

Stratton's, E., 193 

8treptorhynchu8y 88 

mr^torhynchus Chemungensia, 104,110,198,249,272 

Strong's, F. D., ^ .... 270 

Strong's, J. M., 257 

Struker's, R., .262 

Sturgeon's, T., 264 

Sugar creek; levels, 27,69,121,177,180,189; 128,133 

head branohes, 180 

North branch, 84, 86 

East branch, 27,179 

West branch, *27,34,*36,177 

valley; burled valley, 132; 34 

divide at heads of —^ and Woodcock creek, 8 

pre-glacial , 189 

Sugar Creek Station (level), 13 

Sugar Grove, Mercer county (level), 13 

Sugar Grove, Warren county (level), 11 

Sugar lake, 20,27,34,66,58,80,121,122,128 

level, 40,128 

Sugar Lake creek (level at crossing), 179 

Sugar Lake P. O. (level), 178,179 

Sullivan and Lycoming county, maps, 50 

Sulphur Springs on Mill run (level), 175 

Sulphur spring near head of Mill run, 171 

Summerdale, on the Grand Divide (level), 18 

Summerhill township, Crawford county, 5,7,90 

barometric elevations 208 

quarries, 93 

Summit; levels, 186,210to213; 14,16 

Summits [in Rockdale township], 223,224 

Summit Station ; level of cross-roads, 6,16,209; 209 

Summit Station, P. & E. RR., 95 

Summit Station on the Great Divide (level), 16 

Summit township, Crawford county, , 6,7,90,158,*160,*206 

barometric elevations, 163 

Summit township, Erie county, 1,18, 108, *283 

barometric elevations, 286 

Sutton's, .... 7 

Sutton's (Geneva) level, 13 



350 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Sutton's, Benj., 142 

Swallow's mUl (level), 22 

Swamp w^illow {Salix longi/olia), 21,157 

Swan's, B., 264 

Swanville; level 3,10,23,264; 10 

Sweet's, J., 196 

Sweltzer's, Wm. ; section, 298 

Swift's, H., 196 

Swift's, Nancy, 19l> 

Switzer's, W., 302 

Sybrant's, S., 195 

Syringothysia typcL, 93 

Tamarack, 21,157 

Tamarack Swamp ; level, 21,22,25,36,267; 22 

Tannersvilfe, . 7 

Tate's, W., . . 295 

Tateham A Emery well, 183 

Teepletown^ 16 

Tenbroke's, R., 286 

Terrell's, H., 180 

Terry's, H., 302 

Thomas', D., 255 

Thompson's, J. T., 254 

Thompson's run ; creek, 8,28,93,186,188; 184 

Thurston's, S. S., . . . . . . 176 

Tidioute, 48,54,64,78,81,87 to 89,91,102 to 104 

Tidioute bluffs 72 

Tidioute section. Pig. 10, 71 

TifiBmy's, 8. S., 142 

Tingley, 125 

Tioga county; map, . . . , 62; 50 

Titusville, 5,6,8,28,93,93,100,184,226 

Titusville depot ; dip, 184 

Titusville levels, 14,15, 29 

Titusville oil wells, . . .^ 104 

Titusville rock gate, 28 

Toledo, 2 

Toll-house on Mill creek, 292 

Topeka, 84 

Torryrun, 20, 25 

Terry's, Jas., 221 

Town house. Concord township, 237 

Town house, Fairfield township, 188 

Town house, E. Fallowfield, 149 

Town's, B. C, 802 

Townville, ♦8,27,36,65,189,191 

Townville levels; dip, 191; 48 

Trace's, L. school house, 166 

Tracy's, H. G., 282 

Transfer, Mercer eounty, 13 

Triumph hill, 81 



INDEX. Q*. 361 

P»«e. 

Trout ran; levels, ' 8,18,25,262,267; 270 

Troy Centre; levels, 8,182; 183 

Troy township, Crawford oonnty, 5^8,21,84,57 ,62,k),*180, 189 

Troy, barometrio levels, 28,183 

Trambn4 oounty, O., 77,85,86, 90 

Trunkeyville, 108 

Tryon, G. W., Jr., 41 

Tiyon, Jeremiah, 180 

Tryonville bridge, 35 

Tryonville Junction, 14 

Tryonville, Preston fkrm, 34 

Tryonville watershed, 78 

Turner; level, 7; 12 

Turner's, F., 142 

Tumersville, t 155 

Twelve Mile creek, 19, «28, 203 ,297, 300, 302 

Twelve Mile gorge, 101 

Typha lati/olia, 21 

TJnger's, 144 

Unger'shiU, 12 

TJnger'srun; section, 83,145,146; 145 

Union; level 26,84,274; 17 

Union, Erie oounty, 6 

Union City; levels, 4,102,230,238; J3, 14 

Union City wells, 237 

Union depot, 288 

Union township, Erie oounty, 287,239,102, 94 

levels, 288 

Union township, Crawford county, 5,83,60,88,138 

levels, 186 

Union well, 287 

Union and Corry (Railroads to), 8 

Union and Titusville railroad ; level, 6; 11, 14 

Unionville, Ohio, 10 

Unitarian College, 175 

Uroh's, W., 288 

Utica; station; Venango county, 88; IS; 26 

Valleys (buried), 83 

Vallonia, 5 

Vanbuskirk's, 258 

Vance's, J. ; school-house, 154 ; 179 

Vandyke's, W. H., 254 

Van Horn's, C, 136 

Van Horn's run ; level, 164 ; 166 

Vannaten's, R., 188 

Vangban's, A.; L., 208; 286 

Veight's, J., quarry, 266; 285,286 

Venango; station, 8,26,84,66; 18,221 

Venango section ; level, 26 

Venango county, Pa., • 5,20, 

26,28,45,50,54,57,62,68,65,68,72,78 to 80,83,88,89,100,113,224 



332 Q*. BEPOET OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Page. 

Venango county line, * . . 8,68,59,62, 121, 124, 177, 180,184 

Venango oil wells and field, 67,93,99,103 

Venango township, Erie county, 1,4,26,108,*280,284,296 

levels, 283 ' 

Venango township, Crawford county, 5,8,94,*219,221 

levels, 220 

Venango village, 94,219,220 

Verain's, D., 133 

Vernon township, Crawford county, 5,80,90,*164 

Vernon township, Ohio, ' 86, 86 

Vincent's, J. P., 270 

Vineyard, 302 

Virginia, 66 

Vorse, Mr. ; quarry, 266 

Vorse's, A. M., 267 

Voiaon, Mr.; quarry, 177; 66,177,194 

Voison knob, 67 

Wade's, J. N., 154 

Waid's, John, 191 

Waid's, R. S., 199 

Waidle's, I., 292 

Waldon's, J., 257 

Wale's, J. C, 200 

Wander's, J., 248 

Wallace's, G., 166 

Walnut creek, 3,19,23,260,263,264,282,283,284,286,287 

gorge, 101 

mouth; level, 263; 23 

levels, . 264,266,292 

Warden's, W., 163 

Warren; level,. 6,79,81,102; 17 

Randairs section at , 87 

Warren, Ohio, 90 

Warren county, \ . 11,19, 

28 to 30,47,49,64,61 to 63,66,77 to 79,81 to 90,93,94,99,100,104,113,278 

levels on, . 17 

line, 6,65,184,188,227 

Warren county, N. J. White Pond, 41 

Washington township, Erie county, 1,4,103,*243,246 

barometric elevations, 246 

Wasson'srun, 20 

Waters', Mrs., 218 

Waterford; levels, 3,25,269,270; 17,270 

Eagle Hotel; level, 114,269,270 

borough, 269 

quarries, 112 

station (level,) : 270 

Waterford township, Erie county, 1,3,239,»267,*270 

line; level, 26, 26 

Waterford-McKean township line, 21 

Watershed or Grand Divide (level), 23, 26 



INDEX. Q*. 353 

Page. 

Watson, Mr., 185,232. 

Watson, Jonathan, 181 

Watson's, W., 128 

Watson's, Wm., 206 

Watson's flats, 6,185 

Watson's run (level at crossing), • 166 

Watson well 184 

Wattsburg, 4,25,112,279,281 I 

level, 26,282 

dip along the parallel of, 48 

Wattsvllle, 26 

Waxham, Mr. ; quarry, 252 

Wayne, 2 

Wajme township, Crawford county, 5,8,20,23,33,66,68,61,62,81 ,83,84,*121, 130 

barometric elevations, ^ 123 

Wayne township, Erie county, 1,4,19,29,36,*278 

barometric elevations, 280 

Webb's, Mr., 228 

Webb's, G. B., .257 

Webber's, C. H., 236 

Webber's, C. 1., 280 ^ 

Weber's, C, 283 

Webster's, L., 286 ' 

Weed's, W. B., 283 

Week's, R., 282 

Weer's, A., 250 

Welden's, Mrs. S., 226 

Wellsburg, 3,254 

Wellsville (level at forks at cemetery below), 254 

Wentworth, Mr., 122 

Wentworth's, 68 

Wentworth oil-boring ; bore-hole; well, 62; 122,124; 122 

Wentz's, W., 264 

Wesleyville, Pa. (level), 10 

P. O (level), 295 

station, 8 

West Branch, 25 

West branch of Conneaut creek, 21 

West branch of Oil creek, 8, 28 

Western Reserve of Ohio, 29 

West Fallowfield township, Crawford county, 5,7,80,*149,156 

Westfleld, N. Y. (level) 10 

West Greenwood P. O. (Level at cross-roads at), 142 

Westmoreland county, 63 

West Shenango township, Crawford county, 6,7,*155 

barometric elevations, . . 155 

West Spring Creek Village (level), / . . ll 

West Springfield ; level, 3, 257 

West Virginia, 45 

Wheeler's, B., ' 223 

Wheeler's, E. B., 278 

23 Q^ 



354 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Page. 

Wheeler's, J., 267 

Wheeler's, M. W., 264 

Wheelook's, A., 191 

White, Prof. I. C, 40, 49, »5, 112,113 

White's, A., 238 

White Pond, Warren county, N. J., 41 

Whitfield, Mr., 97,110 

Whitfield, Prof., , 248 

Whiting, Mr., Almon; land, 42,160,161,162; 40,41 

Whitley's, Mrs., 257 

Whitman's, M., 292 

Wiokliflfe, Ohio (level), 10 

WUcox, Mr., 223 

WUeox's, D. I., 223 

Willey's, Mrs. M., . 196 

Williams', A., '. 176 

Williams', C, 280 

Williams', L., 270 

Williams', W., 271,278 

Williams' quarry, 112 

Willis', John 223 

Willoughby, Ohio (level), 10 

Wilkinson's, A., 297 

Wilkinson's, J., 196 

Wilson's, G., 223 

Wilson's, J., 297 

Wilson's, T., 177 

Winan's, D. E., 142 

Winfield's, Daniel, 287 

Winston's, Charles, 196 

Winter's, W., 193 

Winter's deep oil well, 181 

Winton's, D. B., 228 

Winton's, D. E., 228 

Witch, hazel, 21,157 

Woaater's, C, 292 

Wolf run, 201 

Work's, Jaoob, 167 

Worrall, Col., 21,167 

Worthen, Prof. A. H., 84 

Woods', Orin, 208 

Woodard's, C. A., 158 

Woodcock Centre, 197 

Woodcock creek, 8,26,27,»36,80,84,167,177,194 

levels, 11,180,199 

buried valley, 34 

divide towards Sugar creek, 8 

divide towards Muddy creek, 8 

Woodcock township, Crawford county, 5,8,90,*196 

levels, 199 

Woodcock Valley, 194 



INDEX. Q*. 365 

Page. 

Woodoook yillage, 200 

Woodside'B mill, 228 

Woolen fiiGtory bore-hole, 263 

Wootring's, E., 199 

Wright, A., 178,176 

Wright's, C. B., 267 

Wright's, W., 189 

Wright's well, 61 

Wyatt's, J., 209 

Wyooff 's, Wm 199 

Wyman, 188 

Yoomn's, H., 177 

Yoke's, Tp 156 

York, 801 

Yoset, 127 

Yost's, P. H., 282 

Young, 268,269 

Yonngsville; level, 6; 17 

Zaok's, J., 292 




^ 



Q*. 357 



DI800YERT 

OF THB 



Preglacial Outlet 



OF THB 



BASIN OF LAKE ERIE 

INTO 

LAKE ONTAEIO. 



BY 



J. W. SPENCER, Ph. D., 

Prof, Oeol. King^a College^ Windsor^ N. 8* 



Being Extracts /r<ym a Memoir in the Proceedings of the American PhUo- 

sophical Society t Philadelphia, Marchf 18, 1881 ; 

with notes; ana two maps. 



i 



DISCOVERY OF THE PREGLACIAL OUTLET 



OF THB 



LAKE ERIE BASIN, 



By J. W. SPENCER, B. A. Sc, Ph. D., F. G. S., King's CoUege 

Windsor, N. S. 

WITH TWO MAPS. 
(Bead before the American Philoaophieal 8oe., PAt^a, dfarchf 1881,) 

Summary. 

The object of this paper is to bring before the scientific 
world the following observations, bearing on the Preglacial 
Drainage and origin of our Great Lake Basins : 

1. The Niagara escarpment, after skirting the southern 
shores of Lake Ontario, bends at nearly right angles in the 
neighborhood of Hamilton, at the western end of the Lake ; 
thence the trend is northward to Lake Huron. At the ex- 
treme western end of the lake this escarpment (at a height 
of about 500 feet) encloses a valley gradually narrowing to 
four miles, at the meridian of the western part of the city 
of Hamilton, where it suddenly closes to a width of a little 
more than two miles, to form the eastern end of the Dundas 
valley (proper). This valley has its two sides nearly paral- 
lel, and is bounded by vertical escarpments, which are 
capped with a great thickness of Niagara limestone, but 
having the lower beds of the slopes composed of Medina 
shales. On its northern side the escarpment extends for 
six miles to Copetown ; but westward of this village it is 
covered with drift, but it is not absent. On its southern 
side the steep slopes extend for less than four miles to An- 
caster, where they abruptly end in a great deposite of Drift, 
which there fills the valley to near its summit, but which is 

(869 Q*.) 



360 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

partly re-excavated by the modern streams, forming gorges 
from two to three hundred feet deep. To the north-east- 
ward of Ancaster these gorges are cut down through the 
drift to nearly the present lake level. 

Westward of Ancaster, a basin ocupying a hundred square 
miles, where the drift is found to a great depth, forms the 
western extension of the Dundas valley. With the north- 
western and western portions of this drift-filled area the 
upper portion of the Grrand river and Neith's creek were 
formely connected. The Grand river, from Brantford to 
Seneca, runs near the southern boundary of this basin, then 
it enters its old valley, which extends from Seneca to Cay- 
uga, with a breadth of two miles, and a depth, in modern 
times, of seventy-five feet, having its bed but a few feet 
above the surface of Lake Erie. Near Cayuga the deepest 
portion of the river bed is below the level of Lake Erie. 

2. The Dundas valley and the country westward form a 
portion of a great river valley, filled with drift. Along and 
near its present southern margin this drift has been pene- 
trated to 227 feet below the surface of Lake Ontario, thus 
producing a cafion with a lateral depth of. 743 feet, but with 
a computed depth, in the middle of its course, of about 
1000 feet. 

3. The Grand river, at four miles south of Gait, has, since 
the Ice Age, left its ancient bed, which formerly connected 
with that of the Dundas valley, as did also Neith's creek at 
Paris. 

4. Lake Erie emptied by a buried channel a few miles 
westward of the present mouth of the Grand river, and 
flowed for half a dozen miles to near Cayuga, where it en- 
tered the present valley, and continued its channel (re- 
versed) to a place at a short distance westward of Seneca, 
whence it turned into the basin referred to above, receiving 
the upper waters of the Grand river and Neith's creek as 
tributaries, and then emptied into Lake Ontario by the 
Dundas valley. This channel was also deep enough to 
drain Lake Huron. 

6. Throughout nearly the whole length of Lake Ontario, 
and at no great distance from its southern shore, there is 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q^ .361 

a sabpierged escarpment (of the Hudson River Formation) 
which in magnitude is comparable with the Niagara es- 
carpment itself, now skirting the lake shore. It was along 
the foot of this escarpment that the river from the Dundas 
valley flowed (giving it the present form) to eastward of or 
near to Oswego, receiving many streams along its course. 

5. The western portion of Lake Erie basin, the south- 
western counties of Ontario, and the southern portion of the 
basin of Lake Huron formed one Preglacial plane, which is 
now covered with drift or water (or with both) to a depth 
varying from fifty to one hundred feet, excepting in channels 
where the filling by drift is very great. A deep channel 
draining Lake Huron extended through this region, leaving 
the present lake near the Au Sable river, and entering the 
Erie basin between Port Stanley and Vienna, at a depth 
near its known margin of 200 feet, but at a probable depth 
in the centre sufficiently great to drain Lake Huron. 

6. The Preglacial valleys (now buried) of Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania — for example ; the Cuyahoga, Mahoning (reversed,) 
and Allegheny (deflected,) formed tributaries to the great 
river flowing through the Erie basin and Dundas valley. 

7. The bays and inlets north of Lake Huron are true fiords 
in character, and are of aqueous origin. 

8. The Great Lakes owe their existence to sub-aerial and 
fluviatile agencies, being old valleys of erosion of great age, 
but with their outlets closed by drift. Glaciers did not exr 
cavate the lakes and had no important action in bringing 
about the present topography of the basins. 

9. The old outlet of the Niagara river, by the valley of 
St. David's, was probably an interglacial channel. 

1. Introduction^. 

Whilst residing in Hamilton, Ontario (1877-80,) a por- 
tion of my time was devoted to studying the geology of the 
neighborhood. At first it began in connection with Lieut. 
Col. Grant, H. P., Sixteenth Regiment, and some other 
gentlemen, in making collections of fossils ; as this locality 
is one of the best for obtaining Niagara fossils (and also 
those of the Hudson River Formation from the drift pebbles 



362 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

in the beaches) in Canada. In 1874, the present writer pub- 
lished in the Canadian Naturalist a sketch of the local 
geology. In 1878, he laid the plan of collecting the infor- 
mation necessay for preparing an exhaustive paper on the 
Geology of the region about the western end of Lake 
Ontario. When systematic work was commenced, the in-^ 
formation gained required so much time for its study that 
it has long delayed the publication. A large number of 
new species of Niagara fossils (twenty-nine of the Grapto- 
lite family alone) were obtained. The present state of the 
work is, that a paper on the Palaeozoic Geology, and an- 
other on the Palaeontology, containing descriptions of many 
new fossil species, are ready for publication. A third por- 
tion, on the Surface Geology, is under way ; and the in- 
vestigations on this subject have, step by step, carried the 
writer outside of his original field, having assumed an im- 
portance never anticipated, and have resulted in this ad- 
vance notice of a few of the most striking facts concerning 
the origin of our great lakes. The completion of the work 
will be further delayed until opportunity will have been 
afforded to study some questionable points, especially such 
as relate to the Drift deposits of the region, and others 
having a broader bearing on the physical geography of the 
lake region in Preglacial times. 

In the present paper, all discussion relating to the vexed 
glacial hypothesis is scrupulously avoided, except those 
questions bearing on a true explanation of the origin of our 
great lakes. 

In the study of the surface geology, the first great ques- 
tion that presented itself was "what is the origin of my 
native valley, Dundas?" The possibility of Lake Erie 
flowing down through the Dundas valley (though it sug- 
gested itself) did not seem probable, owing to the high lands 
between the two great lakes. However, in the Canadian 
Naturalist^ 1874, I referred to it as having been produced , 

by a '^mighty river." This was like one of those gratuitous 
hypotheses that are common, now-a-days, for attributing 
to a continental ice sheet most of the causes of the present I 

physical features of the continent, which do not readily ex- 



PBEGLACIAL OUTLET 



Q*. 363 



plain themselves. Subsequently, M. George J. Hinde re- 
fers to it as having been scooped out by a glacier. This as- 
sertion will be found in the sequal to be a perfectly unten- 
able hypothesis. Certainly, the origin of the valley was 
obscure, yet it showed that the excavation of a caflon of 
such magnitude required a proportionately great agent ; and 
no present stream would account for even a small portion 
of the excavation. However, in this paper it will be seen 
that its existence was unquestionably occasioned by the 
action of a mighty river, as originally suggested. This out- 
let of Lake Erie also perfectly accords with, and accounts 
for the preglacial drainage of Pennsylvania, as made known 
by the report of Mr. Carll, of the Geological Survey of that 
State, (1. 1. 1, 1880.) 

2. Topography west of Lake Ontario. 

The Niagara EncarpmenL — This range of hills com- 
mences its course in Central New York, and extends west- 
ward, at no great distance south of Lake Ontario. It enters 
Canada at Queenston Heights, and thence its trend is to the 
western end of the lake, where, near Hamilton, it turns 
northward and extends to Cabot's head and Manitoulin 
island. Everywhere in Canada, south of Lake Ontario, it 
has an abrupt fall looking towards the north, but at Thor- 
old and other places to the eastward its brow is more broken 
than at Grimsby and westward. At Hamilton, the brow of 
the escarpment varies from 338 to 396 feet above Lake On- 
tario.* About five miles east of Hamilton, the escarpment 
makes an abrupt bend enclosing a triangular valley, down 
which Rosseaux creek, and other streams now flow. This 
valley is about two miles wide at its mouth, and has a 
length of about the same distance. 

*Prof. Danda places the mean level of Lake Ontario at 233.5 feet above ooean- 
level; the Canadian G^ologioal Survey, at 282 feet; the New York Central Rail- 
road, at 249.84 ; the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, takes 573 feet as the 
mean of the results of determining the level of Lake Erie; the Welland oanal 
levels show Lake Erie as being 326.75 feet higher than Lake Ontario ; and the 
Hamilton and North Western Railway a diiferenoe of 828 feet, both of these 
last routes being short lines with direct courses. Therefore the height of Lake 
Ontario shoold be about 246 feet above the sea. 



364 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

About five miles westward of Hamilton, the Niagara es- 
carpment becomes covered with the drift deposits of a broken 
country, or rather ends abruptly in the drift of the region. 
Above the range, the country gradually rises to the divide 
between Lake Ontario and the Grand river, or Lake Erie, 
without any conspicuous features. South-eastward from 
Hamilton, at a point about five miles from the brow of the 
escarpment, where the Hamilton and North Western Rail- 
way reaches the summit, the altitude above Lake Ontario is 
493 feet. At Carpenter's quarry, two miles south of the 
' ' mountain' ' brow, at the head of James street, the altitude 
reaches 485 feet ; and near Ancaster the summit is 610 feet 
above Lake Ontario. From eastward of Grimsby (for twen- 
ty miles) to near Ancaster, the escarpment presents an ab- 
rupt face for a height of from 150 to 250 feet below the 
summit (having a moderate amount of talus at the base), 
thence by a more or less steep series of slopes to the plane, 
which gradually inclines (sometimes by a succession of ter- 
races) to the lake margin. 

On the northern side of the town of Dundas, the abrupt 
face of the escarpment looks southward, and extends four 
or five miles westward, until the exposure becomes covered 
by the drift deposits near Copetown station, similar to the 
termination at Ancaster on the south side of the Dundas 
valley, but not by an abrupt ending as at the latter locality. 
About two miles east of the G. W. Railway station, at 
Dundas, the trend of the range bends more to the north- 
ward, and from this point there is a marked difference in 
the configuraticn of the country below the summit. The 
range after extending beyond Waterdown turns still more 
to the northward and passes near Milton, and Limehouse 
station (on the G. T. Railway), and thence extends to 
Georgian bay. The height of Copetown above the lake is 
502 feet. On the west side of Glen Spencer it is 409 feet, 
and eastward of the same gorge the highest point is 520 
feet (Niagara limestone coming within four feet of the sur- 
face). At Waterdown the altitude is over 500 feet (?) and 
at Limehouse the brow of the range (though only the lower 
beds of the Niagara limestones occur) is 810 feet. The 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 365 

features of the surface of the country above the highlands 
north of Dundas are much more varied than south of the 
Dundas valley. As the trend of the escarpment turns 
northward around the end of the lake, the face of the slope 
looks toward the eastward. But the country does not pre- 
sent the steep declivities exhibited along the southern side 
of Lake Ontario ; for the vertical face is usually less than 
100 feet, and the country between it and the water has a 
more uniform pitch. 

3. The Basin of Lake Ontario. 

As is well known. Lake Ontario consists of a broad, shal- 
low (considering its-size) basin, excavated on the southern 
margin out of the Medina shales, and having its southern 
shores from oAe to several miles from the foot of the Niag- 
ara escarpment. The Medina shales form the western mar- 
gin (where not covered with drift) to a point near Oakville. 
From this town to a point some distance eastward of 
Toronto, the hard rocks are made up of Hudson River age ; 
while the soft Utica shales occupies the middle portion, and 
the Trenton limestones the portion of the Province towards 
the eastern end of the lake. 

The country at the western end of the lake consists of 
slopes gently rising to the foot of the Niagara escarpment, 
noticed before. Sometimes this elevation is by terraces, 
and again by gentle inclines as between the foot of the scarp 
at Limehouse (on the G. T. Railway) and the lake, where 
the difference of altitude above the water is more than 700 
feet, without any very conspicuous features. 

At the western end of the lake, the two shores converge 
at an acute angle. At about five miles from the apex of 
this angle is the low Burlington beach, thrown across the 
waters in a slightly curved line, which forms the western 
end of the open lake. Burlington lake, thus formed, is 
connected with the open lake by a canal of the same name, 
made where there was a former shallow opening between 
the waters within and without the beach. This beach is 
made up of sand and pebbles (mostly of Hudson River age). 



366 Q*. EEPORT OP PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

and is more than four miles long, but nowhere is it half a 
mile wide. 

No mean depth of Lake Ontario can be fairiy stated. For 
geological purposes it has no mean depth, because it is sim- 
ply a long channel with the adjacent low lands covered by 
back-water. 

West of the meridian of the Niagara river the lake is 
filled with more silt than eastward. This is evident from 
the fact that we see bottom sloping more gradually towards 
the centre, where the mean depth (increasing from the west- 
ward) of the channel may be fairly placed at 400 feet below 
the present surface of the waters. In this section of the 
lake, the average slope from both shores may be stated at 
30 feet in a mile. At a short distance east of the 78th me- 
ridian, the character of the late bottom changes in a con- 
spicuous manner. Here we find a deeper channel which 
extends for more than ninety miles, having an average depth 
of about 90 fathoms or 540 feet, with, in some places, a 
trough of about 600 feet depth, generally near the southern 
margin of the 90-fathom channel. Here and there is a 
deeper sounding — the deepest being 123 fathoms or 738 feet. 
The long channel, surrounded by the 90-fathom contour 
line, is situated at a mean distance of not less than twenty 
miles from the Canadian shore, whilst its southern side, 
approaches in some places to within six miles of the Ameri- 
can shore, with, which it is parallel. This 90-fathom chan- 
nel varies from three to twelve miles in width. Its broadest 
and deepest portion is south of the Canadian peninsula of 
Prince Edwards' County. 

The mean slope of the lake bottom, from the Canadian 
shore to this deep channel just pointed out, may be placed 
at less than twenty-five feet in a mile, with variations from 
twenty to thirty feet in that distance. The mean slope from 
the New York shore line to the 90-fathom channel may be 
placed at sixty feet in a mile, but varying generally from 
fifty to ninety feet. On examination we find that the great- 
er portion of this slope belongs to a belt which descends 
much more rapidly than the off-shore depression. 

That the southern side of Lake Ontario has a submerged 



PEEGLACIAL OUTLET. 



Q^ 367 



series of escarpments or one moderately steep and of great 
dimensions, is manifest when we come to study the sound- 
ings. In |act, if the bed of Lake Ontario were lifted out of 
the water, this submerged escarpment would be more con- 
spicuous than the greater portion of the present one, known 
by the name of the Niagara Escarpment. In many places 
the descent from the table-land above the Niagara escarp- 
ment is no more precipitous than the slopes of the submer- 
ged Cambro-Silurian (Hudson River, in part, if not through- 
out the entire length) rocks, with its sloping summit, in 
part crowned by a gently sloping surface of Medina shales. 
Nearly north of the mouth of the Genesee river we find that 
within a single mile the soundings vary from forty three to 
seventy -eight fathoms, (between contour lines. ) This gives 
a sudden descent in one mile of 210 feet. As the soundings 
are not taken continuously to show to the contrary, most 
of the change of levels may be within a few hundred yards. 
In the region of these soundings the deepest water out- 
side of the 78 fathom line is 84 fathoms, while from the 
shore to the 43-fathom sounding the least distance is four 
and a half miles, thus giving the greatest mean slope of the 
lake bottom at sixty feet in a mile, before the escarpment 
is reached. An excellent series of soundings can be studied 
a line nearly northward from Pultneyville, N. Y. : 



Distance from PiiltneyviUe. 



Depth of 
sounding. 



Slope from pre- 
vious sounding. 



0.5 miles, 

1.0 

1.76 

4.125 

5.0 

6.0 

7.0 
10.1 
12.0 



> Faoe of the escarpment, 



42 feet. 

72 
126 
246 
372 
582 
624 
642 
738 



60 feet per mile. 
72 " 



50 
144 
210 

42 
6 

48 



cc 
il 
(* 

14 



Prom this table it will be seen that in a distance of less 
than two miles, the slope of fhe escarpment is the difference 
between 582 and 246 feet, or 336 feet as actually recorded. 
At Hamilton, the Niagara escarpment is only 388 feet above 



368 Ql KEPOET OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

iigJ. 




the lake, which is two miles distant, whilst the present 
slope at Thorold is spread over nearly twice that distance. 
That this escarpment is not local is easily seen. For a dis- 
tance of over forty miles, from near Oswego westward, it 
plunges down 300 feet or more in a breadth varying from 
less than two to three miles. Eastward and westward of 
this portion of the lake this submerged escarpment can bq 
traced for nearly one hundred miles, but with the portion 
deeper than 70-fathom contour having more gradual sound- 
ings, as the base of the hills either originally had a more 
gradual slope, or the lake in its western extension has sub- 
sequently been filled with more silt. 

Although we have not soundings made very close to- 
gether, yet the admirable work of the United States Lake 
Survey is more than suflicient to prove the existance of a 
continuous escarpment that has an important beaWng on 
the Preglacial geography of the region, and on the explana- 
tion of the origon of the Great Lakes themselves. 

The soundings do not show a conspicuous escarpment 
after passing westward of the meridian of Niagara river, 
partly on account of the sediments filling this portion of 
the lake, and partly because the lake in all probability 
never had its channel excavated to so great a depth as fur- 
ther eastward. 

Attention must be called to the fact that the depth of the 
Niagara river is 12 fathoms near its mouth, but that the 
lake around the outlet of the river has not a depth exceed- 
ing four fathoms, and yet there is a rocky bottom. 

Another escarpment at the level of Lake Ontario, now 



PEEGLACIAL OUTLET. Q^ 369 

buried, was discovered by the engineers of the enlargement 
of the W^lland canal, according to Prof. Claypole (Con. 
Nat. Vol. ix, No. 4). When constructing No. 1 lock at 
Port Dalhousie, it was found that at its northern end, there 
was an absence of hard rock which formed the foundation 
of its southern end. Rods more than 40 feet long were 
pushed into the slimy earth without meeting any hard rock 
bottom. This discovery will be noticed in the sequel. (See 
Report of Chief Engineer of Canadian Canals, 1880. ) 

4. Basin of Lake Erie. 

The exceedingly shallow basin of Lake Erie has for its 
bottom, a plane as nearly level as any terrestrial tract could 
be. Its mean depth, or even maxima and minima depths 
from its western end for more than 150 miles, scarcely varies 
between 12 and 13 fathoms for the greater portion of its 
width. The eastern 20 miles has also a bed no deeper than 
the western portion. Between these two portions of the 
lake, the hydrography shows an area with twice this depth 
(the deepest sounding being 35 fathoms.) The deepest por- 
tion skirts Long Point (the extremity of a modern penin- 
sula of lacustrine origin,) and has a somewhat transverse 
course. An area of less than 40 miles long has a depth of 
more than 20 fathoms. The deeper channel seems to turn 
around Long Point, and take a course towards Haldemand 
county, in our Canadian Province, somewhere west of Mait- 
land. The outlet of the lake, in the direction of the Niagara 
river, has a rocky bottom (Corniferous limestone.) 

The study of this lake at first appears less practicable 
than that of Ontario ; but when its former outlet and its 
tributary rivers are described, the writer trusts that he will 
have made some observations which may help to clear the 
darkness that hangs about the history of our interesting 
lake region before the advent of the Ice Age. 

6. The Dundas Valley. 

We may consider that the Dundas valley begins at the 
"bluff" east of the Hamilton reservoir, and extends west- 
ward, including the location of the city of Hamilton and 
24 Q*. 



370 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

the Burlington bay, at least its western portion. With 
this definition, the width at the Burlington heights ( an old 
lake terrace 108 feet above present level of the water) would 
be less than five miles. At a mile and half westward of 
the heights, the valley suddenly becomes narrowed ( equally 
on both sides of its axis of direction, by the Niagara escarp- 
ment making two equal concave bends, one on each side 
of the valley, whence the straight upper portion extends, 
the whole resembling the outline of a thistle and its stem. 
From this place it extends six miles westward to Copetown 
on the northern side ; and three and a half to Ancaster on 
its southern side. The breadth between the limestone walls 
of this valley varies somewhat from two to two and a half 
miles. The summit angles of the limestone walls on both 
sides are decidedly sharp. 

Dundas town is situated in this valley, its center having 
a height of about 70 feet above Lake Ontario, but its sides 
rise in terraces or abrupt hills ; and, ascending the valley, 
we find that between the escarpments are great ranges of 
parallel hills separated by deep gorges or glens, excavated 
in the Drift by modern streams. This rugged character 
continues until the summit of the Post Pliocene ridges 
have a height equal to that of the escarpment. As the 
gorges ascend towards the westward they become smaller, 
until at some distance south-west of Copetown and Ancaster 
the divide of the present system of drainage is reached. 
Some of these streams have cut through the Drift, so that 
they have only an altitude above the lake ( which is seven 
miles distant ) of 240 feet, while the tops of the ridges im- 
mediately in the neighborhood are not much less than 400 
feet high, though they themselves have been eroded to a 
depth of about another one hundred feet; for the Drift 
has filled the upper portion of the valley to the height of 
500 feet above Lake Ontario. Even to the very sources of 
the streams, the country resembles the rivers of our great 
North Western Territories (or those of the Western States), 
cutting their way through deep Drift at high altitudes, 
which is not underlaid by harder rocks, showing deep val- 
leys rapidly increasing in size and depth as they are clean- 



PBEGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 371 

ing out the soft material and hurrying down to lower levels 
— a strong contrast to the features in most other portions 
of our Province. 

On the south side of the Dundas valley a few unimport- 
ant streams, mostly dry in summer, have worn back the 
limestone escarpment over which they flow to distances 
varying from a few yards to a few hundred, making glens 
at whose head in spring time some picturesque cascades 
can be seen. At Mount Albion, six miles east of Hamilton, 
are two of these large gorges, whose waters after passing 
over picturesque falls 70 feet high, and through glens sev- 
eral hundred yards in length, empty into the triangular 
valley noticed before. On the north side of Dundas val- 
ley, besides small gorges with their streams comparable to 
those on the south side, there are several of much larger 
dimensions; for example, that at Watertown, six miles 
north of Hamilton. Still larger is Glen Spencer which has 
a caflon half a mile long, 300 feet deep and between 200 
and 300 yards wide at its mbuth. At the head of this is 
Spencer's Falls, 135 feet high ; and joining it laterally there 
is another cafion^ with a considerable stream flowing from 
Webster's Falls, which, however, is of less height than the 
other. The waters feeding their streams come from north 
of the escarpment, and belong to a system of drainage diff- 
erent from those streams which flow down through the Drift 
of the Dundas valley, and are of much greater length. At' 
the foot of Spencer' s Falls the waters strike the upper por- 
tion of the Clinton shaly beds. 

The falls now is two feet deeper than twenty years ago. 
Yet the stream is small, and makes a pond below in the 
soft shales. But this difference in height does not represent 
the rate of wjearing or recession of the precipice. That 
the stream is much smaller than formerly is plainly to be 
seen, for at present it has cut a narrow channel above the 
falls from ten to fifteen yards in width and from four to six 
feet deep, on one side the more ancient valley which is 
about 60 yards wide and 30 feet deep, excavated in the 
Niagate dolomites. 

The surfaces of the escarpment in both sides of Glens 



372 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Spencer and Webster present a peculiar aspect. That on 
the north-eastern side has a maximum height of 520 feet 
above the lake. On the same side, a section made longitud- 
inally shows several broad shallow glens nearly a hundred 
feet deep crossing it and entering Glen Spencer. The sur- 
face of the rocks is glaciated, but not parallel with the 
direction of the channels. 

On the south-western side of the same caflon, we find 
that a portion of the thin beds of the Upper Niagara lime- 
stone have been removed. This absence is not general, for 
it soon regains its average height of about 500 feet. 

Dundas Marsh, — The eastern end of the Dundas valley 
contains a large swamp, nearly three miles long, with a 
breadth of about three-fourths of a mile, known in the 
early settlement of the country by the name of Coote's 
Paradise. 

This marsh was formerly connected by a small rivulet 
with Burlington bay, but this was subsequently closed by 
the G, W. Railway, when the cutting of Desjardin's canal 
through Burlington heights was completed. Into this 
marsh all the drainage of the Dundas valley is deposited, 
causing it to fill up at the rate of one-tenth of a foot per 
annum. 

Burlington Heights. — Across the eastern end of Dundas 
swamp and some of its branches are the Burlington Heights, 
varying from a few hundred yards to nearly a quarter of 
a mile in width, and over 100 feet in height. These have 
been a beach at a time when the lake level was at the same 
elevation, for we find that a* lake beach extends along the 
flanks of the escarpment, both eastward and northward for 
a considerable distance at the same level. This is mentioned 
here as forming a conspicuous terrace, changing the phys- 
ical character of the western extremity of Burlington bay, 
and the outlet of the Dundas valley. Various terraces and 
beaches are found at lower levels, and fragments of others 
are noticeable also at higher altitudes or along the side of 
the '^mountain" some of which attain a height of 500 feet 
above Lake Ontario. 



preglacial outlet. q*. 373 

6. Grand Kiver Valley. 

The Grand river of Ontario, rises in the County of Gray, 
not more than twenty-five miles from Georgian bay and 
flows southward. At Elora the river assumes a conspicuous 
feature. Here it cuts through the Guelph dolomite rocks 
to a depth of about 80 feet and forms a cafion about 100 
feet in width with vertical walls. At this place it is joined 
by a rivulet from the west, which has formed a tributary 
cafion similar to that of the Grand river itself. . 

The country in this region is so flat that it appears like 
a level plane. Further southward the river winds over a 
broader bed, and at Gait the present river valley occupies 
a portion of a broad depression in a country indicating a 
former and much more extensive valley. In fact, the old 
river valley existed in Preglacial times, for the present 
stream has reexcavated only a part of its old bed at Gait, 
leaving on the flanks of one of its banks (both of which 
are composed of Guelph dolomites) a deposit of Post Ter- 
tiary Drift, in the form of a bed of large rounded bowlders 
mostly of Laurentian gneisses. The country for four miles 
south of Gait is of similar character, forming a broad val- 
ley, in which the present river flows. At this distance from 
Gait the river takes a turn to the south-westward ; but at 
the same place, the old valley appears to pass in a nearly 
direct line with the course of the present bed (before the 
modern turn is made to the westward). As this portion 
of the valley now entered, has not to any extent been 
cleaned out by modern streams, it forms a broad shallow 
depression in the country a few miles wide. Yet, it is often 
occupied with hills composed of stratified coarse gravel be- 
longing to that belt yvhich extends from Owen Sound to 
to the County of Brent, and called by the Canadian Geolog- 
ical Survey "Artemesia gravel." 

It is through a portion of this valley that Fairchild's 
creek flows. Many streams derive their supplies of water 
from the Beverly swamps, which also feed Lindsay creek, 
which empties over Webster falls down Glen Spencer 
through Dundas valley to Lake Ontario. 

The G. W. Railway, at four miles south of Gait, enters 
this valley and continues in it or its branches as far as Har- 



374 Q**. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

risburg, although the deeper depression is near St. George 
(a short distance west of Harrisburg). After leaving what 
I consider its more ancient bed, south of Gait (unless the 
country between the present bed and Fairchild's creek was 
an island), the Grand river flows southward to Paris and 
Brantford through a deep, broad valley. At the latter 
place the valley may fairly be described as a few miles wide, 
while further to the eastward the river winds in an old chan- 
nel which had formerly a width of over four miles (see map). 
In the region of Brantford the valley is bounded by a 
somewhat level plateau. At Paris, Neith's creek enters 
the Grand river from the west, and has a valley almost com- 
parable in size with that of the latter at this town. At 
Paris, the Grand river cuts through the plaster-bearing 
Onondaga formation. Similar rocks api^ear at various places 
along the river, at places where the river has cleaned out a 
portion of one side of its ancient valley. 

At the Great Western Railway crossing, east of Paris 
the bed of the river has an altitude of 495 feet above Lake 
Ontario, while at Brantford it is 410 feet (this elevation may 
not be perfectly accurate) above the same datum. From 
Brantford the river winds through a broad valley, with a 
general easterly direction, to Seneca, where the immediate 
bed is dbont quarter of a mile wide, flowing at the southern 
side of a valley more than two miles wide, and 75 feet be- 
low its boundaries, which are 440 feet above Lake Ontario 
(see profile on subsequent page). At Seneca the bed of the 
present river-course is 365 feet above Lake Ontario, or only 
37 feet above Lake Erie.* The H. & N. W. Railway levels 

*The General Manager and Chief Engineer of the Air Line of the G. W. 
R. R. have recently favored me with a profile of the railroad crossing over 
the Grand River. I have received a like favor from the Chief Engineer of 
the Canada Southern. From these two lines of levels (aboat a mile apart) it 
appears that hard rock shows itself in the Drift at a few feet below the bed of 
the river, but at a level below that of Lake Erie water surface. The stream, 
at these /places, occupies the eastern portion of the valley, about 2 miles from 
the 8. or S. W. boundary of the valley, marked by the contour line of 440' 
above Lake Ontario, noticed S. of Seneca, but which also occurs E. of Cayuga* 
near the general bend in the course of the river. At both of these localities 
at about half a mile W. of the present site of the river, a depression in the 
Drift occurs to a depth but little inferior to that of the present river bed. 
This appears to mark the place where the ancient channel leaves what is now 
the modern direction of the river for a nearly direct line to the Erie Basin. 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 375 

m 

give Lake Erie as 328 feet above Lake Ontario, whilst the 
report of the Chief Engineer of the Welland Canal states 
that the difference of level is 326} feet. As these two levels 
agree so neariy, and as the other figures refer to the rail- 
way levels, I have followed them here. Eastward from 
Seneca the river continues to have its broad valley as far 
as Cayuga. To near this town the waters of the Welland 
canal feeder reach, at a height of about 9 (?) feet above 
Lake Erie. 

From Seneca to Cayuga the direction of the valley is 
nearly south, but at the latter place it abruptly turns nearly 
to the eastward, and in a short distance it passes to a flatter 
country and flows over Corniferous limestone. After a 
sluggish flow, it enters Lake Erie (passing through a marshy 
country) at Port Maitland, more than fifteen miles in a di- 
rect line from Cayuga. It must be remembered that, from 
Seneca to Cayuga, the valley is broad and conspicuous. 
At only a short distance south of the river, at Seneca, the 
summit of the country is occupied by a gravel ridge.* 

Returning to the valley of Fairchild's creek, we find the 
stream principally flowing in the former bed of the Grand 
river, abandoned a few miies below Gait since the Ice Age. 
This creek crosses the Great Western Railway at a level 
of fifteen feet below the crossing of the Grand river, at a 
few miles to the westward. Again, Fairchild' s creek crosses 
the Brantford and Harrisburg railway at an altitude of 407 
feet above Lake Ontario, or a little below that of the Grand 
river at Brantford, although it empties into it a few miles 
east of the city just named. 

Fairchild's creek is now of moderate size meandering 
through the Drift for a width of two miles. This drift is 
in part stratified clay. The Grand river, from Brantford 
eastward, is generally excavated from the drift deposits, 
althotigh occasionally one side of the valley shows rocks 
of Onondaga formation, exposed by the removal of the 
drift in modem times. It is also desirable to call attention 
to the fact that in the region of Brantford, much of the 
Onondaga formation is shaly and forms the surface country 
rock, covering a broad belt ; whilst from Seneca eastward. 



376 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

the surface of the country is more generally covered with 
Comiferous limestone. 

7. Country between the Grand River and Dundas 

Valleys. 

The watershed between these two present drainage sys- 
tems at only a short distance south-west of Copetown, and 
the distance in a direction from the Fairchild's creek side 
to the Dundas side of this divide is less than seven miles, 
with an average altitude of less than 480 feet (the same as 
that of Fairchild's creek as it crosses the Great Western 
Railway). The highest point that I have leveled is 492 
feet above Lake Ontario. On receding westward from the 
divide, the country gradually descends to Fairchild's creek, 
which, as it crosses the Brantford and Harrisburg Railway, 
is 407 above the lake. It is considerably lower where it 
enters the Grand river. The region between the divide and 
Grand river is traversed from north-west to south-east by a 
considerable number of streams, all with relatively large 
valleys, cut in the Drift since the present system of drain- 
age was inaugurated in Post Glacial times. 

The country from Jersey ville (about 465 feet above lake) 
slopes gradually down to the Grand river, from six to eight 
miles distant to the southward. 

On examination, it may be seen that the country is too 
high to permit Fairchild's creek or Grand river, as they 
are at present situated, to flow over the height of land into 
the upper portion of the Dundas valley. As referred to 
before, the Niagara limestone forming the summit of the 
escarpment at Ancaster and eastward, has a height of about 
600 feet. These beds dip at only about 25 feet in a mile 
(direction of dip S. 20° W.) and are not generally covered 
by a great thickness of Drift, but in many places are ex- 
posed on or near the surface. Westward of Ancaster. these 
limestones are nowhere to be found, but the country is only 
covered with Drift. At a short distance west of this village, 
we find streams flowing north-easterly and easterly with 
very deep valleys in the Drift, indicating the absence of 
the floor of limestone to a depth of over 260 feet below the 



PREGLACIAL OUTLKT. Q\ 377 

surface of the escarpment. But on going westward we find 
that the streams have not cut to as great a depth, but are 
still running deeply through drift. Eventually we reach 
the divide, after which we find that other systems of streams, 
running in a south easterly direction to join the Grand 
river also cut deeply in the drift ; but the Niagara limestone 
is absent from a considerable extent of country. 

On the northern side of the Dundas valley the escarp- 
ment after reaching Copetown is buried by the drift. Al- 
though the line of buried cliflfs recedes somewhat' to the 
northward of the Great Western Railway, yet there are 
occasional exposures, as at Troy and other places in Beverly 
and Flamboro, where the underlying limestones come to 
the surface. At Harrisburg the limestones are known to 
be absent for a depth of more than 72 feet, as shown in a 
deep well in the drift. 

In the town of Paris one well came upon hard rock at 10 
feet below the surface, whilst another 100 feet deep was 
still in bowlder clay. This last well must have been sunk 
in a buried channel of Neith's creek, as outcrops of gypsum- 
bearing beds of the Onondaga formation frequently occur 
near the summit of the hills. 

From what has just been written, it is easily seen that 
the Niagara limestones are absent beneath a more or less 
horizontal floor (600 feet above lake on both the northern 
and southern sides of the Dundas valley) which continues 
from Dundas westward to near Harrisburg, where it meets 
a portion of the Grand River valley. But almost imme- 
diately west of Ancaster we find streams running northward 
at right angles to the escarpment, and cutting through Drift 
to the depth of almost hundreds of feet. In fact, if we 
draw a line from Dundas to a point north of Harrisburg 
(a mile or two), and another from Ancaster southward to 
the Grand River, we have two limits of a region where the 
limestone floor has been cut away from an otherwise gen- 
erally level region. The southern side of this area is the 
southern margin of the Grand River valley, between Sen- 
eca and Brantford, and the western boundary is composed 



378 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

of Onondaga rocks east of Paris (which perhaps forms an 
island of rocks buried more or less in Drift). 

Additional proofs may be cited. 

About a mile south of Copetown a well was sunk to the 
depth of 100 feet before water was obtained. Two miles 
south-east of the same village there is small pond only 240 
feet above Lake Ontario, or more than 260 feet below the 
neighboring escarpment. This is in Drift. 

Again, at a mile north of Jersey ville, the country has a 
height *of 465 feet, with a well in the surface soil to a depth 
of 40 feet. A small rivulet flows in a valley (a few hundred 
yards south of the last named well) which has a bed 435 
feet above the lake. 

At about a mile west of Jerseyville, the altitude is 468 
feet with a well 52 feet deep. 

Again, at about two miles west of the same village, near 
the county line, the altitude is 460 feet, with a well 57 feet 
deep, (the bottom being lower than the Fairchild's creek 
more than three miles to the westward). 

About a mile north of the last named station is a ravine 
436 feet with the adjacent hills forty feet higher, and rising 
in a mile or two to about 500 feet. 

All these wells are in the Drift. From exposures near 
Ancaster, it appears that the unstratified drift has not an 
altitude of much more than 400 feet. And as we know that 
some of these superficial beds are stratified clay, and over 
most of the country just described not a bowlder is to be 
seen, neither on the surface nor in the material taken from 
the greater portions of the wells, it is probable that the 
water is only obtained on reaching the more porous bowlder 
clay below. It has also been noticed that two wells, at least, 
are 100 feet deep before reaching water, therefore we may 
fairly place this as about the inferior limit of stratified 
superficial clays. 

By reference to the accompanying map, it will be seen, 
then, that westward of the meridian of Ancaster there is 
an area of over 100 square miles from which the Niagara 
floor is known to be removed everywhere to a depth of 100 
feet, and in its eastern portion to more than 260 feet, and 



PKEGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 379 

Still nearer Lake Ontario to a measured depth of more than 
200 feet below its waters. 

8. The Buried Valley of Dundas. 

That the Dundas valley is that of an ancient river valley 
now buried to a great depth with the debris produced in 
the Ice Age, becomes apparent on a careful study of the 
region. However, until a key was discovered the mystery 
of its origin was found to be very obscure. My own labors 
at studying this region may fairly be st.ated as the first sys- 
tematic attempts at the solution of the present configuration 
of the western end of Lake Ontario and the adjacent val- 
ley. Assertions have been made that it was scooped out by a 
glacier, but this wild hypothesis was only a statement made 
without any regard to facts. 

From the description of the topography, given in Section 
2 of this paper, it will be seen that the apparent length of 
the rock-bound valley is six miles, with a width of over two 
miles ; then it widens suddenly (eastward) to four miles 
(with concave curves on both sides,) after which it gradually 
increases in width as it opens into Lake Ontario. The direc- 
tion of the axis of the valley is about N. 70° E. The sum- 
mit edges of the rock- walls on both sides are sharply angu- 
lar and not rounded or truncated. This angularity is not 
due to frost action since the Ice Age, to any extent, as is 
shown by the character of the talus. The rocks of the 
summit are frequently covered with ice markings, but I am 
not aware of any locality where they have been observed as 
being parallel with the true direction of the valley, but on 
all sides one can observe them (sometimes at angles of less 
than 30 degrees) making conspicious angles with its axis. 
One exertion may be made to this statement. On a pro- 
jecting ledge of Clinton limestone, at Russel's quarry, 
Hamilton at a height of 254 feet above the lake, and 134 
feet below the summit of the "mountain," after the re- 
moval of some talus, I observed that the surface was polish- 
ed, but with scratches so faint that they could scarcely be 
compared with those of fine sandpaper on wood ; and the 



380 Q*. REPORT OP PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

direction, if determinable, was parallel with the overhang- 
ing escarpment. There are many tributary cafions, evidently 
of greater antiquity than the Ice Age, which could not have 
been excavated by the present streams, and are at all sorts 
of directions compared with the striated surface of the 
country. 

The topography of the lower lake regions precludes the 
idea of a glacier flowing down the valley to the north-east- 
ward. Again, as the direction of the ice was towards the 
south-west, the waters from the melting glaciers could 
scarcely ^ow up an escarpment many hundreds of feet in 
height. Even if the Niagara escarpment did exist else- 
where, the non-parallelism of the striae, and and of the edges 
of the escarpment with their angular summits, is sufficient 
to prove the non-glacial origin of the valley in the hard lime- 
stone rocks. Moreover, at the eastern end of the narrower 
portion of the valley, there are two concave curves facing 
the lake, which of necessity would have been removed if 
such a gigantic grinding agent had been moving up the 
valley. 

This glacier-origin of the valley being an absolutely un- 
tenable hypothesis, I sought for some fluviatile agent capa- 
ble of effecting the present configuration of the region. At 
the time, the idea did not occur to me that the valley, large 
as it is at present, is only a miserable remnant of one of gi- 
gantic proportions obscured by hundreds of feet of drift. 
The question arose, could Lake Erie have ever emptied by 
this valley ? This suggestion did not hold its ground for 
any length of time, because the present levels are all too 
high. 

Traces of the true origin first presented themselves to me 
near Gait. A branch of the Great Western Railway extends 
from Gait southward for about four miles in the valley of 
the Grand river, after which, without making any import- 
ant ascent, it passes into the broad older valley, described 
above as that in which Fairchild's creek now flows. After 
a careful examination of the region, and of the railway 
levels, I came to the conclusion that this was an old buried 
valley. It then became apparent that if the Grand river 



PEEGLACIAL OUTLET. Q* 381 

had occupied the site of Pairchild's creek, the latter prob- 
ably flowed down the Dundas valley, and that the Grand 
river, being one of the largest of the rivers of Ontario, might 
have been a sufficient cause for the great excavation at the 
western end of Lake Ontario. Having procured all the 
levels that bore on the subject which were available, it be- 
came necessary for me to connect several places by instru- 
mental measurements, which I accomplished last July, with 
the aid of Prof. Wilkins. 

As the whole floor of Niagara limestones is absent, as has 
previously been shown, the proof that the ancient Grand 
river flowed down the Dundas valley was completed, and 
of this discovery there was published a local notice last 
August. 

Significant and interesting as this fact was, relative to 
the change of systems in our Canadian drainage, a still 
more important issue was involved. When taking the 
levels between the Dundas valley (modern) and the Grand 
river it was found that the whole calcareous floor was re- 
moved from a basin several miles in width, and that all the 
wells were sunk to a considerable depth in the Drift before 
water could be obtained. 

On glancing at the map it will be seen that the Grand river 
from Brentford to Seneca meanders through a broad course 
which in its ancient basin is several miles in width, but that 
from Seneca the valley is narrower and the course of the 
of the stream more direct as far as Cayuga. At Seneca the 
valley is two miles wide, and seventy-five feet deep. Also 
the bed of the Grand river at Seneca is in Drift which is 
only 37 feet above the lake into which it now empties. As 
has been pointed out in the section on the topography, this 
broad valley continues to Cayuga within a few miles of the 
lake, whence its former probable course was by a nearly 
direct line to Lake Erie, now filled with drift, near the 
present bend in the river towards the eastward. At Cay- 
uga the rock beneath the drift-bed of the river is below the 
lake level in the margin of its ancient valley, (sjBe note sec- 
tion 2.) 



882 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

Having observed the connection between the Dundas val- 
ley, Grand river and Lake Erie, it dawned on me that I had 
established the knowledge of a channel having a very im- 
portant bearing on the surface geology of the lake region. 
It now became apparent that Lake Erie had flowed by the 
Grand river reversed to a point west or north-west of Sen- 
eca, and thence by the Dundas valley into Lake Ontario ; 
also that the upper waters of the Grand river, previously 
discovered as passing down the Dundas valley, were really 
tributary to the outlet of Lake Erie, and joined it somewhere 
south of Harrisburg ; and that the basin between Brant- 
ford (and the Grand river of to-day) and the Great West- 
em Railway at Copetown formed an expanded lakelet 
along the course of the ancient outlet of Lake Erie, scooped 
out of the softer rocks of the Onondaga formation before 
noticed. As the waters excavated a bed in a deeper chan- 
nel, of course this lakelet would become an expanded and 
depressed valley, such as we often see amongst the hills of 
Drift at a short distance westward of Dundas. Possibly 
the Grand river divided and flowed around an island, the 
western side of which is occupied now by the town of Paris. 
At any rate, Neith's creek, at that town, also formed a 
large tributary to the river then flowing down to Lake On- 
tario. 

Along the course from Cayuga to Lake Ontario all obsta- 
cles to the outlet of Lake Erie apjDear to be removed. But 
along the present course of the Grand river, eastward of 
Cayuga, the waters flow over Corniferous limestone. But 
this diflBiculty appears to be removed on observing that the 
river, filled with Drift, approaches Lake Erie to within a 
direct distance of about five miles, but that at this place it 
leaves its southward course and also its conspicuous valley 
and flows eastward, in the same manner as the Niagara 
river, above the Whirlpool, left its old choked-up outlet by 
the valley of St. David, and cleaned out a new channel for 
itself through several miles, in hard rock, from Queenston 
southward. 

Much of the Dundas valley is underlaid by stratified 
Erie clay, which is known to extend to a depth of 60 feet 



PREGLACIAL ODTLET. Q*. 383 

below the surface of Lake Ontario, according to Dr. Rob- 
ert Bell, In the npper part of the valley, streams have ex- 
posed some deposits of unstratified clay tilled with angular 
shingle, derived from the thin beds of limestone forming 
the npper portion of the Niagara formation. In the east- 
em portion of the valley, the Erie clay is overlaid uncon- 
formably by brown Saugeen clay or loam (stratified). In 
the upper portions of the valley the hills are capped by 
brown clays or sands. But along some of the hillsides ex- 
cavated so deeply in the Drift, we find old beaches resting 
unconforraably on bowlder clay. 
Near the center of the city of Hamilton, ia the wider 



!ng. 2,-1. Hudson River formstlon; 2. Afedina shales; 3. Niagara and Clin- 
ton Dolomites with some ihales. A, C, O, B, modem valley at meridian of 
Burlington heights ; n, C, T>, b, modem valley at meridian of Dundas ; a, o, 
d, e, b, Bertions across, deeply excavated in beds of streams in western part 
of the Dundas valley; 4. Bowlder clay filling ancient valley; 3. Erie clay; 
a. Tains from sides of Moarpment : 7. Old beaoh, 103 feet above lake at But- 
lington heights. O. DsgjardJn'soansI le<idingfW>m DnndasMnrah to Bnrltng- 
tonbay; W, W. well at Royal Hotel, Hamilton; W. another well at Dundas; 
L, O. level of lAke Ontario; I^ S, level of Lake Erie. Horizontal scale, 2 
miles to an Inoh; vertical soale, 400 feet to an Inch. 

portion of the Dundas valley, a well was sunk to the depth 
of 1000 feet. This well revealed a most interesting fact. 



384 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Though known to me several years ago, I did not apply it 
to its true bearing until recently since discovering the origin 
of the Dundas valley. Mr. J. M. Williams sunk this well, 
at the Royal Hotel, in Hamilton. He told me several years 
ago that he had to sink through 290 feet of bowlder, before 
coming to hard rock, thus causing the outlay of a large sum 
of money in excess of his calculations. , Unfortunately, 
this well-record has been lost by fire. At that time, the 
fact was so fresh in his mind (impressed -by the extraordi- 
nary cost of the well) that his statement could be relied on, 
he being experienced in well-borings. The mouth of this 
well is 63 feet above Lake Ontario, and therefore the hard 
rocks are absent for a depth of 227 feet below the lake sur- 
face. See section. Fig. 2. 

As the valley is five miles wide at Hamilton, and as the 
well is only about one mile distant from its southern side, 
it becomes apparent that the valley in the center must have 
been deeper, perhaps much deeper. Moreover, if we pro- 
duce the southern side of that portion of the valley, which 
is over two miles wide, we find that the well is less than a 
quarter of a mile away from it. Now if we connect the 
top of the Medina shales (240 feet above Lake Ontario'l 
with the base of the Drift in the well, and produce it to 
the center of the valley, it would indicate a central depth 
of over 500 feet. At the base of the Drift there are nearly 
fifty feet of Medina shales, below which are the Hudson Riv- 
er rocks (more or less calcareous and arenaceous, mixed with 
the shales). This harder formation along the bed of a river 
would be less extensively removed by aqueous action than 
the overlying Medina shales, especially as the pitch of the 
waters would be much lessened. This graphic method of 
calculation seems as admissible here as it does in determin- 
ing other constants of nature. However, I have placed the 
estimated depth in the section at about 70 fathoms below 
the lake surface, which depth is perfectly compatible with 
the soundings of the lake at no very great distance to the 
eastward. Even this depth gives only a very gentle slope 
from the sides of the river valley. It should be remarked 
that Burlington bay is excavated from stratified clays in 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. 



Q^ 386 



places to a depth of 78 feet. But this water is silting up 
comparatively quickly. 

Now we have seen that the deep excavation in the Dun- 
das valley and westward is cut through more than 250 feet 
of Niagara and Clinton rocks, mostly of limestone, and to 
such a depth in the Medina shales as to make the total 
known depth of the cafion 743 feet, but with a calculated 
depth in the middle of the channel, of about 1000 feet. This 
depth for a cafion is not extraordinary for Eastern America. 
In Tennessee there are river valleys excavated to a depth 
of 1600 feet, and in Pennsylvania Mr. Carll reports others 
equally deep. 




Fig. 8. — Section of Grand river valley at Seneoa. A, D, C, H, B, is the pro- 
file of the H. A N. W. Railway; horizontal distance, 2 miles to an inch; ver- 
ticalf 400 feet to an inch. G, represents position of Grand river ; D, C, H, valley 
two miles wide and with maximum depth of 75 feet. L, E, level of Lake 
Erie; L, O, level of Lake Ontario; D, F, H, probable depth of buried val- 
ley. 

Again, this Preglacial river explains the cause of the 
present topography of the western end of Lake Ontario. 
The drainage by this river swept past the foot of the sub- 
25 Q\ 



386 Q*. REPORT or progress, i. c. white. 

merged escarpment of Lake Ontario described in preceding 
pages, until it passed the meridian of Oswego. 

With such an outlet, and with the ancient Grand river 
valley buried to an equal depth, we have an easy solution to 
the problem of the drainage of Lake Erie. See Sec. , Fig. 3. 

Attention has been called in this paper to the deepest 
portion of Lake Erie being south of Haldimand county, and 
about the end of Long point, and extending transversely 
towards the Pennsylvania shore. 

So far our remarks have applied to Canada. If we turn 
towards the American shore, we will see that the observa- 
tions made there go very strongly in support of what has 
been written. 

Several years since Dr. Newberry, Mr. Grilbert, and others, 
called attention to the deeply buried valleys of the Cuya- 
hoga, Chagrin, Grand, Maumee and other rivers in Ohio 
which emptied into Lake Erie much below their present 
levels. The Cayahoga has its channel buried to a depth of 
228 feet below the surface of Lake Erie of our time, whilst 
the deepest water in the neighboring portion of the lake is 
less than a hundred feet. 

In Report III, of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 
issued in November, 1880, Mr. John F. Carll has published 
excellent maps of the Preglacial drainage of that State and 
the neighboring portions of the adjoining States. This re- 
port on the Preglacial rivers is the result of five years of 
investigation in the oil regions, and many of Mr. Carll' s re- 
sults have been derived from the facts made known by the 
borings for mineral oil. 

Besides calling attention to the very deep valleys of ero- 
sion amongst the mountains, Mr. Carll has shown that in 
the oil regions the river valleys are frequently filled with 
drift to a depth of from 200 to 450 feet. In fact, nearly all 
the present rivers flow over beds deeply filled with drift. 
The map of the Preglacial drainage shows that the upper 
waters of the Allegheny emptied by the Cassadaga river 
(now reversed) into Lake Erie near Dunkirk, and had for 
tributaries many other streams which at present flow south- 
ward ; for example, the Conewango. These streams drained 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 387 

an area of 4000 miles, which now sends its surplus waters 
to the Ohio river. Again, the French and other rivers, now 
emptying southward from the Conneaut basin, emptied in 
Preglacial times into Lake Erie westward of Erie city. 
Again, there are some reasons for believing that the Chen- 
ango, Connoquenessing, Mahoning and other tributaries of 
the Beaver river (itself now emptying into the Ohio) flowed 
northward, by the Mahoning river reversed, to near the 
sources of the Grand and Cuyahoga rivers of Ohio. Hence * 
Mr. Carll does not portray its course on his map, but from 
the study of the levels and character of the country, as de- 
scribed by the Geological Survey of Ohio, I have connected 
it with the Grand river of Ohio, as represented on my map. 
Thus there was certainly one and probably two other large 
water basins now flowing southward formerly emptying into 
the Lake Erie basin. [See note at the end of-this paper.] 

The deepest portion of Lake Erie is between these ancient 
river mouths and the ancient dibouchement of the Erie 
drainage by the Grand river of Ontario, as described in these 
pages. 

Thus we have shown a consecutive system of drainage of 
the former waters of the buried channels into Lake Ontario, 
and thence running along the foot of the submerged es- 
carpment of the latter lake to its eastern end, receiving the 
Genesee and other large rivers along its course. In a por- 
tion of the present notes the writer will endeavor to make 
known still further the buried channels of Ontario, which 
exist between Lakes Huron and Erie when treating of the 
origin of these lakes. 

The remaining portion of this paper will be devoted to the 
subject of the origin of our great lakes. The writer does 
not wish to enter here into the discussion of the drift de- 
posits, and their origin at the present time, but to reserve 
it until the final report on the surface geology of the west- 
ern end of Lake Ontario. Yet the facts brought to light in 
this study have an important bearing on the great contro- 
versy of the Glacial Drift, and lead one to the conclusion that 
the Ultra-Glacial theorists stand on uncertain ground. 



i 



388 q*. report of progress. i. 0. white. 

9. Lake Superior. 

As the origin of all our great lakes is so closely related, 
it will not be out of place to describe briefly some of the 
features of the upper lakes that appear most striking. In 
the present paper it is only intended to call attention to 
some of the existing physical features of these great basins 
of water that appear to show a relation which resulted from 
a more or less common origin of all our lakes. Though I 
have frequently visited many localities on these lakes, for 
this portion of the present paper I am particularly indebt- 
ed to General Comstock, Superintendent of the U. S. Lake 
Survey, who kindly furnished me with the lake charts. 

Lake Superior. — This lake may be described as a large 
basin with a level or gently undulating bottom and steep 
margins. The mean depth may be placed at 800 feet below 
its present surface. Very few soundings exceed 900 feet. 
Of these, one near the center of the basin is 954 feet, and 
another, not far from Duluth, is 1026 feet — the maximum 
depth of the lake as shown by the hydrographical survey. 

The depth of the lake at three or four miles from the 
shore is generally as great as in its center ; it is often deeper 
near the shore on its north-western side. However, about 
the Apostle islands, between the Pictured rocks and St. 
Mary's river, and in some of the bays, the waters are shal- 
lower than in the open lake, With their floors more or less 
gradually sloping as they recede from the land. As is well 
known, the lakes is generally surrounded by crystalline or 
metamorphic rocks, which rise from several hundred to even 
twelve or thirteen hundred feet above its surface. In short, 
the near shore hydrography simply shows that the present 
submerged margins of the lake are composed of the bases 
of the same rugged hills that surround it above the water. 
The margin of this mountain-bound basin forms a strong 
contrast with its floor, which, at most, is only a slightly un- 
dulating plane, extending nearly its whole length and often 
little less than its breadth, excepting in its south-eastern 
portion and some other places referred to above. In fact, 
the lake bottom is quite as level as most extensivg planes 
which are now subjected to sub-aSrial action. 



V 



1 

\ 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q^ 389 



That this great plane is not covered with any great depth 
of drift-deposit (excepting locally) appears evident on ex- 
amining the character of the bottom of the lake in the sound- 
ings just oflf Kewanaw point, and those to the northward, 
in the various localities examined hard and rocky bottoms 
are alike found in both places, at the same depth and so 
frequently that they cannot be regarded as only rocky em- 
inences protruding through the silt covered bottom which 
is generally observed. 

The general direction of the deepest channel, for more 
than 200 miles along the north-western margin of the lake, 
appears to point to a river course in the region of its south- 
western extremity, and the few deeper holes have been pro- 
duced by some receding cascade from the adjacent shore to 
which there appears to be a transverse deep channel south 
of the mouth of Gooseberry river. 

Again Prof. N. H. Winchell calls attention to the depres- 
sion in the low country between the Chocolate river (east of 
Marquette, ) and Train bay (near the Pictured rocks, ) as the 
only place where t^ere could have been connection between 
the basins of Lakes Superior and Michigan. It may be re- 
marked that some of the deeper soundings put in towards 
this portion of the coast, whilst to the westward and east- 
ward the present lake bottom slopes more gradually. The 
soundings, however, that are near the shore, show a rocky- 
bottom, excepting north of Laughing Fish point (Sable river, ) 
and along a narrow channel north of the mouth of Choco- 
late river. The lake is very shallow for some distance west- 
ward of the St. Mary' s river. 

10. Lake Michigan. 

This lake may be said to consist of a broad long plane, 
the northern half having a mean depth of about 600 feet, 
whilst the soundings in the southern half are not much 
more than half that measurement. The deepest sounding 
recorded is 870 feet, in the latitude of the southern end of 
Green bay. Throughout its whole length the lake appears 
to be traversed by a deep channel, and in the northern end 
by more than one. Although the pitch of the bottom from 



I 



390 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WJLITE. 

the shore line is more or less gradual — ^generally less than 
40 feet in a mile — yet, along the eastern side there is a pre- 
cipitious escarpment extending for a considerable distance, 
which in one place suddenly descends, in a horizontal line 
of little over a mile, from 17 to 93 fathoms, or 456 feet, and 
60 feet more in the distance of another mile. 

The conspicuous channels in the submerged plane extend 
far northward to near the present foot of the lake. An in- 
teresting sounding east of the mouth of the Manistique 
river shows a depth of 448 feet, at a distance of two miles 
from the shore, whilst all the adjacent depths do not ex- 
ceed 11 fathoms. This appears to be a continuation of the 
deep soundings, ten miles to the southward, but the sur- 
rounding lake bottom is covered with Drift to a great depth, 
wherever the Niagara limestones have been removed. It is 
more than probable that this great depth is in a rock-bound 
channel of an ancient water course, which elsewhere has 
been filled with Drift. It seems probable that it was a por- 
tion of a buried channel extending through the valley of the 
Manisique lakes to the depression in the country south of 
Lake Superior, alluded to above, and formed a Pregracial 
connection between the valleys of Lakes Superior and Mich- 
igan. Prof. Winchell regards the valley between the two 
lakes along the Chocolate and White Fish rivers (the latter 
emptying into Little Bale De Noc,) as indicating the an- 
cient connection. This route seems less favorable, as both 
Little Bale de Noc and Green bay are shallow compared 
with Lake Michigan, for the greatest depth, which is near 
an outlet through Fortes des Mortes, is only 32 fathoms, 
whilst generally the bay does not exceed 100 feet. 

Green bay is. separated from Lake Michigan by a Niaga- 
ra escarpment facing the westward, and rising two or three 
hundred feet above the waters. There appears not to have 
been any closer connections between these two basins at any 
previous time than at present, excepting when the waters 
were at a higher level. We are told that from Green bay 
for 400 miles to the Mississippi river, a broad, low depres- 
sion occurs in the country and many have been a former 






.1 

PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 391 



outlet for Lake Superior. This valley is filled with Drift 
even if it ever had a sufficient depth.* 

Grand Traverse bay has a considerable depth in both of 
its branches, especially in the eastern. Here we find depths 
to 612 feet, whilst its northern mouth is now iilled, so that 
it does not exceed 120 feet. 

The north eastern portion of the basin of Lake Michigan 
has a general depth of less than 100 feet, but with deeper 
channels running through it. Many of the soundings 
about the Straits of Mackinac show a rocky bottom at no 
great depths. The channel between the 10-fathom contour 
margins is not much more than a mile and a half wide, and 
though generally shallower, contains a hole 252 feet deep. 
In proceding outward, the deepest channel passes north- 
ward of Mackinac island, having a depth not exceeding 
246 feet, and a width of less than a mile. 

Again a depression of the country extends from near 
Chicago, on Lake Michigan, towards the Mississippi river, 
which, in some places, is known according to Dr. Newberry 
to be filled with Drift to a depth of more than 290 feet. 

11. Lakes Huron and St. Clair. 

Of these water basins we can make four divisions. The 
first or southern section may be made to include the shal- 
low basin south of a line drawn from Thunder bay, or 
Presqu' He, to Kincardine, in Canada, and Lake St. Clair. 
The second basin comprises the deep channel of Lake Hu- 
ron, and extends northward to the Manitoulin islands and 
the Indian peninsula ; the third, the north channel between 
the Manitonlin islands and the Huronian hills, to the north- 
ward, the fourth, Georgian bay proper. 

The first of these divisions is represented by shallow wa- 

♦ From Gen. Warren's Report on the Transportation Route from the Miss- 
issippi river to Green Bay via the Wisconsin and Fox rivers, we learn that 
this valley bottom has a maximum height of 208.8' above Green Bay ; and that 
Lake Winnebago ( 169' above Green Bay, discharges by Fox river down a 
series of rock rapids. Green Bay therefore never discharged into the Missis- 
sippi through the depression ; consequently Lake Superior could have had no 
outlet to the Mississippi river via Green Bay. This makes its direct outgo into 
Lake Michigan at its north end the more probable. 



4 



I 

392 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

ter, seldom 35 fathoms deep, but with a channel about 50 
fathoms deep running through it, towards the north angle 
of the Au Sable river, near Brewster's mills. Saginaw bay, 
belonging to this section, is like Green bay, shallower even 
at its mouth, where it is less than 100 feet deep. 

Lake St. Clair is a flat plane, with its bed varying from 
18 to 21 feet below its surface, and is altogether modern. 

At Detroit the Drift is 130 feet deep. The three south- 
western counties of Ontario are low and flat, and covered 
with Drift varying generally from 60 to 100 feet in thick- 
ness below the level of Lake Erie. In places it is known 
to be at least 200 feet below the Erie lake in portions of a 
buried channel to be noticed below. In fact, all the evidence 
appears to show that the southern end of Lake Huron and 
the western end of Lake Erie, with the intervening region, 
constituted one common plain, underlaid by a considerable 
depth of Erian shales, reposing on the thick development 
of Corniferous limestone, and traversed by deep channels. 

The southern section of Lake Huron under consideration 
is mostly excavated and of Upper Erian shales in a direc- 
tion at right angles to the trend of the formations. The de- 
nuding action was lessened when the waters in the deeper 
northern part of the lake subsided to a level having a south- 
ern margin bounded by hard Corniferous limestone, covered 
to no very great depth with Upper Erian shales subjected 
to only sub-aerial action — the whole traversed with water 
courses in deep channels. 

The second division which, for convenience I have made 
of Lake Huron, is that portion between the line drawn from 
Presqu'Ile to Kincardine, and the Manitoulin islands to the 
northward. This is the deepest portion of the lake and 
extends in a direction running from north-west to south- 
east. It consists of a broad plain traversed by several deep 
channels. The average depth of this plain below the sur- 
face of the lake does not exceed 75 fathoms, although there 
are channels much deeper, one of which is represented by 
a depth of 117 fathoms. There is also one isolated sound- 
ing, which reaches 125 fathoms or 750 feet, thi^ being the 
deepest spot known. 



♦D. 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q\ 393 



The deeper channels appear to lead from the northern 
portions of the lake and to unite as they proceed south- 
ward, being separated by elevations indicating peninsulas 
or islands. Two of the principal channels appear to pro- 
ceed from Mississagua strait (between Manitoulin and Cock- 
bum islands), and from south of Manitoulin island, east- 
ward of the Duck islands. However, the channels in the 
marginal portions of the lake are generally more obscured 
by Drift or silt than towards the central waters. The chan- 
nel, if such you can call it, proceeding from the Mackinaw 
straits is of inferior depth to those leading from the more 
northern end of the lake. 

This portion of the lake is excavated out of the rocks 
of the various formations from the Niagara to the Comif- 
erous limestones ; but most largely out of the more or less 
soft rocks of the Onondaga group, and along the strike of 
these formations, thus giving the eroding agencies the power 
of removing the softer basal rocks, and of producing an 
escarpment of the Corniferous limestone looking to the 
northward, until it was finally undermined, and worn back 
to its present position, mostly submerged beneath the shal- 
lower waters of the southern portion of the lake, or buried 
in Drift deposits. 

On the northern side, the lake has not made so much en- 
croachment, as it is bounded by the hard Niagara limestones 
of the Manitoulin islands and Indian peninsula of Canada, 
the strata dipping down beneath the lake. Yet it must be 
noticed that these rocky shores are indented by numerous 
deep bays transverse to their directions. 

The North Channel, — ^This is generally a shallow water, 
the greatest found depth being only 204 feet. To the north 
we have the Huronian rocks forming the boundary. The 
islands, especially towards the east and near the whole 
north shore, are generally composed of Trenton limestone. 

The southern margin of the channel, bounded by Mani- 
toulin and other islands, is often composed of Hudson -river 
more or less shaly rocks, overlaid by the Niagara limestones 
(where not removed by denudation), constituting an escarp- 






394 Q^ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 



ment facing the north. In fact the whole of the north 
channel is principally scooped out of the Hudson river for- 
mation, which attains a considerable thickness in this re- 
gion. 

Dr. Robert Bell states that he has observed fifteen anti- 
clinal folds traversing the group of the Manitoulin islands ; 
and it is in these that we find the great indentations and 
lakes of the islands, as well as the straits which separate 
them. Doubtless many of the southern ends of the Mani- 
toulin lakes and channels are filled with Drift. For example, 
the mouth of South bay is only 33 feet deep, whilst the 
upper portion is generally deep, one place giving a sound- 
ing of 156 feet. 

In fact, the north channel may be considered as a broad 
continuation of the Spanish river westward. The Missis- 
sagua river points directly to Mississagua straits, which are 
204 feet deep, as deep as any part of the channel itself. 
Thessalon river has a direction towards False Bay De Tour, 
which is 186 feet deep. Vermilion river flows amongst the 
islands west of the Cloche mountains and probably had a 
connection with Lake Huron through some of the buried 
channels across Manitoulin islands, as between Manitouan- 
ing and South bays. 

The narrow channel between the peninsula of the Cloche 
mountains and Manitoulin island is less than 60 feet deep 
and appears to be a modern connection with Georgian bay. 

Georgian Bay, — The eastern and northern margins of 
this bay are composed of crystaline rocks ; the south-east- 
ern, of Trenton limestone ; whilst the western is made up 
of Hudson river rocks, capped with Niagara limestone on 
the Indian peninsula and Manitoulin island. This basin is 
principally excavated out of the Utica shale and the some- 
what harder rocks of the overlying Hudson River forma- 
tion. It lies along the junction of the two ; and thus, on 
the removal of the lower soft layers, an escarpment was 
produced which was subsequently and slowly continued to 
be undermined. 

In the channels connecting this bay with Lake Huron, 



v-fl 



PEEGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 395 



there are many small islands separated by shallow water. 
Yet in one place there are two deep soundings reaching 61 
and 42 fathoms. The bay itself is much deeper than these 
passages, for there is an escarpment submerged to a depth 
of 498 feet immediately off the Indian peninsula, at Cabot's 
Head, which is itself 324 feet above the bay. This penin- 
sula is deeply indented with bays or fiords. 

There is a depression from the southern end of the bay, 
through the valley occupied by Simcoe, Balsom, Rice and 
other lakes to the Trent river, emptying into the Bay of 
Quints, an arm of Lake Ontario. This will be alluded to 
again. 

'12. Outlet of Lake Huron. 

The south-western countries of Ontario are dotted with 
borings for oil. From these well records, one can draw 
only a single conclusion, that they are underlaid by Drift 
(mostly stratified and perhaps wholly) to a depth of not 
more than 100 feet below the surface of Lake Erie, and gen- 
erally to not more than 50 feet. There are deeper borings 
in Drift, it is true, but these may be fairly considered as 
in buried channels. For instance, at Detroit the Drift is 
130 feet deep. Again, at Port Stanley, it is 150 feet below 
the surface of the lake ; at Vienna it is 200 feet below Lake 
Erie. If we draw a line from near the northern angle of 
the Au Sable river (of the south) to east of Vienna, we 
get a boundary for the deeply Drift-filled basin of south- 
western Ontario; for at Tilsonburg, St. Mary's and else- 
where (just east. of this line,) the hard limestones rise to 
near the surface of the country much above the level of 
Lake Erie. Excepting a few shale at Kettle Point, all the 
south-eastern shores of this lake are composed of sand 
dunes and other Post- tertiary deposits. The upper por- 
tion of the Thames and Au Sable rivers are in conspic- 
uously Preglacial beds filled with Drift. The Au Sable 
after turning northward continues in a partly reexcavated 
valley to a point within a mile of Lake Huron, and then 
turns an acute angle and runs for a dozen miles southwards 
parallel, and very close to the lake before emptying into it. 



^^' 



UJ 



396 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 



Now, if we look at the large geological map of Canada, 
it will be seen that the region underlaid by Upper Devonian 
shales extends south-eastward from Lake Huron, forming a 
narrow belt across the country to Lake Erie. Dr. Hunt has 
shown, that in places these shales are four or five hundred 
feet thick, beneath the Drift. On a careful study, it will 
be seen that these south-western countries of Ontario simply 
formed a continuation of the valley of Lake Erie to Lake 
Huron, or vice versa. The depth of this valley, or plane, 
as we have seen, does not exceed 100 feet below the lake 
level (Erie,) except in channels, and generally less than that 
depth ; while the waters in adjacent portions of Lake Erie 
vary in depth from 30 feet, at the western end, to a maximum 
depth of 84 feet further eastward, where removed from the 
mass of modern sediments now being brought down by the 
western rivers. From these facts but one conclusion can be 
drawn, and that is, the deepest western portion of Lake 
Erie is not silted up to a greater depth than the difference 
between its soundings and 100 feet ; except in channels, 
such as the Cuyahoga. 

From these figures it will be seen that the country in- 
cluding the greater portion of Lake Erie, the southwestern 
counties of Ontario, and the southern portion of Lake 
Huron formed one nearly uniform plane, in shale rocks, 
which, however, gradually sloped both to the northward 
and eastward towards the deepest portions of the lakes. 
From the borings, we see that there were channels, and I 
think that we are furnished with the data for pointing out 
where the outlet of Huron formerly flowed, even to a depth 
sufficiently great to drain the deepest portion of the lake, 
although filled with some sediment. That portion of the 
Au Sable flowing northward to an old buried valley, and 
then turning southward, indicates a portion of the ancient 
outlet. The channel having been dammed in the Ice Age, 
has caused the modern river to flow in the capricious man- 
ner indicated on the map. This portion of the river re- 
versed, formed an ancient outlet for Lake Huron, and flowed 
to its south-western angle, then turning eastward, the direc- 
tion (with gentle curves) was south of eastward across the 



^ 






PBEGLAGIAL OUTLET. Q^ 397 

country co Lake Erie, having Port Stanley on its right, and 
Vienna on its left bank. It is known that the channel at 
the former place was 150 feet, and at the latter 200 feet be- 
low Lake Erie, and with a sufficient distance between these 
places to have permitted of a valley four times that depth, 
even in the Hamilton shales, and underlying Corniferous 
limestones. At a distance of only a few miles eastward of 
this line the Corniferous limestone comes to near the sur- 
face of the country, and is exposed by several modem 
streams. The upper portion of the Thames, the eastern 
branches of the Au Sable, and other streams belong to Pre- 
glacial times with buried channels, were tributaries to this 
old outlet. 

Throughout the southwestern counties generally there is 
a broad belt underlaid by several hundred feet of Devonian 
rocks (mostly of shale of the Hamilton group,) beneath the 
Drift deposits, which cover them to a depth of from 50 to 
100 feet. 

Two things along this route support the theory that this 
channel, known to be 200 feet deep (below Lake Erie,) and 
able to drain half of the surface of Lake Huron, was of 
more gigantic proportions, is the natui'e of the Drift near 
Port Stanley, and the configurations and soundings of Lake 
Erie. Near Port Stanley, the Drift is piled up much deeper 
than it is usually found in this section of the country, reach- 
ing 150 feet above the lake. From which ever cause (glacier 
or iceberg,) it is just what would be expected along the 
margin of a valley against which drift-bearing ice would be 
passing. The other indication is, that if we draw a line 
from a short distance north of Port Stanley to southward of 
Vienna (the direction of the valley,) it forms the continua- 
tion of a nearly direct portion of the present shore, curving 
slightly to Long Point, just off which the deepest portion 
of the lake is found, and around which the channel turns, 
to the Grand river of Canada. It cannot be justly said that 
the present configuration of the lake is independent of its 
Preglacial form. Nor can it be said that the lake is gener- 
ally silted up to great depths, except in channels, for any 
such statement is unwarranted by facts, as I have shown 



i 



i 



398 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

from the analogy between the bottom of the western end of 
the lake, and the south-western counties, to^ be improbable. 

11. The Preglacial Grand River. 

We are now able to construct an approximately true river 
map from Lake Huron to the eastern end of Lake Ontario. 

The streams ran from the north and west of Lake Huron, 
south-eastward towards Goderich ; thence southward, and 
entered the Au Sable near its northern angle ; it turned east- 
ward, near the southern angle of the same river, and with 
a gentle sweep, having Vienna on the left and Port Stanley 
on the right bank (receiving the upper-waters of the Au 
Sable and Thames as tributaries), it passed Long point, flow- 
ing near the present Canadian ahore, and entering the Grand 
river (reversed) south of Cayuga ; afterwards it passed down 
the Dundas valley towards north-east, into the basin of 
Ontario, and then along the foot of the buried Hudson 
river escapement to near Oswego. 

Along its course, it received, probably, a small stream from 
near Detroit, the Maumee, Sandusky, Chagrin, Cuyahoga, 
Grand (of Ohio, and its tributary, the Mahoning), Conneaut, 
Allegheny, and other rivers from the American States, and 
afterwards the Genesee and various other streams in its 
course through the basin of Ontario. 

The rate at which this basin was excavated, of course de- 
pended on the wear of the limestone rocks after entering 
the Grand river. But as this was very slow, the softer shaly 
rocks would gradually be worn down, and the basin of these 
lakes, in the shaly rocks, across their beds, would be greatly 
widened, as we see it. 

No great pitch in the rivers would be required to occasion 
a flow of the waters, a very few inches in the mile would 
suffice. If we observe the deepest portions of Lake Huron 
and Ontario, we have a difference in altitude of 360 feet 
(both being below sea level) in 400 miles along the route in- 
dicated ; whilst probably there were lake-expansions along 
the course, thus causing the fall to be confined to a few 
places, especially through the Dundas Valley, in the form 
of a series of rapids after the capping limestones had been 
removed. 



V 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q^ 39P 

[The author then states his opinion of the way in which 
this ancient river St. Lawrence excavated the great lake 
basins, or open valleys, through which it passed ; always 
undercutting in soft south dipping, nearly horizontal, rocks 
against the outcrops of harder and higher strata. 

The train of his argument can be seen in the original 
memoir published by the American Philosophical Society, 
at Philadelphia, March 18, 1881 ; applied, not only to Lake 
Ontario but to Lakes Erie and Huron also. 

I omit this portion of the memoir, because it merely 
makes certain theoretical statements the correctness or in- 
cori'ectness of which does not at all affect the truth, value 
and importance of the facts described above. These are real 
and remarkable discoveries ; and of the highest interest to 
the students of the geology of Erie and Crawford counties, 
as the reader will have already noticed. The publication of 
Dr. Spencer's work in upper Canada comes just in the nick 
of time for the Pennsylvania survey, confirming and further 
explaining Mr. Carll' s conclusions ; while it throws light 
upon the report of Mr. White. 

With regard to Dr. Spencer's theory of the river erosion 
of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, I have only to say, that 
it is too narrow to satisfy all the demands made upon it.. 
For a number of years past I have been urging upon geolo- 
gists, especially those addicted to the glacial hypotheses of 
erosion, the strict analogy existing between the submerged 
valleys of Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, and the whole 
series of cZr^/ Appalachian "Valleys of VIII" stretching from 
the Hudson river to Alabama ; also, of Green Bay, Lake 
Ontario and Lake Champlain with all the dry "Valleys of 
II and III." One single law of topography governs the 
erosion of them all, with out exception, whether at present 
traversed by small streams, or great rivers, or occupied by 
sheets of water ; the only agency or method of erosion com- 
mon to all being that by rain water ; not in the form of a 
great river, because many of them neither are now nor ever 
have been great water ways. 

As a consequence of their absolute similarity of geological 
position, general form and common genesis, their a^e must be 



/ 



400 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

one and the same. The sea has had nothing to do with their 
production, for it has never permanently invaded some of 
them, nor even temporarily others. Ice has had nothing to 
do with their production for those in the glacial region differ 
in no respect from those nearest the gulf of Mexico. 

I also long ago urged on theorists the necessity for taking 
into account as a prime factor the und^er ground' solution of 
limestone strata^ and the subsequent aqueous removal of 
the fallen debris of overlying strata, the roofings of caverns 
and the steeps of cliflfs. In regard to this I have pointed to 
the horizontal Niagara limestone which floors the three mid- 
dle lakes, and the Trenton limestone which floors the two 
lower lakes and Green and Georgian bays. A curious pres- 
ent illustration of what has been the state of things is offered 
for the examination of geologists by the peninsula of Yu- 
catan, on the surface of which are no streams of water, the 
drainage of the whole country being underground. 

It is needless to repeat the oft-told demonstration ; but it 
is well, now that Dr. Spencer has disembarrassed us of the 
chief difficulty of our last pre-recent water system of the 
north, to remind the admirers of his great discovery that 
his new found ancient Grand river did its work not only 
with the constant assistance, from the beginning to the end, 
of millions of smaller rivers, creeks, runs and rills, but also 
in such subordination to them as a general acknowledges 
to his troops, or a contractor to his army of navvies. 

No great river can be looked upon as a principal eroding 
agent. Rain water erodes in the direct raiio of the number 
of its threads ; and in the inverse ratio of the volume of their 
united floods. The rill, the cascade, the rivulet, have the 
highest proportional erosive power. Small rivers act vigor- 
ously so long as they descend steep slopes, but lose their 
power gradually as they enter plains. Large rivers are con- 
structive rather than destructive. Lakes with outlets to the 
ocean are merely large rivers of great breadth, with exceed- 
ingly sluggish Currents and an erosion-force reduced to a 
minimum. The oceans are merely exaggerated and con- 
nected lakes traversed by still larger currents, with the 
minimum of erosive power reduced to nearly zero. 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 401 

Therefore our Great Lake basins, although traversed by 
a great river, were not excavated by it ; but by the universal 
vertical descent of rain water upon their areas, lowering 
their surfaces gradually and nearlj^ equally at all points, 
while at the same time mining it throughout the whole ex- 
tent of its limestone underfloor ; ^the material being removed, 
in the ordinary way, by rills, rivulets and the great river, to 
the sea. 

Dr. Spencer' s scorn of the erosive power of glaciers leads 
him to quote Professor Whitney' s admirable and equally 
contemptuous arguments against it,* in addition to such as 
he draws himself from the condition of the escarpments and 
the direction of the scratches. These were substantially 
anticipated as long ago as 1858 in Prof. Henry D. Rogers' 
description of the glacial stnse of the Wilkes-Barre valley 
conforpaing to its already completely established topo- 
graphy. — J. P. L.] 

14. The Outlet of Lake Ontario. 

The question involved in the sub-aerial and fluviatile 
origin of our three Great Lakes, is where are the outlets of 
Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Lake Huron, at sufficient 
depths to drain their basins. As shown, the outlet of Lake 
Erie through the Dundas valley is sufficiently deep to empty 
the two upijer lakes. Also, the outlet described on previ- 
ous pages points to every condition necessary to indicate 
its depth as being sufficiently great to empty Lake Huron, 
although the actual measurement (on the north-east side 
of the channel) has only reached to 200 feet below the sur- 
face of Lake Erie, with a bottom composed of soft shales. 

There remains one other question to be answered, but 
certainly one of no greater moment than the ancient con- 
nection between Lakes Erie and Ontario — where was the 
outlet of Lake Ontario ? 

Dr. Newberry, at times a glacialist, finally appears to 
advocate the glacial excavation of the lakes after their 
courses had been determined by river action. 

Various writers for the last twenty years have referred 

* Dr. Dawson has shown that northwest America was a glacial region. 

26 Q\ 



402 Q*. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. C. WHITE. 

to the deep buried channel near Lake Onondaga, more than 
400 feet below its surface, as indicating the former outlet 
of Lake Ontario by this route, and down the Mohawk to 
the Hudson river. This course will not answer, as Mr. Carll 
has shown, for at Little Falls, Herkimer county, the Mo- 
hawk flows over metamorphic rock. 

Various fluvialists infer some buried route by the St. 
Lawrence. This seems scarcely possible, as that great river 
flows over hard rocks at various points for 200 miles below 
Lake Ontario, unless the outlet existed somewhere between 
Kingston in Canada, and Oswego in New York, and con- 
tinued in a buried course to eastward of Montreal. The 
north-eastern portion of Lake Ontario is very shallow, and 
the deepest channel points to the south-eastward extremity 
of the lake. 

At the present time the writer knows nothing positively 
of the most probable outlet, if that by the Mohawk will 
not answer. Yet he will predict that its outlet will be 
found as certainly as the one between Lakes Erie and On- 
tario, of which there was no clue, or even suggestion until 
working up the origin of the Dundas valley. One other 
route presents itself, but as positive proof is not at hand, 
I will defer theorizing. 



[The interesting question thus propounded by Dr. Spen- 
cer may not be soon satisfactorily answered. The descent 
of the great water-way of the Lakes eastward calls for some 
outlet in that direction, and this can only be looked for 
along an eastward prolongation of the southern shore of 
Lake Ontario. The present Mohawk valley would suf- 
fice, if it were a Buried Valley filled to its present flood- 
plain with Drift. But the bed of the Mohawk is solid rock 

at Little Falls, at about 360', A. T.* 
There seems no hope of finding a buried valley on the 

south side of the Mohawk valley, for the Caughnawahgah 

and other streams descending from the Heldelburg wall on 

*R. R. grade 376' ; See. N. p. 106. Three miles east of Utioa "Mohawk low 
water'' is given at 39^.33'. In 21 miles the R. R. grade Mis (eastward, from 
Utioa depot to Little Falls depot,from 410- to 376') 34'. 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q^. 403 

that side show the slates in their beds ; nor on the north 
side of the valley, for the Trenton and other creeks enter 
the Mohawk from the north as cascades. 

Further east the difficulty is more flagrant ; for the valley 
is barred across by several uplifts of gneiss, making trans- 
verse rock ridges 600 feet high, through which the river 
breaks by narrow gateways ; as at the Nose, four miles west 
of Amsterdam, where the water surface is about 240' A. T. 
(having fallen about 100' in 40 miles, from Little Rock to 
Amsterdam.) 

If the Ontario lake river, then flowed at 130 fathoms 
beneath present lake level (260), i. e. (780'— 260'=)630' helow 
present tide level, and yet its outlet waters flowed over the 
Mohawk rock be^ at Little Falls, 360' above present tide 
level, the country about Little Falls mast have been elevated 
(query : by the Mohawk uplifts, as items of a more general 
general Hudson river uplift ? ) Toore then (530'+360'=)900^ 
And this may possibly give us a rude geological date for the 
elevation of the Catskill mountain plateau, sloping west- 
ward into Pennsylvania. — J. P. L.J 

• 

16. Niagara River. 

That the Niagara river is postglacial, at least from the 
Whirlpool to Queenston, is apparent. It is known that the 
Niagara river formerly left its present course near the Whirl- 
pool and flowed down the valley of St. David, which is now 
filled with drift. This valley (through the limestone escarp- 
ment) is not so great as the present caflon. This buried val- 
ley of St. David could only have been produced after the 
closing of the Dundas valley outlet of the Erie basin, for 
until then the waters flowed at a very much lower level. 

Therefore, it seems necessary to regard this channel (not 
of very great magnitude) as an interglacial outlet for Lake 
Erie. 

The geologists of the western States point to the forest 
bed as a period of high elevation, preceded by the Erie clay 
(stratifled) and succeeded by the yellow stratified clays or 
loam, corresponding to the Brown Sangren clay of Canada, 
which is unconformable to the underlying Erie clays (or 



404 Q^. REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

bowlder clay in the upper portion of the Dundas valley). 
So, for the present, we look upon the old course of the 
Niagara river as the channel excavated during the warm in- 
terglacial period. 

[It only remains to suggest to the citizens of Crawford and 
Erie county that their outlooks from the great divide, and 
their picnics at ' ' the gulf ' ' will now have an added charm, 
if they will picture to themselves a former state of things, 
when, instead of the broad expanse of water which they 
are accustomed to gaze down upon with so much pleasure 
and show with such pride to friends who visit them from 
afar, there once spread out an illimitable landscape of for- 
est covered plains, gently rising towards the distant north. 
From the southeast and from the southwest descended into 
this plain from the New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio State 
highlands a range of rapid rivers, the Allegheny, the French, 
the Mahoning, the Cuyahoga, the Black, the Vermillion 
and the Sandusky cascading downwards through profound 
gorges — to unite in one. Joined on the far side of the plain 
by a mighty river coming from the northwest, the assembled 
floods entered and passed north through a long caflon into 
the magnificent amphitheater of Dundas ; to leave it again 
by a narrow gate, with walls a thousand feet high, and to 
descend upon the plain of Ontario, on their way to the 
ocean. 

Let them then imagine centuries to roll on; the great 
glacial winter of the world setting in ; the slow accumula- 
tion of a thousand feet of snow and ice upon the Laurentian 
mountains ; the southward advance of the front of the con- 
tinental glacier ; its occupation of the whole landscape with 
an east and west frontage of a thousand miles ; damming 
back the rivers and converting the forest covered plain into 
an inland sea ; closing up the caflons with gravel and sand ; 
filling the amphitheater of Dundas ; banking itself against 
the Pennsylvania upland and sending long separate gla- 
ciers down across the country of the Middle States as far 
south as the limit of heat-endurance. 

Then let them imagine the slow retreat of the meteor ; 



PREGLACIAL OUTLET. Q*. 405 

the melting of every trace of the ice ; the new topography- 
produced by its abundant debris ; the establishment of 
Lake Erie and the upper lakes ; the reversal of the Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio river systems southward ; the opening 
of the new vents at St. David's and Kingston ; the lowering 
of the lake waters from terrace to terrace ; the rapid cutting 
back of Niagara Falls and the establishment of the present 
lake level. 

Whether the Glacial Age was single or double — whether 
the Drift be divisible by the "forest bed" into two forma- 
tions or not — whether the high terraces of Erie county be 
older or younger than the lower ones — whether the Great 
Preglacial river kept open for a time its channel ways be- 
neath the ice-sheet or not — all these are subordinate features 
of a scene which is essentially a part of the veritable his- 
tory of our continent, suggestive of the most inspiring 
thoughts, and worthy of the study of intelligent beings. 

Additional note. — On the 15th of April Dr. Spencer 
communicated to the American Philosophical Society a 
suggestion of some importance, which may in the course of 
future investigations lead to a serious enlargement of the 
great Erie Tyater basin of Preglacial times. 

After passing in review the facts related by Prof. White 
in his Reports Q and Q" on Beaver and Lawrence counties, 
and specially referring to the remarkable shallowness of 
the ancient river channel of the Ohio at Steubenville, he 
suggests the following way out of the difficulties of the case : 

Suppose the drainage of the Lower Alleghany, Clarion, 
Redbank, Mahoning, Conemaugh, Yough, Cheat, and Mo- 
nongahela to pass Pittsburgh as the Ohio as far as Beaver, 
and to be joined there by a small river, represented now by 
the Little Beaver, with a southern branch heading up be- 
tween Youngstown and Steubenville : 

Suppose the combined waters then to ascend the Beaver 
valley {descending on the old now buried channel bed) to 
Newcastle, there to receive the streams represented by the 
Lower Shenango waters : 

Suppose the great river thus reinforced to flow on north- 
westward (still in almost a straight course all the way from 



406 Q\ REPORT OF PROGRESS. I. 0. WHITE. 

Pittsburg) up the present valley of the Mahoning (now- 
filled with from ISO to 200 feet of Drift) to the depression 
in the water-shed in Ohio : 

It would only require a depth of 300 feet of Drift in a 
buried rock-bed channel through this depression to allow 
the continuance of the river into and down the present 
Grand river of Ohio into Lake Erie. 

Unfortunately we have no borings in the Drift between 
the head of the Mahoning and the Grand river, and there- 
fore cannot prove the existence of the required buried chan- 
nel ; nor, if one exists, its sufficient depth to satisfy the re- 
quirements. — J. P. L.] 



Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 



REPORTS FOR 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879, AND 1880. 



The following Reports are issued for the State by the Board of Commis- 
sioners, at Harrisborg, and the prices have been Hxed as follows, in aooord- 
anoe with the terms of the act : 

PRICES OF BEPOBTS. 

A. HisTORiOAii Sketch of GEoiiOOiCAii Explorations in Pennsylvania 
and other States. By J. P. Lesley. With appendix, containing Annual 
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Price in cloth, $0 50 ; postage, ^ 10. 

B. Preliminary Report op the Mineralogy of Pennsylvania — 

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by Samuel P. Sadtler. 8vo., pp. 206, with map of the State for reference to 
counties. Price in paper, |0 50 ; postage, |0 08. Price in cloth, fO 75 ; post- 
age, $0 10. 

B.» Preliminary Report of the Mineralogy of Pennsylvania for 

1875. By Dr. F. A. Genth. Price in paper, |0 05 ; postage, $0 02. 

C. Report of Progress on York and Adams Counties — 1874. By 
Persifor Frazer. 8vo., pp. 198, illustrated by 8 maps and sections and other 
illustrations. Price in paper, |0 85 ; postage, |0 10. Price in cloth, |1 10 ; 
postage, 10 12. 

CC. Report of Progress in the Counties of York, Adams, Cumber- 
land, AND Franklin — 1875. Illustrated by maps and cross-secttonsy show- 
ing the Magnetic and Micaceous Ore Belt near the western edge of the Meso- 
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Mountains, with a preliminary discussion on the Dillsburq Ore Bed and 
oatalogpie of specimens collected in 1875. By Persifor Frazer. Price, $1 25 ; 
postage, 10 12. 

OGC. Report of Progress in 1877. The Geology of Lancaster County, 
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high County— 1874, with descriptions of mines lying between Emaus, Al- 
burtis, and Foglesville. By Frederick Prime, Jr. 8vo., pp. 73, with a contour- 
line map and 8 cuts. Price in paper, |0 50 ; postage, |0 04. Price in cloth, 
fO 75 ; postage, |0 06. 

DD. The Brown Hematite Deposits of the Siluro-Cambrian Lime- 
stones OF Lehigh County, lying between Shimersville, Millerstowri, 

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Schenoksville, Ballietsville, and the Lieliigh river~187£H6. By Frederick 
Prime, Jr. 8 to., pp« 99, with 5 map-sheets and 5 plates. Price, $1 60 ; post- 
age, fO 12. 

B. Special Refobt on the Tbap Dtkes and Azoio Rocks of South- 
eastern Pennsylvania, 1875; Part I, Historical Introduction. By T. Sterry 
Hunt. 8 vo., pp. 268. Price, fO 48 ; postage, 90 12. 

F. Report of Progress in the Juniata District on Fossil Iron Ore 
Beds of Middle Pennsylvania. By Joiin H. Dewees. With a rei>ort of the 
AuGHWiCK Valley and East Broad Top District. By G. M Ashbur- 
ner. 1874-8. Illustrated with 7 Oeological maps and 19 sectioTis, 8 vo., pp. 
805. Price, 92 55; postage, fO 20. 

G. Report of Progress in Bradford and Tioga Counties— 1874-8. I. 
Limits of the Gatskill and Chemung Formation. By Andrew Sher- 
wood. II. Description of the Barclay, Blossburg, Fall Brook, Arnot, 
Antrim, and Gaines Coal Fields, and at the Forks of Pine Creek in 
Potter County. By Franklin Piatt. III. On the Coking of Bitumin- 
ous Coal. By John Fulton. Illustrated with 2 colored Oeological county 
maps, 8 pagep2aee« and 35 cuts. 8 vo., pp. 271. Price, $1 00 ; postage 90 12. 

GO. Report of Progress. The Geology of Lycoming and Sullivan 
Counties. I. Field Notes, by Andrew Sherwood. II. Coal Basins, by Frank- 
lin Piatt. With two colored geological county maps and numerous illustra- 
tions. 8 vo., pp. 268. Price, |1 06 ; postage, |0 14. 

GGG. Report of Progress in 1876-9. 8 vo., pp. 120. The Geology of 
Potter County, by Andrew Sherwood. Report on the Coal Field, by 
Franklin Piatt, with a colored geological map of county, and two page plates 
of sections. Price, |0 58 ; postage, |0 08. 

H. Report of Progress in the Clearfield and Jefferson District 
OF THE Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania— 1874. By 
Franklin Piatt. 8vo., pp. 296, illustrated by 139 cuts, 8 maps, and 2 sections. 
Price in paper, $1 50 ; postage, |0 18. Price in cloth, $1 75 ; postage, $0 15. 

HH. Report of Progress in the Cambria and Somerset District 
OF THE Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania— 1875. By F. 
and W. G. Piatt. Pp. 194, illustrated with 84 wood-cuts and 4 m^aps and sec^ 
tions. Part I. Cambria. Price, $1 00 ; postage, fO 12. 

HHH. Report of Progress in the Cambria and Somerset District 
OP the Bituminous Coal Fields of Western Pennsylvania— 1876. By F. 
and W. G. Piatt. Pp. 348, illustrated by 110 wood-cuts and 6 maps and sec- 
tions. Part II. Somerset. Price, |0 85 ; postage, |0 18. 

HHHH. Report of Progress in Indiana County— 1877. By W. G. 
Piatt. Pp. 316. With a colored map of the county. Price, |0 80 ; postage, 
10 14. 

H*^ . Report of Progress in Armstrong County— 1879. By W. G. Piatt. 
Pp. 238. With a colored map of the county. Price, |0 75 ; postage, $0 16. 

I. Report of Progress in the Venango County District- 1874. By 
John F. Carll. With observations on the Geology around Warren, by F. A. 
Randall ; and Notes on the Comparative Geology of North-eastern Ohio and 
Northwestern Pennsylvania, and Western New York, by J. P. Lesley. 8 vo., 
pp. 127, with 2 maps, a long section, and 7 cuts in the text. Price in paper, 
fO 60; postage, $0 05. Price in cloth, 90 85 ; postage, |0 08. 

II. Report of Progress, Oil Wells, Records, and Levels — 1876-7. 
By John F. Carll. Pp. 398. Published in advance of Report of Progress, III. 
Price, fO 60 ; postage, ^ 18. 

III. Report of Progress— 1875 to 1879. The Geology of the Oil Regions 

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OF Wabben, Venango, Clabion, and Butleb Counties, including sor- 
veys of tlie Garland and Panama Conglomerates in Warren and Crawford, and 
in Chantauqua oounty. New York. Descriptions of oil well rig and tools, and 
a discussion of the preglaoial and postglacial drainage of the Lake Erie country. 
By John F. Carll. Pp. 482 ; with two indexes, 23 page plates, and an atlas of 
22 sheets of maps, well sections, and worldng^ drawings of well rig and tools. 
Price of report, |0 60 ; postage, |0 19. Price of atlas, |1 70 ; postage, |0 12. 

J. SPECiAii Rbpobt on the Pbtbolbum of PennsyijVania— 1874, its 
Production, Transportation, Manufacture, and Statistics. By Henry E. Wrig- 
ley. To which are added a Map and Profile of a line of levels through Butler, 
Armstrong, and Clarion Counties, by JD. Jones Lucas : and aiso a Map and 
Profile of a line of levels along Slippery Rock Creek, by J. P. Lesley. 8 vo., 
pp. 122 ; 5 maps and sections, a plate and 5 cuts» Price in paper, ^ 75 ; post- 
age, ^ 06. Price in cloth, $1 00 ; postage, |0 08. 

K, Repobt on Gbeene AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES — 1875, Bituminous 
Coal Fields. By J. J. Stevenson, 8 vo., pp. 420, illustrated by 3 sections and 2 
oounty maps, showing the depth of the Pittsburg and Wa3rnesburg coal bed, 
beneath the surface at numerous points. Price in paper, |0 65 ; postage, $0 16. 
Price in cloth, $0 90 ; postage, |0 18. 

KK. Repobt of Pboobess in the Fayette and Westmobeland Dis- 
TBicT OF the Bituminous Coal Fields op Westbbn Pennsylvania — 
1876. By J. J. Stevenson ; pp. 437, illustrated by 60 wood-cuts and 3 county 
maps, colored. Part I. Eastern Allegheny County, and Fayette and West- 
moreland Counties, west from Chestnut Ridge. Price, %l 40 ; postage, |0 20. 

KKK. Repobt of Pboobess in the Fayette and Westmobeland 
DiSTBiCT OF THE BITUMINOUS CoAL FIELDS of Wcstem Pennsylvania— 1877. 
By J. J. Stevenson. Pp. 331. Part II. The Liqonieb Valley. Illustrated 
with 107 wood-cuts, 2 plates, and 2 county maps, colored. Price, $1 40 ; post- 
age, 10 16. 

L. 1875— Special Repobt on the Coke Manufactube op the Yough- 

lOGHENY RiVEB VaLLEY IN FAYETTE AND WeSTMOBBLAND COUNTIES, 

with Geological Notes of the Coal and Iron Ore Beds, from Surve3'S, by Charles 
A. Young; by Franklin Piatt. To which are appended: I. A Report on 
Methods of Coking, by John Fulton. II, A Report on the use of Natural Gas 
in the Iron Manufacture, by John B. Pearse, Franklin Piatt, and Professor 
Sadtler. Pp. 252. Price, %l 00 ; postage, |0 12. 

M. Repobt of Pboobess in the Labobatoby op the Subvey at 
Habbisbubo— 1874-5, by Andrew S. McCreath. 8 vo., pp. 105. Price in pa- 
per, |0 50 : postage, |0 05. Price in cloth, $0 75 ; postage, $0 08. 

MM. Second Repobt of Pboobess in the Labobatoby of the Sub- 
vey at Harrisburg, by Andrew S. McCreath— 1876-8, including I. Classifica- 
tion of Coals, by Persifor Frazer. II. Firebrick Tests, by Franklin Piatt.. 
III. Notes on Dolomitic Limestones, by J. P. Lesley. IV. Utilization of An- 
thracite Slack, by Franklin Piatt. V. Determination of Carbon in Iron or 
Steel, by A. S. McCreath. With 3 indexes, plate, and 4 page plates. Pp. 438. 
Price in cloth, |0 65 ; postage, |0 18. 

N. Repobt of Pboobess— 1875-^7. Two hundred Tables of Elevation 
above tide level of the Railroad Stations, Summits and Tunnels ; Canal Locks 
and Dams, River Rif&es, <fec., in and around Pennsylvania ; with map ; pp. 279. 
By Charles Allen. Price, |0 70; postage, ^ 15. 

O. Catalogue of the Geological Musuem— 1874-5-6-7. By Charles E. 
Hall. Part I. Collection of Rock Specimens. Nos. 1 to 4,264. Pp.217. Price, 
10 40 ; postage, |0 10. 

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